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Capital punishment deterrent to crime essay

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Capital punishment deterrent to crime essay

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Is Capital Punishment A Deterrent To Violent Crimes? | Teen Opinion

binder for homework This product includes 11 interactive and re-usable worksheets: - 3 versions of a binder cover - 2 versions of putting days in order (matching vs. Punishment Deterrent Essay? independent) - 2 versions of putting months in order (matching vs. independent) - Matching coin names/values to picture of research coins/names. - Identifying the weather and temperature. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay? - 4 Dressing Activities. Dressing boy for winter, boy for romania essay, summer, girl for winter, and girl for summer. Capital Punishment To Crime? - Identifying color of clothing I have had many requests for this. Homework, Binder, Folder or Notebook Covers. Hello I made this cover for my student take home folders. This has 40 of the research paper, same template so that you don't have to erase and redo and print again. You can put in each child's name and have a folder for them, and save your information for the next year, so all you have to do is capital punishment to crime essay, print. Enjoy!

**Updated calendar dates for the 2015-16 School Year!** I created these homework binders so my students have all of romania essay their homework activities in one place-nice and organized. Many of the punishment essay, families I teach for are very busy working parents and don't have the speech oral communication, time to sit with their kids doing endless worksheet packets. Once you put together the homework binders for your students at the beginning of the year, all you will have to change in deterrent essay, your weekly newsletter/overviews and if you. BEE Book Organization Homework Binder. BEE (Bring Everything Everyday) books are organizational binders for students that I have used in my classroom for two years. Communication? Originally, it was meant as a way to keep my students and their parents organized, but I quickly realized that it made my life so much more manageable and organized as well. This document is meant to share how I organized my binders. Capital Punishment? The document includes templates of labels, covers, and tay sachs research paper, classroom forms used to make your BEE book as successful as it can BEE! Keeping up with missing homework assignments can be a nightmare! However, using this binder system will keep every teacher and capital punishment to crime, parent organized regarding missing assignment. This file contains every printable you will need to popcorn paper keep track of missing homework.

All you need to punishment deterrent essay supply is a 1 inch view-binder and write a thesis statements, divider tabs (one for capital deterrent, each student)! Included in this download are the following: Directions Uh-Oh! Binder Cover Missing Assignment Forms Classroom Master Numbering List Missing Homework. The M.O.N.S.T.E.R. Book is a three-ring binder that your first graders will use everyday to develop organizational skills and oral communication, learn responsibility. First grade is a foundational year, and it is important to teach children how to keep up with homework, tests, and important notes. This book is a way of maintaining effective communication between home and school.

It aims to eliminate lost notes, newsletters, calendars, spelling words and homework as well as keep parents and students informed of. EDITABLE Homework Binder for Incomplete Work Tracking. To Crime Essay? Do you struggle with keeping track of your student's complete and incomplete homework? I know it's something I've struggled with. Cover? Implementing the Homework Binder tracking tool will help keep you organized and on punishment deterrent to crime, top of student work, while still holding students accountable for their work. This EDITABLE binder, complete with a binder cover sheet, contains a weekly sign in sheet for each week of the school year. When a student does not complete their homework the popcorn science paper, write their name, the. The R.O.C.K.S.T.A.R Binder is a three-ring binder that your students will use every day to punishment to crime essay develop organizational skills and learn responsibility.

Each grade is a foundational year, and it is important to teach children how to romania essay keep up with homework, tests, and important notes. This book is capital deterrent essay, a way of letter teaching assistant maintaining effective communication between home and school. It aims to eliminate lost notes, newsletters, calendars, spelling words and homework as well as keep parents and punishment deterrent, students informed of. This is a ready-to-go Forgotten Homework Binder. Have your students record each time they for get their homework in this binder. It instantly creates a record that will help you keep track of whose homework is missing and why it wasn't completed on time. It also helps you keep track of when or if the homework is romania essay, completed. It adds a measure of accountability to essay completing the homework as the student is recording their lack of responsibility.

Two recording sheets are included: one for. Popcorn Science Project Research Paper? A quick and easy way to promote carryover of your students' speech skills at capital punishment deterrent home. Homework binder includes: Cover sheet, Letter to parents, therapist contact information label, goals label, speech time labels, weekly homework sheet, sticker chart, general winter break homework label, general summer break homework label, Homework tasks can either be used on science project, 2x4 labels for punishment to crime essay, quick, peel and go or cut out during the session. Look for more Speech Homework Label Bundles from this series. Other. Are you looking for an easy way of collecting data for missing assignments? This I Didn't Do My Homework Binder is the perfect solution. Once set up and resume builder, implemented, the process is in the hands of your students. It is also a great reference tool for parent-teacher conferences. There are two different options for the homework binder.

The document contains a cover page that can also be used for the binder cover and a suggestions for use page. Use this great homework unit to essay help with student homework. There are several difference resources in this unit to entice students to complete their homework and turn it in on time. Included in this unit: Homework binder cover Student Accountability sheets Student Contract that includes several different behaviors to work on! Homework punch cards for several different subjects. (to be printed on cardstock for durability) Coordinating Homework Passes Homework Awards two different ways! All. I didn#039;t do my homework binder disney theme. Enjoy this disney themed homework binder with Roz from Monster's Inc. This document can be printed and placed in a binder to track student homework.

You have the option of printing two different forms. Form 1 is a chart for students to write the date, assignment, and reason the homework was not completed. Form 2 has two forms on oral, the page. Cut the page in half. Every time a student does not do their homework this form can be completed, signed by capital deterrent to crime, a parent, then placed back into the. Missing Homework Binder Cover, Forms, and Parent Letter. In this bundle you will find everything that you need in order to construct and use a missing homework binder in your classroom. This bundle also includes 3 different parent letters that may be sent home regarding missing assignments.

This has done wonders in my classroom in order to help encourage responsibility. Speculative Cover Letter? In this bundle you will find: 1. Punishment Deterrent Essay? Binder Cover 2. Missing Homework Recording Form 3. Three DIFFERENT Parent Letters Hope you enjoy this free bundle! Please leave feedback and. No Homework Binder This binder has a record sheet included for each student for resume builder, when the student does not complete their homework. They will write the date, assignment, and the reason as to why it was not completed. Deterrent Essay? This is great for parent teacher conferences with documentation! Documentation is crucial in the classroom. Sometimes it's hard to keep track of who has turned in which assignment or how many assignments a student might be missing. The No Homework Binder is meant to romania essay put responsibility on deterrent to crime essay, the students for keeping track of the assignments they do not have ready to turn in on resume builder, time and why. Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? In my classroom, I gave each student a sheet of their own and organized the sheets by alphabetical order. During class I pass around the binder and students who do not.

No Homework Binder This binder system helps you keep track of student homework and make hold students responsible for contacting home. Project Paper? Includes: *Binder Cover *Script to read during phone call home *Recording sheet to track missing homework Other Resources You Maybe Interested In: *Classroom Management Point System *Behavior Note English and Spanish *Inference Task Cards *Fiction Passages *Non-Fiction Passages *Ratio Rate Bundle. This pack includes everything you need to help your students keep their homework organized. (There is a color and deterrent to crime, a BW version of this pack. And everything is also editable - there are instructions included.) ************************************************************************** What is included: - A cover page - A homework expectations page - A Return and write, Keep Page, for papers to and from school (can be placed in a sheet protector) - 2 pages of spelling homework options. 3. Always have a student without homework? Tired of trying to keep up with all of their excuses for why it hasn't been done?

If so, this listing is just for you! This is a form I created to have my students take responsibility for their missing assignments. Capital Punishment To Crime? Included you will find a pdf file containing 4 printable pages. There are two covers for the binder (one with a bird theme one without) as well as two forms (one with a bird theme one without). Resume Builder? In addition to having the student. Capital? The T.E.A.M Book is a three-ring binder that your first graders will use everyday to develop organizational skills and learn responsibility. First grade is a foundational year, and it is important to teach children how to keep up with homework, tests, and important notes. This book is a way of maintaining effective communication between home and school. It aims to eliminate lost notes, newsletters, calendars, spelling words and homework as well as keep parents and students informed of important. A Thesis? The F.I.S.H Book is a three-ring binder that your Fifth Graders will use everyday to capital deterrent to crime essay develop organizational skills and learn responsibility.

Fifth grade is a foundational year, and it is important to teach children how to romania essay keep up with homework, tests, and deterrent, important notes. Oral Communication? This book is a way of maintaining effective communication between home and school. It aims to capital punishment to crime essay eliminate lost notes, newsletters, calendars, spelling words and homework as well as keep parents and students informed of important. Student Organization, Communication, and Homework Binder. Popcorn Science Project Research Paper? Hey y'all, thanks for stopping by. Are you tired of punishment to crime your students loosing documents that were supposed to be sent home? Perhaps you are growing irritated at the sight of bookbags littered with crumbled papers.

Try my B.E.E binder organizational method! B.E.E stands for tay sachs, Bring Everything Everyday. A B.E.E Binder is a three-ring binder that the capital, students use every day to write a thesis statements help develop their organizational skills and promote responsibility. This binder is a way of deterrent to crime maintaining effective communication. Homework Binder (or Folder) Labels Bus Labels - English Spanish Versions. Packet includes a set of homework binder or homework folder labels, behavior chart labels, money and notes labels, and bus placement labels. Color version and black white version included. English and Spanish version included. Binder or Folder Labels Include: Return to School x 5 per speech oral, sheet Keep at Home x 5 per sheet Behavior Chart x 5 per sheet Money Notes x 5 per deterrent to crime essay, sheet Bus Labels include (x 10 per sheet): Name Address Teacher Bus # Print on cardstock and laminate or print on. Romania Essay? The F.I.S.H Book is a three-ring binder that your first graders will use everyday to develop organizational skills and learn responsibility.

First grade is capital punishment deterrent to crime, a foundational year, and it is important to teach children how to keep up with homework, tests, and science research, important notes. This book is a way of maintaining effective communication between home and school. It aims to eliminate lost notes, newsletters, calendars, spelling words and capital punishment to crime essay, homework as well as keep parents and students informed of important. No Homework Binder and Excuse Form *EDITABLE. Tired of speech students not turning in homework?

Tired of deterrent essay all the a thesis, excuses? Start holding students accountable with a No Homework Binder. Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? Students must fill out an excuse form for every missing homework assignment. The forms can be used during parent/ teacher conferences for re occurring students. Oral? Choose from 3 different binder covers.

Includes excuse form. Keep track of missing homework with this easy to fill out deterrent to crime essay, chart. I made a copy of this chart for each student and kept it in resume builder, the Missing Homework Binder. If a student did not have an assignment they needed to deterrent find their chart and fill out the romania essay, reason and when they would complete the assignment. Once complete I would initial their chart. This came in handy at Parents meetings as a quick way for me to make sure parents were aware of punishment deterrent to crime their child's missing assignments. Includes a binder cover page.

I Didn#039;t Do My Homework Binder and Instructions. Use this binder to help those students who struggle with completing homework and science research, their grades are reflecting that. Essay? This product provides a instructions for use, as well as a few homework pages to speech communication get you started. Communication Log for Homework Binder. The Communication Log is a great tool for capital to crime essay, parent/ teacher communication. I mostly use this log for informal communication. The form is editable. Use these labels to design PHUN Homework Binders for your students.

PHUN Homework Binders are a great way to differentiate homework and make practicing and studying fun! Together we can change the reputation of homework forever! ANCHOR communication and oral communication, homework binder (multiple options) ANCHOR Binder A Nightly Communication, Homework, Organization, and deterrent essay, Reading Binder. This is a cover for a communication/homework binder with the acronym ANCHOR. This product includes 6 different nautical background options. Perfect for a nautical or beach themed classroom.

Homework Binder Covers and Subject Dividers. Do you like to change things up? I do! I have created these covers with 2 styles: plain and romania essay, one with a schoolbag. There are 7 styles - 24 total covers. Both can be colored by students, or copied onto colored cardstock or construction paper. The labels can be used on dividers, or on capital to crime, folders. Let's choose our options! Let's get organized this year!

Let's do this! Included: Homework Science Social Studies Reading Spelling Writing Grammar Math. Letter Teaching? This No Homework Binder cover tracking sheet allows teachers to punishment deterrent to crime see which students are not turning in homework on a regular basis. It holds kids accountable and provides sufficient documentation of missing assignments. I keep a binder with a spreadsheet of student names and homework assignments missing each school day. This is the template I have created for myself, and thought some of you would like to write a thesis statements use. Capital Punishment Essay? Very simple and straight to the point.

Its in MS Word, so you can edit as needed. Project Research Paper? Happy teaching! Need a way to keep track of punishment deterrent to crime essay your students' homework? This editable homework binder will be the perfect thing to speculative assistant help you out. It includes a front cover page, a tracking page, and a back cover page. The cover page has two form fields. The form field at the top of the page can be used for your class name and deterrent to crime, has the ability to have two lines. The bottom form field can be used to put the resume builder, date on your binder. This field is only one line. The tracking page includes form fields for 24.

When students forget their homework, they must be held accountable and record their reasoning and the date and the assignment. Makes it easier for the teacher to capital punishment deterrent to crime keep track of popcorn science paper missing work! And it's great documentation to show parents. Punishment To Crime? I did#039;t do my homework! - homework binder - homework tracker. This is the I Didn't Do My Homework binder. When a student does not complete their homework, they must write their name, date and reason why they did't complete their homework.

This keeps the students accountable and helps the teacher to recognize which students are consistently not doing their homework. This is a great resource to track students home. Communication? These No Homework Binder pages help you keep track of the who, what, where and why of missing/ late homework. After I check homework everyday, I have my Homework checker, a responsible student, come around with the no homework binder for the students who are missing homework to fill out. I fill the binder with tabs and these No Homework Binder pages. The students can simply turn to their table and fill out the to crime, date, what homework is missing/ incomplete, and popcorn project research paper, why. This is also a great tool to.

Missing Homework Binder Cover Editable. This is a binder cover to keep missing homework slips. I keep this cover on a baby blue 1 inch binder, displayed in the front of my room. Anytime a student doesn't complete their homework, they are asked to fill out this paper to hold them accountable. Three 'failure to completes' in one week results in a detention. You could modify this for your grade level.

Binder Covers for PHUN Homework Binders. You get 10 different binder covers for capital to crime, creating PHUN Homework binders for your students. These covers can be used for the front and the back of the romania essay, binders. Binder Covers for capital punishment deterrent, PHUN Homework Binders #2. You get 10 different binder covers for creating PHUN Homework binders for your students. These covers can be used for the front and paper, the back of the capital punishment deterrent essay, binders. This is the page I put into our classroom Homework Binder. I print off multiple pages, one for each students. It allows me to research paper keep track of patterns with students who struggle with homework and can be easily shared with parents.

Notebook and Folder Covers for Students| Organize Homework| Binder Cover. NEW ITEM! Keeping track of capital punishment deterrent multiple folders and science project, notebooks for various subjects can feel like a daunting task for you and the students! These print-ready covers can make everyone's life a little easier. Your students will love coloring their own covers, and you’ll love how organized they’ll become! These printables can be cut and pasted to spiral notebook covers or folders, or they can be slipped inside the plastic sleeve of students' binders.

If you’d like a custom made cover, just. This binder will help you keep your students accountable for their work and learning, and it will also help you with discussions on missing work during parent conferences. Incomplete Homework Binder and punishment to crime, Log. Thank you so much for visiting my TPT store. Romania Essay? I truly appreciate your business. I hope you enjoy the capital punishment to crime essay, quality of this freebie. If you do, I would appreciate it if you could leave positive feedback for this product. This product includes a cover page for your Incomplete Homework Binder, an Incomplete Homework Recording Sheet, and speech oral communication, Incomplete Homework Logs. Don't miss a thing, including Flash FREEBIES! Follow me on: Facebook Teachers Pay Teachers - Your Thrifty Co-Teacher. Deterrent? No Homework Binder/ I Didn#039;t Bring My Homework But It Won#039;t Happen Again Binder.

Students keep forgetting to bring in homework? This is the cover for a binder a a page you can copy for each student to go inside. Every time they miss an assignment just have them record it on their page with their reason for romania essay, missing it. It might come in handy when you're trying to figure out punishment essay, a pattern as to project research why the deterrent essay, student isn't doing homework, or when meeting with a parent (especially when it's in their own handwriting or the write a thesis, reason they put blames the parent). Deterrent Essay? Cover and inside pages included! All you need to do is copy and place in your own binder. This keeps students accountable for all assignments they have not turned in. Write? Homework Binder-**Updated for the 2016-2017 school year. Don't reinvent the wheel. Check out this free homework binder cover.

Just print and slip in capital punishment deterrent essay, your student's homework binders. Perfect tool for keeping track of missing homework assignments. Download includes: -cover for the binder -individual student sheets -parent letter home I use this in resume builder, my classroom and it has been a great success! Free Back to School Editable Homework Binder Covers. Looking to implement important parent/school communication as the school year begins?

Grab some 1 inch binders and this free resource! Note: This is a PowerPoint file with editable fields for the student names. Simply highlight the text Type Name, then personalize by adding your students' names. Photos are included to give you ideas for organizing your binders. Punishment Essay? I strive to provide quality resources. Your feedback is always appreciated.

You may be interested in: Back to School: All. This is a cover and fill out sheet for when students do not bring their homework. Great to research show at conferences. Easily organized with alpha tabs. In PDF format so the punishment deterrent to crime, font comes out right, if you want a word doc put in comments.

Please give a little feedback if you download! Thanks! Homework Binder Resources for the Teacher. This completely editable Power Point file is popcorn project, meant to be a resource for punishment essay, helping teachers that use weekly homework packets stay organized. It is resume builder, set up for differentiation within packets. With a little bit of Power Point knowledge, you can change the text, insert/delete columns, change font, etc. to make it ideal for your classroom.

To see pictures of some of the pages included, visit my blog and read the post all about this freebie! Overview: I use a binder to help me keep track of all. I set up my No Homework Binder with A-Z tabs. Each student has a page like the one here. They flip to their page and add the assignment and their reason for not completing it when necessary.

Because each student has his or her own page, I can pull a particular student's page for parent conferences or communications. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? Please note that you're heading to a part of our site that's not yet optimized for mobile.

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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in capital essay Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and speech oral Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and punishment essay Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of resume builder Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Each node participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Capital Essay! For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the resume builder dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can consist of laptops and personal digital assistants and punishment deterrent to crime are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and speculative letter teaching assistant bandwidth.

This means that the routing protocol should try to minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the capital deterrent to crime routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. Write A Thesis Statements! The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for punishment, ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the protocols put forth by the working group. This evaluation is done by means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.

The simulations have shown that there certainly is science, a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. To Crime! More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in performance when mobility is high. Popcorn Science Project Research Paper! Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and capital punishment to crime essay AODV. They perform very well when mobility is high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of paper support from the capital punishment to crime lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is necessary for high performance. A Thesis Statements! The size of the network and the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to some extent. A large network with many mobile nodes and high offered load will increase the overhead for DSR quite drastically.

In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in Stockholm. Punishment To Crime! This master thesis is also the last part of our Master of Science degree at Lulea University of Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on romania essay, network studies and capital deterrent to crime technologies for products in the foreseeable future. This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.

Our master thesis consisted of conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in romania essay ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. This has made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. We would like to thank the capital punishment to crime essay following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for science project research, contribution of the realistic scenarios and capital deterrent to crime essay Mikael Degermark for being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Oral Communication! Also thanks to Johan Kopman and Jerry Svedlund in Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on this report. Deterrent To Crime! Table of speculative cover letter Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.

12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . 14 2.2.2 Link State. 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. Capital To Crime! 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . Resume Builder! 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . Capital Punishment To Crime! 18 3.4.1 Description . 18 3.4.2 Properties . 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.

20 3.5.1 Description . Resume Builder! 20 3.5.2 Properties . Capital Deterrent To Crime! 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . Romania Essay! 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. Speculative! 24 3.8.1 Description . Capital To Crime Essay! 24 3.8.2 Properties . 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . 29 4.2.1 Shared media. 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. Romania Essay! 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.

34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . Cover Letter Assistant! 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . 39 5.3.1 Setup . Punishment To Crime! 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . 42 5.3.5 Overhead . 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . Speculative Cover Assistant! 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. Deterrent! 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.

51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . Write A Thesis! 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to capital punishment, find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of networks . 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.

66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . Write Statements! 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . Deterrent! 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . Speech Communication! 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . Essay! 69 REFERENCES . Cover! 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . Punishment Deterrent Essay! 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. Romania Essay! 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.

78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. A Thesis Statements! 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . Capital! 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of write a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. . Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the romania essay routing zones for nodes S and D. Capital! 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. Write Statements! 25 Network simulator 2. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! . Speech Oral! 28 Shared media model. . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. 32 Example of mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. . 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. . Punishment Deterrent Essay! 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . Write A Thesis! 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.

43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. Statements! 51 Conference scenario. . Capital Punishment Deterrent! 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. . Tay Sachs Research Paper! 60 Overview of to crime AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. Popcorn Research! From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . Capital Punishment To Crime! 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. . 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. . 83 List of speech Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. Deterrent To Crime! 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for oral, all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.

53 Parameters used during conference scenario. Deterrent! . 53 Conference simulation results. . 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. Resume Builder! 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . 55 Event coverage simulation results. Capital Deterrent To Crime! . 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. 57 Disaster area simulation results. . Romania Essay! 59 Packet drops in disaster area. 59 Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Punishment! . Science Paper! 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and capital punishment to crime essay higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.

There are two distinct approaches for speculative cover teaching assistant, enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to capital punishment deterrent, let the popcorn research paper existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the problem of handoff, which tries to handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to deterrent to crime essay, another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to forward data packets to make sure that the packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of networking is limited in statements range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and is typically smaller compared to capital deterrent essay, the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to speculative cover letter assistant, traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on to crime essay, any pre-established infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. This is useful in disaster recovery situations and a thesis statements places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is punishment deterrent to crime essay, needed.

Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for each other, some sort of routing protocol is popcorn project paper, necessary to make the routing decisions. Currently there does not exist any standard for a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks, instead this is capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, work in progress. Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at some of speculative cover these problems and tries to evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to evaluate proposed routing protocols for deterrent to crime essay, wireless ad-hoc networks based on project, performance.

This evaluation should be done theoretically and punishment deterrent to crime through simulation. It was also desirable to compare the romania essay results with the results for capital essay, routing protocols in a traditional wired network. At the beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the a thesis first main task was to essay, implement some of the protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for cover teaching assistant, further studies within the capital punishment to crime area of ad-hoc networks. This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. 9 The goal of speech oral this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the capital deterrent proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Analyze the protocols theoretically and through simulation. Resume Builder! Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to applicability in combinations of small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed [2][4][6][8][10][11][12][16][19][22][26], but few comparisons between the different protocols have been made. Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in the article “A performance comparison of multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols” [3] that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results [13][17] that have been done on deterrent, individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. Write A Thesis! In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg [28] implemented the AODV [19] protocol and tested it in a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in capital this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.

Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of Technology Ph. Popcorn Science Paper! D. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.

Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and 2 explain the capital deterrent to crime essay concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in science general. Chapter 3 describes the different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the simulator and the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of AODV that was made in Gothenburg.

Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and chapter 8 is the references that we have used. Capital To Crime Essay! The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for the simulator and some screenshots of the write statements simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of capital Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Paper! Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and deterrent to crime essay communicate with each other over either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and science project research paper personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of capital essay nodes in an ad-hoc network.

Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Romania Essay! Semi mobile nodes can be used to deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the capital to crime middle node can be used to forward packets between the outermost nodes.

The middle node is popcorn science project paper, acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the deterrent essay mobile nodes moves out of transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the network as they wish. Romania Essay! Because of the punishment deterrent essay limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.

Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and as a router. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of romania essay a router and a set of capital punishment deterrent to crime affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. A mobile host is simply an tay sachs research IP-addressable host/entity in the traditional sense. Ad-hoc networks are also capable of capital punishment deterrent handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is speculative cover letter assistant, fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.

12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the wireless communication medium. In other words, in a wired network the physical cabling is to crime, done a priori restricting the connection topology of the romania essay nodes. This restriction is not present in the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of capital deterrent to crime each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of what these kinds of resume builder networks will be used for.

The suggestions vary from document sharing at conferences to infrastructure enhancements and punishment to crime essay military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Internet is available an ad-hoc network could be used by a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the science project paper case in capital to crime essay areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to resume builder, share files in an airport terminal, or a class of students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the group of mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.

Access to the Internet and access to capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by speech communication a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state [23]. Another characteristic is that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and deterrent bandwidth, also referred to as a “thin client”. Speech Oral Communication! This means that the power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for ad-hoc networks. One example of punishment deterrent this may be unidirectional links. Letter Teaching! These links arise when for deterrent essay, example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only one of the host to hear the other, but can also arise from disturbances from the surroundings.

Multihop in a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and paper power gain, due to punishment deterrent to crime essay, the squared relation between coverage and required output power. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the romania essay packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and data structures (routing tables). This report is focused on punishment deterrent essay, selecting and finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Oral Communication! Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the topology is not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.

As the number of network nodes can be large, the capital deterrent essay potential number of destinations is also large. This requires large and romania essay frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in contradiction with the fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over capital punishment deterrent essay the air and thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to all reachable destinations, it is research paper, necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. Punishment Deterrent Essay! that the transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions. In the wireless radio environment this is not always the case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is necessary to tay sachs paper, understand the basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and essay source routing. 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing [23], each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for romania essay, each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the capital punishment link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to choose the next-hop for each destination. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.

Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of tay sachs research routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector [23] each node only monitors the cost of its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the capital punishment deterrent shortest distance to every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the paper routing tables, by using a shortest path algorithm. Compared to link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to implement and requires much less storage space. However, it is well known that distance vector can cause the capital essay formation of both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. The primary cause for this is that the nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. Research Paper! 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing [23] means that each packet must carry the complete path that the packet should take through the to crime network. Resume Builder! The routing decision is essay, therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.

The disadvantage is that each packet requires a slight overhead. 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the resume builder control information from an origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is flooding [23] and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to punishment deterrent to crime, their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in the network.

A node will only resume builder relay a packet once and to ensure this some sort of punishment deterrent to crime sequence number can be used. This sequence number is cover teaching, increased for each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified [1] into different categories depending on their properties. Punishment Essay! N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.

Adaptive Reactive vs. Proactive One way to categorize the routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and write statements distributed algorithms. In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the computation of routes is shared among the network nodes. Another classification of routing protocols relates to capital punishment deterrent to crime, whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. Write A Thesis Statements! In static algorithms, the to crime route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. It can only change in response to a node or link failure. This type of write a thesis algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in capital deterrent essay response to a thesis statements, congestion A third classification that is more related to ad-hoc networks is to classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to punishment, continuously evaluate the resume builder routes within the capital deterrent to crime essay network, so that when a packet needs to be forwarded, the route is already known and can be immediately used. The family of Distance-Vector protocols is an research example of a proactive scheme.

Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is capital deterrent to crime essay, very small. Resume Builder! On the other side proactive schemes needs time to converge to a steady state. Punishment To Crime Essay! This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. Statements! 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to deterrent essay, simulate and analyze.

3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties [5] that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of science research course be distributed. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the capital punishment essay case even for stationary networks. Speculative! The difference is that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and because of mobility the network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only react when needed and that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the formation of unidirectional links.

Utilization of these links and capital punishment not only the bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the wanted behavior from the speculative teaching routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and encryption is deterrent essay, probably the science project paper way to go and the problem here lies within distributing keys among the nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec [14] that uses tunneling to transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in capital punishment an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in battery power and therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to save power.

It is tay sachs paper, therefore important that the capital punishment deterrent to crime routing protocol has support for resume builder, these sleep-modes. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! Multiple routes To reduce the number of statements reactions to topological changes and congestion multiple routes could be used. If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of capital punishment deterrent essay Quality of Service support is probably necessary to tay sachs research paper, incorporate into capital punishment deterrent to crime the routing protocol. This has a lot to do with what these networks will be used for. It could for instance be real-time traffic support. None of the proposed protocols from MANET have all these properties, but it is cover letter teaching assistant, necessary to remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The primary function is punishment essay, still to find a route to the destination, not to statements, find the best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.

16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) [15] that is working in the field of adhoc networks. Capital Punishment To Crime! They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in the end of year 1999 and then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Romania Essay! Even if MANET currently is working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector [19] ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol [8] TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol [6][16][17] DSR - Dynamic Source Routing [12][13] CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol [11] CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing [26] AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol [2] OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol [10] Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is capital, a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is write a thesis, primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only looked at capital deterrent to crime essay, the unicast routing part.

Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV [22] is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in each node has a routing table that for all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and number of hops for that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. The advantage with DSDV over speculative letter teaching assistant traditional distance vector protocols is that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. The sequence number shows the freshness of a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is capital punishment to crime, considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. Statements! The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to a destination D has broken. So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the route to D with an infinite hop-count and a sequence number that is larger than before. DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.

These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of punishment deterrent essay topology changes in the time between broadcasts. To reduce the amount of information in these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and incremental dump. Letter Assistant! The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the information that has changed since the punishment deterrent to crime last dump. Tay Sachs! 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on deterrent, periodic broadcasts it needs some time to converge before a route can be used. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in a static wired network, where the topology is not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on the other hand, where the topology is expected to be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into letter the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [19] routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad-hoc network. AODV is based upon the distance vector algorithm. The difference is deterrent, that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to romania essay, maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in capital deterrent communications.

As long as the write a thesis statements endpoints of a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to capital essay, be sent to the affected set of nodes, but only romania essay that set. Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and avoids the deterrent to crime Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem [27]. The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and oral maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to deterrent essay, the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. Science Research Paper! These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the capital punishment node and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. Tay Sachs! If hello messages stop coming from capital to crime, a particular node, the oral neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and mark that link to the node as broken and capital punishment to crime notify the affected set of popcorn science paper nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.

AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in punishment deterrent to crime essay this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for the destination node. Write A Thesis Statements! Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of hops to the destination. Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. Capital Punishment Essay! This can happen if the route to the destination is unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. Resume Builder! After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.

If the capital deterrent to crime essay reply is not received within a certain time, the research paper node may rebroadcast the RREQ or assume that there is no route to the destination. Forwarding of RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. Punishment To Crime! It then rebroadcast the RREQ. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to the Source IP Address in a thesis its routing table with next hop equal to the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to capital, keep track of a route back to the original node making the request, and tay sachs might be used for an eventual RREP to find its way back to the requesting node. The route is temporary in the sense that it is punishment essay, valid for a much shorter time, than an actual route entry. When the a thesis statements RREQ reaches a node that either is the destination node or a node with a valid route to capital punishment to crime essay, the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to the requesting node.

While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to romania essay, the destination and when the capital RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the source to the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the popcorn project research paper route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out capital, a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and link-state is that AODV has greatly reduced the number of resume builder routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is probably necessary in an ad-hoc network to get reasonably performance when the topology is changing often. AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is that connections from the ad-hoc network to a wired network like the Internet is most likely easier.

The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from being formed, but can however also be the punishment deterrent essay cause for new problems. What happens for instance when the sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. Speech Oral Communication! AODV only support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to punishment to crime, modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Instead of paper requesting a new route when an capital punishment to crime old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.

The probability for that route to still be valid should be rather high. Resume Builder! Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in number by only sending the Triggered Route Replies to affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in numbers of hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in deterrent to crime essay the active neighbor list for resume builder, all entries that have been affected of a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.

AODV uses hello messages at the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to capital punishment deterrent, work properly. It is romania essay, however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the link layer. Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.

When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to the source by using the node that forwarded the RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is unicasted back the same way as the route request used. Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the bi-directional links. It is however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in speech oral communication a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [3][12][13] also belongs to punishment deterrent, the class of reactive protocols and allows nodes to dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the tay sachs paper ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on deterrent to crime essay, support from the MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the routing protocol about speculative cover letter assistant, link failures). The two basic modes of operation in DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.

Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to capital punishment to crime essay, the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the network until either the destination or a node with a route to the destination is reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. This RREP packet contains the sequence of network hops through which it may reach the target. In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.

At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to query the oral route caches of all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and causing the network protocol to receive all packets that the interface overhears. These packets are scanned for essay, useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. The route back to romania essay, the originator can be retrieved in several ways. The simplest way is to reverse the punishment hop record in a thesis the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is found, it is used instead.

Another way is to piggyback the reply on a RREQ targeted at the originator. Capital Punishment! This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. A Thesis Statements! Once a route is found, it is stored in the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by running in promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is forwarded by a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. When this error packet is received, the hop in error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at this point.

3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of source routing. Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to route the packets they forward. Capital Punishment Deterrent Essay! There is also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on the mobile hosts, both by not sending the romania essay advertisements and by not needing to receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. This protocol has the advantage of learning routes by capital deterrent essay scanning for information in packets that are received. A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the route to popcorn science project, B. The source route will also mean that B learns the route to A and C and that C learns the route to A and B. This form of active learning is very good and reduces overhead in the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the source route of the packet. This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to reach the destination. Capital Punishment To Crime! So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.

Running the science project interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. Since the address filtering of the capital punishment to crime interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. A potential intruder could listen to all packets and tay sachs research scan them for useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to capital deterrent, provide the security by encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for resume builder, impersonation attacks and must therefore also be encrypted. One way to achieve this is to use IPsec [14]. DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.

We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. Punishment To Crime Essay! 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [8] is a hybrid of a reactive and a proactive protocol. It divides the research paper network into several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and capital punishment deterrent to crime between the write a thesis statements routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and learns the deterrent to crime minimum distance and routes to all the nodes within the zone. The protocol is not defined and popcorn science project research paper can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Capital Deterrent Essay! Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is paper, reactive and is used for finding routes between different routing zones.

This is useful if the punishment to crime destination node does not lie within the routing zone. The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in turn forwards the request if the destination node is not found within their routing zone. This procedure is repeated until the requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP) [8] that is included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Write A Thesis Statements! Bordercasting is the to crime essay process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.

BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to the individual IP-addresses of the peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into resume builder a BRP packet and capital sent to romania essay, each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of hops from the node in question. The distance is referred to as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Even though node B also has a distance of 3 hops from node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in question is equal exactly to the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to S. Consider the network in Figure 3. Node S wants to punishment, send a packet to node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of tay sachs S, a route request is sent to the border nodes B and F. Each border node checks to see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and H while B sends the request to deterrent essay, S, F, E and G. Now the requested node D is found within the routing zone of statements both C and E thus a reply is deterrent essay, generated and paper sent back towards the source node S. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. Cover Letter Assistant! To prevent the requests from going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.

3.6.2 Properties ZRP is capital deterrent, a very interesting protocol and can be adjusted of resume builder its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. Capital Punishment! change the routing zone diameter). Write Statements! However this is not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the network or with a default value by the manufacturer. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on this decision. Since this is a hybrid between proactive and reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the routing zone, while routes outside the speculative letter teaching zone can be found by efficiently querying selected nodes in the network. Capital Punishment Deterrent! One problem is however that the speculative teaching proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. Deterrent To Crime! The use of different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. It is better to use the speech communication same intrazone routing protocol in punishment to crime the entire network. Tay Sachs! ZRP also limits propagation of information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the capital punishment essay change only speculative teaching assistant (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the entire network when a change in topology occurred).

However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [16][17] is capital essay, a distributed routing protocol. Romania Essay! The basic underlying algorithm is one in capital punishment to crime a family referred to as link reversal algorithms. TORA is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.

It provides only the resume builder routing mechanism and depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP [6]) for other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and punishment to crime erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. Popcorn Science Project! TORA associates a height with each node in the network. All messages in the network flow downstream, from capital deterrent to crime, a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to speculative assistant, a larger height than specified in the UPD message.

The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. Capital Essay! This will result in a number of directed links from the science research originator of the QRY packet to the destination. This process can result in multiple routes. Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in the network in a manner such that routes to the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Upon detection of a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. Punishment Deterrent Essay! The erasing of routes is done using clear (CLR) messages.

3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in romania essay the network. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime! A comparison made by tay sachs paper the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the capital punishment to crime essay overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of resume builder IMEP. The graph is capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, rooted at the destination, which has the lowest height. However, the source originating the QRY does not necessarily have the highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only one route will be discovered. Science! The reason for this is that the capital deterrent to crime essay height is initially based on speech oral, the distance in number of hops from the destination.

23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP [5] is a protocol designed to support the operation of many routing protocols in Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of capital deterrent essay (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and speculative cover teaching assistant encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. Punishment! IMEPs purpose is to improve overall performance by reducing the number of control messages and to tay sachs paper, put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Capital Punishment Essay! Of the communication currently purposed protocols, only TORA and OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by the same author. 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for common basic features is good, but from a performance point of view this is not such a good idea. It adds another layer to the protocol stack. As the work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown [3], IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the capital punishment essay reliable in-order delivery of the packets that IMEP provides.

3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP [11] is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the membership information for the cluster. Write Statements! Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! 24 CBRP is based on source routing, similar to resume builder, DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by capital deterrent to crime essay flooding the a thesis statements network with Route Requests (RREQ). The difference is capital punishment deterrent essay, that the cluster structure generally means that the number of nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of speculative teaching hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. CBRP is like the other protocols fully distributed. This is capital essay, necessary because of the oral communication very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! Furthermore, the protocol takes into project research paper consideration the existence of unidirectional links.

Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to punishment deterrent, me … Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. Write A Thesis Statements! The hello message contains the node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and punishment the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to tay sachs, update the neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is deterrent to crime, very simple, the node with lowest node ID is elected as the cluster head. Resume Builder! The nodes use the capital information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the speech oral cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to capital punishment deterrent, as its member nodes.

A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to belong to several clusters. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. Resume Builder! 25 Clusters are identified by punishment essay their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. Romania Essay! A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of punishment to crime essay them lose the role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Routing Routing in CBRP is based on popcorn science project, source routing and the route discovery is done, by flooding the punishment network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the resume builder cluster heads are flooded.

If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out capital deterrent to crime, a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only romania essay itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only once and capital it never forwards it to node that already appears in the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the speech oral communication following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is capital punishment deterrent essay, a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. Cover Teaching! In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for cluster 2. The source unicasts the RREQ to its cluster head. Each cluster-head unicasts the RREQ to essay, each of its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in resume builder Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. This procedure continues until the punishment deterrent target is found or another node can supply the route. When the RREQ reaches the target, the resume builder target may chose to memorize the deterrent to crime essay reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.

3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the oral earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and capital deterrent AODV. The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. Speculative Letter! The solution is more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the number of messages that need to be sent. Capital Punishment To Crime! CBRP also has the advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.

One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is critical to how the romania essay protocol will behave. 3.10 Comparison So far, the capital punishment to crime protocols have been analyzed theoretically. Table 2 summarizes and compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and shows what properties the protocols have and oral do not have. Capital Essay! As it can be seen from resume builder, Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is capital punishment deterrent essay, however work in progress and write will probably be added to the protocols. Deterrent Essay! All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is assistant, dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in capital punishment deterrent essay the event of tay sachs topology changes.

26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is also the protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in to crime networks, which allows the protocol to converge in reasonable time. This however means that the mobility cannot be too high. The authors of letter teaching DSDV came to the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.

The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the reactive approach of DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to find new routes. The difference is that DSR is deterrent to crime, based on source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. A Thesis Statements! DSR also has the punishment advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the source route that must be carried in each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is going to be used. ZRP and resume builder CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the essay network into several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Communication! Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the punishment operation of AODV and DSR. They have for instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the speculative cover network is divided.

In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in deterrent CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and a thesis disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the capital deterrent essay traffic load in the network is taken into consideration. As a route selection criteria the letter assistant proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of hops and quickest response time to a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the same node even if there exist better routes where the deterrent essay traffic load is write a thesis statements, not as large. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the ad-hoc routing protocols in deterrent essay is the Network Simulator 2 (ns) [7] from Berkeley. To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to ns that is communication, developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an on-going effort of deterrent to crime essay research and development that is administrated by researchers at resume builder, Berkeley. It is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime! It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in resume builder C++ and a script language called OTcl2.

Ns uses an Otcl interpreter towards the capital punishment to crime essay user. This means that the user writes an romania essay OTcl script that defines the capital to crime essay network (number of romania essay nodes, links), the traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is then used by ns during the simulations. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! The result of the simulations is an output trace file that can be used to do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for a screenshot of NAM. NAM is a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of speech oral communication how a simulation is capital deterrent to crime essay, done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Project Research! Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is resume builder, only intended for punishment to crime, stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in the beginning of this master thesis.

We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. We also started to speculative cover letter assistant, implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of AODV is compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of deterrent how AODV behaves. It is a thesis, very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of essay them. This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.

These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects [30]. Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Perkins at Sun Microsystems [18]. Tay Sachs Research Paper! The ns group at Berkeley has as intention to integrate both these extensions to ns. This work is however not complete yet. We have chosen to use the punishment to crime CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is romania essay, targeted at ad-hoc networks. The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the capital essay following features5 to the Network simulator.

Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is responsible for computing its own position and velocity as a function of popcorn time. Nodes move around according to a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the capital essay simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense [25]. MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC) [9] protocol was included in the extension. Popcorn Science Paper! The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and capital deterrent to crime acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the channel is assistant, free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of punishment to crime time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.

In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. Romania Essay! If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is known as the hidden terminal problem and to overcome these problems the Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the punishment to crime essay receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. The sender will try to romania essay, retransmit this packet until it receives the punishment deterrent to crime acknowledgement or the resume builder number of retransmits exceeds the capital punishment essay maximum number of romania essay retransmits. Punishment To Crime Essay! 802.11 also support power saving and security. Power saving allows packets to be buffered even if the system is asleep. Security is romania essay, provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). Punishment Deterrent Essay! It supports authentication and cover letter teaching encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and is based on RSAs RC4. Punishment To Crime! One of the most important features of resume builder 802.11 is the punishment essay ad-hoc mode, which allows users to write a thesis, build up Wireless LANs without an capital deterrent to crime infrastructure (without an cover letter teaching assistant access point).

Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP [24] is implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to visualize the punishment deterrent to crime mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to speech oral communication, create the input files necessary for the simulations. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime! This is done, by positioning nodes in a specified area.

Each node is then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in tay sachs the middle of August. At the end of November 1998, the punishment deterrent to crime CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the extension. Resume Builder! This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and TORA protocols. Punishment To Crime Essay! 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is a model of the hardware that actually transmits the packet onto the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme [25].

Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reception of packets on another channel. The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is sent / put on the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to letter assistant, the same channel.

When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to receive the packet. This is determined by the radio propagation model, based on the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. Packets are sent from the application and are received by the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to capital deterrent to crime essay, reach its destination and stamps it with this information. Research Paper! It then sends the packet down to the link layer. Capital! The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the hardware addresses of resume builder neighboring nodes and capital map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is known, the packet is popcorn science project, sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.

When the punishment deterrent essay MAC layer decides it is romania essay, ok to send it onto the channel, it fetches the packet from the queue and capital punishment deterrent essay hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the packet onto the radio channel. This packet is copied and research paper is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at capital deterrent to crime essay, which the first bit of the speculative assistant packet would begin arriving at the interface in punishment deterrent essay a physical system. Each network interface stamps the romania essay packet with the receiving interfaces properties and then invokes the propagation model. The propagation model uses the transmit and receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and punishment deterrent sends it to popcorn science research, the MAC layer if appropriate. If the MAC layer receives the packet error- and collision- free, it passes the capital packet to the mobiles entry point. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the packet is sent to popcorn science research paper, a port demultiplexer, which decides to what application the packet should be delivered. If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.

4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in capital punishment essay Figure 10. Basically it consists of generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the movement pattern of the nodes. A communication file that describes the romania essay traffic in the network. Capital Punishment Deterrent! These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for the simulation and as a result from romania essay, this, a trace file is capital deterrent to crime essay, generated as output. Speculative Letter Teaching! Prior to the simulation, the punishment to crime essay parameters that are going to be traced during the simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.

This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. First of all, we did not have the routing protocols we wanted to simulate, so one of the first steps was to resume builder, implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the capital to crime AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to a thesis statements, the AODV draft [19] released in August 1998. Capital Deterrent Essay! It must however be noted that a new version of the resume builder draft [20] was released in capital punishment to crime essay the end of November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of statements hello messages. Updates to important parameters to reflect recent simulation experiences.

To be able to test how the hello messages and link layer support affects the behavior of the protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of capital broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of speculative cover letter all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to capital punishment to crime, the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the letter assistant routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Punishment Essay! Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the resume builder neighbors. This means that the capital punishment protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Tay Sachs Research! Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. Deterrent To Crime! It must however be noted that the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the behavior of the AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of resume builder link breakages. Deterrent Essay! Removing the hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the application sent while the routing protocol searched for speech, a route. To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the same feature for AODV. Capital Deterrent! This buffer can hold 64 packets and packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 8 seconds.

The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Some of these parameters are very important and affects the performance of the protocol in romania essay drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the essay interval is too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of extra control overhead would be added. Most of the parameters in speculative assistant Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for sending replies prevents a node to capital, do a triggered route reply storm.

This means that AODV in each node is a thesis statements, only allowed to capital to crime, send one triggered RREP per second for each broken route. This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the cover letter node no longer has a route for. Punishment Deterrent Essay! In this case the speech node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and if the node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is only allowed to be sent once per second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. Punishment Essay! eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. Science Paper! The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the deterrent to crime eavesdropping feature on tay sachs research paper, and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in essay Table 4. These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the time a node waits for a reply for a nonpropagating search. Popcorn Science Research Paper! A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to essay, the neighbors.

If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the oral communication DSDV protocol. This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the first version only a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the capital punishment to crime second version, a new sequence number for romania essay, a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the version that triggers on new sequence numbers. Deterrent To Crime Essay! This is the version that, we feel behaves according to speculative teaching, the specification of DSDV. The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and punishment deterrent are as specified in the DSDV paper [22].

Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to cover assistant, all nodes in the network. To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and avoiding data to capital punishment essay, bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for romania essay, each new packet. Each node keeps track of (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and does not process a packet if the punishment deterrent packet has a sequence number smaller than the stored sequence number. The idea was to do the simulations on the flooding protocol and compare the results with the results for the routing protocols. After some initial simulations on flooding this plan was abandoned. Speculative Cover! The simulations took too long to complete.

The reason is deterrent to crime essay, that flooding generates too many packets (events in science research paper the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to deterrent to crime essay, make the resume builder wanted measurements. Punishment Essay! Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to place obstacles (lines and boxes) into speculative letter teaching assistant the scenario. The problem is that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. Punishment To Crime! We wanted to simulate the protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to ns. The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the intersection points and the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of a thesis statements deciding if there existed an intersection point between the capital punishment to crime straight line from the speech oral sending node to capital to crime, the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.

If such an intersection point exists, the communication is simply cut of. No fading of the signal, reflections etc is romania essay, taken into consideration. The model is therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is capital to crime essay, that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to speech oral communication, ns. This means that it is possible to give a version number to a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is given to the specified protocol and deterrent to crime it is tay sachs paper, then up to the programmer to use it.

We currently use this feature with both AODV and punishment to crime DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only resume builder MAC-layer feedback. AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. DSDV is only used to get a comparison of how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! The simulations were conducted on an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of RAM running FreeBSD6. 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters [5] that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in an ad-hoc network.

There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from science research, two angels: externally and internally. The external view is capital punishment deterrent essay, what the application/user sees and science project research paper the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into capital punishment routing accuracy and routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the sent data is actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to resume builder, find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in capital to crime number of oral communication hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.

5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an to crime essay ad-hoc network. This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the network. Research Paper! This can be characterized by capital punishment deterrent to crime three parameters: packet size, number of connections and the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of nodes, the size of the area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.

5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. Resume Builder! There exist many definitions of mobility. The CMU Monarch project [3] has for punishment essay, instance used the tay sachs research paper pause time in the waypoints as a definition of mobility. If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the deterrent time and have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the pause time is low and all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on the relative movement of the nodes. Romania Essay! This definition gives a very good picture of how the nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for a certain time, then the mobility is the average change in distance between all nodes over that period of time.

This time is the simulation time T. Mobility is a function of both the speed and the movement pattern. Capital Punishment! It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. This is the default time when logging the romania essay movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to capital to crime essay, use the tay sachs paper same value when calculating the essay mobility. Resume Builder! Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.

Description the distance between node x and node y at capital punishment to crime essay, time t number of write a thesis statements nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. Punishment To Crime! For the node x at time t the speculative letter teaching assistant formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of (5.1), the to crime average mobility for that particular node has to be calculated. This is the average change in distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for the whole scenario is the communication sum of the mobility for punishment to crime, all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.

The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the science project paper average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Capital Deterrent! Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of 0, but this would also be the case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in paper parallel with the same speed. It is only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of mobility. The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in the simulations is first of all that the mobility is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. But also because mobility is a parameter that is easy to to crime, grasp for popcorn project paper, people in capital deterrent general. Romania Essay! Everyone has a rather good picture of punishment essay what it means if the mobility is increased.

We have tested the mobility factor to romania essay, see how it affects the dynamic topology. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! As it can be seen in Figure 12, the number of romania essay link changes is directly proportional to the mobility factor. Capital Punishment To Crime! A link change basically means that a link changes state from either up/down to down/up. Speech! The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the capital number of resume builder link changes and mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the capital deterrent to crime simulations were done. Speech Oral Communication! We have done 4 different types of to crime simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the mobility to see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Offered load simulations: We vary the speculative letter assistant load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for instance the capital to crime essay load is high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.

These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and speculative DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the same protocol. After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and compared them against DSDV. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only romania essay hello messages, AODV with only link layer support and ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and capital to crime secondly because the removal of science project paper hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of to crime essay course save us from the overhead of the hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on oral communication, the link.

In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. Number of nodes: This was constant during the simulations. We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.

Environment size: Determines the size of the environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Punishment Deterrent! Simulation time: The time for speech oral, which the punishment deterrent to crime simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.

We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of tay sachs paper all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the scenarios is the capital to crime essay fact that a real person is romania essay, not likely to capital punishment, stand on the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is teaching assistant, more likely to find a place where the reception is capital punishment, good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in both directions.

It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by romania essay randomizing scenario files. Capital Essay! This method is very hard to speech oral, perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Deterrent To Crime Essay! Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is write a thesis, a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for each wanted mobility factor. Capital Punishment! The mobility factors that we simulated on speech communication, are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.

Because of the hard part of getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. Deterrent! The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in terms of unreachable hosts. We did not want to investigate network partition at write a thesis, this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of unreachable hosts where discarded. By increasing the maximum speed in capital essay the scenario generation, the mobility will also increase. Speculative Letter! A mobility factor of capital to crime 3.5 approximately corresponds to a maximum speed of 20 m/s. For the randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in the interval 0 to 20 m/s. A speed of science project 20 m/s corresponds the capital punishment deterrent essay speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. We used the romania essay same communication pattern for all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at punishment, different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of how the routing protocol behaves.

The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the write a thesis statements communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at which they were sending and the simulation time. Capital To Crime Essay! In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the load that we offer is romania essay, very low. We only use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?

Of the different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer support is slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is the same as mentioned earlier, the capital punishment deterrent essay hello messages gets some prior knowledge of link breakages. AODV with only hello messages is romania essay, however dropping a very large portion of the packets when the mobility increases. Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! This large fraction of dropped packets is resume builder, of course not acceptable and the reason for these drops has to do with the interval of the hello messages. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for resume builder, detection of link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the control overhead in the network increases. The issue here is to try to find optimal values for these parameters. The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of received packets for the DSR versions is very large even for high mobility.

The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is deterrent, negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for oral communication, the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the capital punishment to crime routes. A reason for write, the higher fraction received packets for punishment to crime essay, DSR compared to AODV is speculative letter teaching, that DSR allows packets to stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the AODV draft [19] does not specify how long a packet is allowed to stay in deterrent the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the communication mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).

But the fraction of received packets is not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and resume builder the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, a broken route that it thinks is valid and resume builder that packet in the buffers are dropped because of congestion and timeouts. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of collision. It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only write a thesis statements link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of link breakages informs the upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on the data packets that are received. The reason for capital, this is romania essay, not that it finds routes faster or that the routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the network. The packets that it successfully gets through the essay network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.

The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the packets through the network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for science project paper, those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in to crime essay that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only detects link breakages when actually trying to send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the time it takes to romania essay, find a new route.

AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on capital punishment to crime essay, the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the link breakage and popcorn science project research has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at capital punishment deterrent essay, a mobility factor of approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to speculative assistant, DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to be valid. The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in capital punishment deterrent buffers etc.

These higher delay packets will make the average delay higher for DSR. Speech! The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to punishment deterrent, do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.

This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the packets will vary much. The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is buffered and write a route request is sent. To Crime! The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is statements, returned to the sending node.

After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. In the capital punishment deterrent to crime case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.

The allowed time for packets to stay in the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and only 8 seconds for AODV. If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. It must however be mentioned that the curves in this case are only interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only tried to resume builder, determine the relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to deterrent to crime, the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is popcorn research, as high as 2.5-3.5. Capital To Crime Essay! AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.

AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to half of what it is when mobility is 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the routing protocol need to send control information to science paper, achieve the task of finding routes, it is interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of control information packets sent. A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of resume builder power and network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only capital punishment deterrent looked at the overhead at the IP-level. Romania Essay! A completely fair comparison would also include the essay above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the MAC layer can be different in a real life implementation.

We wanted to investigate the overhead generally, not the speech oral overhead that is dependent on particularly the punishment deterrent IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The results are shown in Figure 16. Assistant! The first column is capital punishment deterrent, overhead calculated in project research paper number of packets and the second column is the byte overhead. Capital Deterrent To Crime! The number of control packets and byte overhead is speech, a total for all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in appearance. The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only capital punishment deterrent hello messages has a much more stable form of the curve. Romania Essay! The small rise that is visible is the capital to crime essay triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.

A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. This rise is much larger for the AODV versions with link layer support for tay sachs research, the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to capital punishment deterrent to crime, much more messages. Popcorn Project Research Paper! DSR does not include the data packets in the number of control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is included. Punishment! Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is tay sachs, that the deterrent to crime essay DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of control overhead counted in number of messages and resume builder about 400000 bytes more of deterrent to crime essay byte overhead than the DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. The somewhat strange behavior of the oral communication byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of to crime essay both the sent packets and the sent control messages.

As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the number of update messages. The byte overhead is therefore decreasing and at speech oral, approximately mobility 1.5 the increase of punishment deterrent essay control messages will cause the byte overhead to increase. The number of control messages in DSDV is romania essay, fairly constant, even when the mobility is extremely high. This is the nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on punishment deterrent to crime essay, the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. Romania Essay! The reason for this is that the amount of information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. how good the actual routes are compared to the optimal routes. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the optimal shortest route for paper, all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the capital punishment deterrent to crime received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is one larger than the resume builder optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the optimal and so on.

The result is shown in Table 8. The results are the total results for all simulations done with varying mobility. To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for deterrent to crime essay, one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. Science Project Research Paper! AODV is slightly better. This difference is however so small that it can neglected. Capital Punishment Essay! The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. Letter Teaching Assistant! This extra information is apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on periodic broadcasts.

Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to essay, a steady state. Project Research! This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Most of the deterrent to crime packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the resume builder optimal shortest path. AODV with only hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. Capital Deterrent! This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.

The packet that successfully gets through the network have done this during times when the network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. In times of write frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at first is optimal and then the capital moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the write a thesis statements optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on the route that at first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at the average hop count difference for capital to crime essay, all packets received. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for project research paper, all protocols.

Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of packets received for these protocols is almost constant at deterrent to crime, 95 % even when mobility increases. Science Paper! This result indicates that these kinds of protocols will get the job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, increased. Oral! Because DSR is capital deterrent to crime, a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for research, link breakage detection. The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is much smaller for capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, DSR than any other protocol. This is interesting because this means that an research paper approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and capital essay MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only used the more realistic version of both AODV and DSR, for write statements, the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.

5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by punishment deterrent varying the load that we offer the network. We had mainly three parameters to adjust the resume builder offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of deterrent to crime essay 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and 15 CBR flows. This is write a thesis statements, a fairly moderate offered load, so for the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the capital punishment packet size or the number of CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the load is the write rate at which we are sending. By only increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and the number of flows at deterrent to crime, 15.

We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. Research Paper! The same communication file was also used, with the to crime essay exception that we changed the rate for the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. At only tay sachs research paper 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the punishment to crime fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. Romania Essay! At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. At the highest mobility and a rate of 20 packets/s, only 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. The reason is more collisions in the air and congestion in buffers.

The results for AODV and DSR are fairly similar at a packet rate of 5 packets/s and capital punishment deterrent to crime essay 10 packets/s. At data rates of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at a mobility factor of 0. Science Research! DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for this is the source route in each data packet. Deterrent To Crime Essay! This also increases the romania essay load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.

47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. It must however be noted that the increase in punishment deterrent dropped packets is not as large for DSDV as for AODV and DSR. Research! At the highest data rate, DSDV is deterrent, almost as good as DSR. Cover Letter Teaching Assistant! 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. Capital Deterrent! The delay is also affected by high rate of speech CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to punishment deterrent to crime essay, stay in the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. Popcorn Research! This can clearly be seen at punishment deterrent to crime essay, the highest rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.

DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at project, rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of them all. This is however an punishment deterrent to crime essay effect from the large fraction of science research paper packet drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and AODV. The increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the punishment increased time that the packets must stay in cover letter teaching assistant the buffers. The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the extremely high data rate and the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for more packets.

Even the essay packets that have stayed in the buffer for resume builder, a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and new requests are necessary. While the requests are propagating the network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These packets are the packets that have stayed in punishment essay the buffers for the longest time and cover assistant therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of the capital punishment deterrent to crime essay traffic between the nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of romania essay 15 packets/s. This is a little strange but has probably something to do with the fact that DSDV only capital deterrent to crime uses a buffer that only has room for speech, 5 packets per flow.

At the rate of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the capital punishment deterrent to crime topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the oral communication packets gets through the network. These 48 topology changes means that the capital deterrent essay protocol needs more time to converge before the write a thesis statements packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the capital punishment throughput of statements DSR and AODV is unaffected of the mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at 2,5 Kbit/s. At higher CBR rates, the throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. Punishment Deterrent! This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.

The decrease at oral, CBR rate 10 packets/s is however very small. At rate 15 packets/s and punishment deterrent 20 packets/s the speculative letter assistant throughput decreases very much for all protocols. This is capital punishment essay, however an romania essay effect from the capital punishment to crime large fraction of dropped packets. The result for AODV is slightly better than for DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for resume builder, the throughput, only the data packets are included in the calculations of throughput. Capital Deterrent To Crime! DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). This also increases the load on the network and romania essay causes more packets to punishment to crime essay, be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at higher data rate.

DSDV drops a large fraction of the speech communication packets already at punishment to crime essay, a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in the small decrease in the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and cover letter teaching source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for DSR is much larger than AODV even at low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the punishment deterrent essay byte overhead for tay sachs paper, DSR is more than the double than for AODV. The reason for the larger byte overhead for DSR is of course the source route in each packet. The 49 number of control messages is deterrent to crime essay, though smaller for DSR. This is the speculative letter teaching assistant other characteristic for source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to to crime essay, send as many route requests. The reason for the increase in cover letter assistant number of control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in rate means that the MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.

This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to capital deterrent, send out romania essay, a new request much earlier. To Crime Essay! All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for more RREQs, RREPs and triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of control information in DSDV is not affected to any great extent by the data rate for the CBR packets. Romania Essay! By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the number of control packets is exactly the capital deterrent same for all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is about 80 packets.

The reason for this difference is teaching assistant, that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the punishment to crime essay rate increases. But when the mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the popcorn science project highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. This causes the byte overhead for DSDV at higher data rates not to capital punishment essay, increase to romania essay, the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the capital punishment to crime essay difference in hopcount from the optimal hopcount at a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the hopcount difference for the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.

The rate does not affect the number of hops that the speculative packets actually need to travel from source to capital punishment, destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the project research paper protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the byte overhead. While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.

A higher sending rate causes the protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. Deterrent Essay! This leads to cover teaching assistant, a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the punishment byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the send rate. Speech Communication! Since each data packet contains a source route, the byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on to crime essay, the send buffer of the routing protocol.

Congestion occurs and packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the less time the packets have to write a thesis, spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the punishment deterrent essay protocols and varied the number of speculative letter teaching nodes that participated in capital punishment deterrent to crime the network. We decreased the number of nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. The decrease in number of nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.

The results from these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the research paper protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the punishment deterrent to crime same. Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. The worst results for each protocol happened when the mobility was 0. Romania Essay! This may sound strange, but the reason for capital punishment, the bad result when the nodes is standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. Romania Essay! The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the punishment deterrent to crime essay connectivity. Speculative Letter! In a scenario with moving nodes however, the connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. So even if a node is unreachable from the beginning, there is capital punishment to crime essay, still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of how the popcorn science protocols behaves in respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and network load. This kind of deterrent to crime simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to identify situations in which the protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to speech communication, a real life situation. Capital Deterrent Essay! It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.

It is therefore also very interesting to resume builder, see how the protocols behave in capital punishment deterrent a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to be realistic. The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the resume builder protocols behave generally. Punishment Essay! Instead they give some sense of weak points in the protocols. The three basic types of scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.

Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Could for instance be reporters trying to write a thesis statements, interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and some very fast nodes (mounted on a car or a helicopter). The environment size is 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the transmitter range.

The same thing would apply for the speed of the people moving around. The speed is also scaled to 10 m/s. All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of capital punishment deterrent to crime essay nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of a mobile node mounted on tay sachs, a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. It involves communication between some of the people. Capital Essay! Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.

Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and resume builder involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and capital punishment to crime essay windows that can be used for communication. Relatively large interference from other nodes, due to the concentration of transmitting nodes. This can in some cases lead to local congestion. The scenario basically tests the resume builder protocols: N N N Ability to respond to local changes for long links. Capital Essay! Ability to cope with large concentration of traffic.

Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and romania essay created with ad-hockey. The scenario is divided into three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. Capital Punishment! This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.

Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is sitting still most of the time. Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of time later. This will probably result in speech communication a link breakage of a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to establish a connection between the capital punishment speaker and speech oral each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.

It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the punishment deterrent essay results for speculative letter teaching, nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. The calculated mobility factor for deterrent to crime, this scenario is science research paper, very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only deterrent to crime essay uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the tay sachs paper packets with an to crime essay average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. This shows that an ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for speech, long lasting routes as in this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. Capital Punishment Deterrent! DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the write statements lowest packet overhead in this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the punishment essay lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to resume builder, do with the fairly large amount of traffic and that the routes have an average hopcount that is deterrent, as large as 5-6 hops.

As can be seen in Table 13. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of route failures. This is due to the slow response time when links go down and the time it takes to romania essay, find new routes. A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the punishment essay protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is broken and the packets are dropped. Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only romania essay hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. This has to capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, do with the time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the messages, the faster can the protocol react to broken links and avoid dropping the packets. In general, most of the research packets are dropped in the sendbuffer. Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by upper layer protocols, such as TCP.

Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. It could for instance represent a group of reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the reporters, but they must be in constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Deterrent To Crime Essay! Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of tay sachs research paper flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Typically 50 % of the punishment deterrent nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of period.

Every now and then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Oral Communication! Traffic is spread all over deterrent to crime the place. Many obstacles. Nodes can usually only communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to a low interference from the other nodes, except for the moments of tay sachs research clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to respond to deterrent, fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Communication! Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.

These clusters remain static for a certain amount of time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. The results for the event coverage scenario are shown in capital essay Table 15 and Table 16. Science Project! As Table 15 shows, the deterrent to crime two protocols that has the lowest fraction of packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from link-layer. These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is speech oral communication, quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in movement. The nodes are however only capital punishment deterrent essay moving with a speed of 1 m/s. Speech! DSDV has the highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of punishment deterrent to crime control packets and bytes. Research Paper! DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. It must however be noted that the traffic load in this scenario is very low and punishment deterrent most of the communication is resume builder, taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for all protocols. In this scenario, AODV with only hello message shows better results than AODV with only punishment deterrent to crime link-layer support and the reason is that the hello messages makes it possible to keep track of statements neighbors. Most of the capital deterrent to crime communication is taking place within clusters, so to write, know the neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to make as many requests.

The topology of the network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the clusters. This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is punishment to crime, very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of a thesis periodic messages (DSDV and capital punishment deterrent essay the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.

Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the communication packets are dropped due to capital punishment essay, route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. Science Research! AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for punishment to crime essay, drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of popcorn science project simulation DSDV Packet drops in event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. It could for instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of punishment to crime essay communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.

The parameters that are specific for oral, the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Communication! Network partitioning now and then. Deterrent Essay! Long and short lasting links that only resume builder are a few hops.

Traffic that is spread all over the nodes. Many obstacles. Low interference from the other nodes. The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to capital, work with both slow and fast changing network topologies. Ability to cope with network partitioning. Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to research, each other through the relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Capital Punishment Deterrent! Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.

Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 18 and Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is quite high. Many of the nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and DSR with eavesdropping. Research Paper! They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of capital to crime essay network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to science project research, successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of AODV keep an capital deterrent to crime essay average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the project paper DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the other protocols.

The byte overhead is however twice as large for DSR compared to capital deterrent to crime, AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of write statements 3.42 hops. To Crime! The other protocols has an average hopcount of cover letter teaching assistant 5.0-5.2 hops. Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in the interface queue.

One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is capital to crime essay, very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for research, the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to form short lived routing loops. Capital Punishment! Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.

This causes AODV to respond to requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is resume builder, unclear from the draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to use the temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to deterrent essay, respond to a RREQ with a temporary route, the routing loops could be avoided. However, the performance of the protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the temporary routes as a normal route.

Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. Romania Essay! DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the capital punishment essay protocols behave in certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. Resume Builder! DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is AODV with only MAC layer support.

It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an overall good delivery ratio. 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and capital punishment deterrent DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the performance of the protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). The scenario consists of four nodes A, B, C and research paper D connected to capital punishment deterrent to crime, each other. Cover Letter! A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to to crime essay, node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus the speech only routes known to the AODV protocol are the different neighbors in the scenario. This is because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the neighbors of to crime a node. Resume Builder! A RREQ is generated by node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to node D it can comply with the RREQ and capital deterrent to crime generate a RREP.

During the oral communication propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is capital deterrent essay, unicasted back to A. It uses the a thesis temporarily backward route set up by deterrent the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in popcorn project paper Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to active routes. Deterrent Essay! Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only B and resume builder C have routes to punishment, all other nodes in the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to project paper, node C, nor does node D know of the route to A and B. Thus AODV has to go through the route discovery process several times to discover all the routes. This leads to more control traffic and higher delays.

On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to deterrent to crime essay, find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the source route carried in each packet header to discover routes to nodes by which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the number of popcorn science control packets and punishment deterrent to crime decreasing the speculative cover teaching assistant delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by having to store more routes.

We consider the same scenario as for punishment to crime essay, the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Resume Builder! Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of any routes. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. Capital To Crime! The RREP is unicasted back to A, using the project routes learned during the propagation of the RREQ. As the capital punishment deterrent essay RREP propagates, each node also learns the routes to resume builder, all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in Table 21. After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in capital punishment deterrent to crime AODV, a temporary backward route is romania essay, set up towards the requesting node.

A RREP might use this backward route. To Crime Essay! This route is tay sachs, normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the draft if this route may be used by deterrent application data as well. Using this route for data affects the resume builder behavior of the protocol in some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. One of the problems with this temporary route is with the way it is set up. When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into capital the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the tay sachs research route, the rest of the deterrent to crime essay nodes in the route are not informed of speech oral communication this and therefore have redundant routes in their tables.

When the route is to crime essay, used again, the application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for research paper, the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in the route that it is capital punishment to crime essay, broken. Oral Communication! This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the punishment essay temporary route to another request searching for a route to D. Since the temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to use it. This results in unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to resume builder, only allow RREP to use the temporary route. Also a check of the expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the route wont timeout shortly after the capital punishment deterrent to crime essay node has responded with the information.

A question about tay sachs research, this was directed to the author of the protocol with the response that this check should not be done, instead the protocol should rely on punishment, the sequence numbers to provide the freshness of science paper a route. We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. Capital To Crime Essay! The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for route replies. So we have a small difference in speech communication our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. Capital Punishment Essay! The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and a thesis statements allowing them to stay in the buffer for capital essay, maximum 8 seconds. Paper! Allowing the capital punishment deterrent to crime packets to stay in the buffer for longer period of times will of course increase the amount of romania essay successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. Also the choice of queuing discipline will affect the capital measured performance.

If the resume builder buffer is full, there must be some smart algorithm to decide which packets should be dropped. The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to capital punishment to crime essay, retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against the work that was done by the CMU Monarch project [3], many similarities can be seen. Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.

We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of romania essay mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to capital punishment, the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on the actual relative movement pattern. The only node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from letter teaching, 0 m/s up to 20 m/s and capital deterrent to crime essay shows how the research paper protocols behave in the complete range. Deterrent To Crime! They have also only shown the result for one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the speech communication security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of capital deterrent to crime AODV. We have tested different versions and project shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Capital Deterrent Essay! Our results also show that it is necessary to resume builder, use some support from the MAC-layer to punishment, achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the number of sources as a definition of the load that is offered the network. Speech Oral Communication! Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.

The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only capital punishment deterrent delivered 40 % of the packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of research paper sources. Our definition of load was based on capital deterrent to crime essay, the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in the CMU paper fails to deliver a large fraction of the packets when the rate is increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to for instance AODV. Tay Sachs Paper! 5.9 Classification Why is capital deterrent, there any need for cover letter teaching assistant, classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is deterrent essay, superior than the other routing protocols for instance in very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at low mobile environments. In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the resume builder routing protocol.

It is also important to recognize the need that is required in punishment a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for high throughput than there is for low delay. Popcorn Project! In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. This is becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks [29] is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to capital deterrent to crime, the network. The network is no longer viewed a passive mover of romania essay bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for punishment to crime, instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the resume builder simulation results show, the mobility of the network greatly affects the performance of the capital punishment deterrent essay protocols. Speculative Letter! It is to crime, crucial that the protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to these changes.

DSDV Since DSDV is speech oral communication, dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is very poor. Deterrent! It has a poor ability to fast detect broken links and project paper takes time to converge. This protocol should really be avoided for use in ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to deal with frequent changing topology. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to detect transmission errors can achieve this. If this is used, the protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is highly optimized and research also shows good results in the simulations.

The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 5.9.2 Size of capital punishment deterrent to crime essay networks When talking about the romania essay size of a network, it is not only the number of nodes in deterrent to crime essay the network that is of interest. The area that the nodes are spread out over is also interesting. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the popcorn project research paper same number of nodes.

At the same time, many nodes close to capital punishment deterrent to crime, each other means a higher collision probability. Write Statements! DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to punishment to crime essay, small networks. Romania Essay! If the protocol would be used in large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime! The reason is that updates must propagate from one end of the network to letter teaching assistant, the other. AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in capital deterrent to crime essay both small and medium sized networks. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for write, large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. Capital! In large networks however, the propagation of project research requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. A better solution is probably to divide the network into clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.

A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the source overhead in each packet grows. The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of punishment deterrent essay maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for science project research paper, small and medium sized networks.

63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the capital deterrent hopcount is small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in terms of packets and byte overhead. If the speculative number of deterrent to crime hops increases and get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of speculative cover letter teaching hopcount increases is one of the deterrent AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. Resume Builder! AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is somewhat larger.

Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and almost all communication is within the clusters, DSR is by all means the capital essay best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is very small, even counted in bytes, because of the few hops required to reach the destination. Cover Teaching! The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. So for these type sort of punishment essay networks DSR it the best protocol. Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in speech communication this scenario. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and speculative cover letter teaching low packet overhead.

It also uses only 5 hops in average to reach a destination. This protocol is therefore recommended in capital punishment to crime this type of scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. One other candidate for speech oral communication, this scenario is essay, AODV with MAC support. Letter Teaching! It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. Capital! The packet overhead is twice as high but the byte overhead is oral communication, smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for each request it sends out. If a request goes from S to D and the reply from capital punishment deterrent essay, D to S, S will learn the letter teaching assistant route to all intermediate routes between S and capital to crime essay D. This means that it is resume builder, not necessary to capital punishment to crime essay, send out as many requests as for tay sachs research, example AODV.

The source routing approach is therefore very good in the route discovery and route maintenance cases. However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of capital punishment deterrent to crime all, it adds a lot of communication overhead. Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in wired networks. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! Our proposal is therefore to implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and distance vector. Source routing should be used in project paper route discovery and route maintenance phases. These phases would also include that the routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the requests and capital punishment to crime replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to the nexthop according to the routing table. This in combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is even better than the write protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.

64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg [28] has implemented the AODV protocol. Capital Deterrent Essay! The goal was to write, deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft [19]. 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of capital punishment deterrent to crime AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only be considered as a prototype to confirm the popcorn science project paper usefulness of AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in user space. The advantage with this is punishment deterrent essay, that debugging and testing is much easier to do.

A final implementation should be made in kernel space with more optimized design. Thus abandon the teaching modular design and capital punishment deterrent to crime optimize the science research paper code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in punishment the following chapters. Research Paper! 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the punishment deterrent to crime essay user space daemon. Communication! It is capital punishment to crime essay, also in main that the research paper AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for punishment, events that are supposed to be performed at popcorn project, certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an to crime essay interface against the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from Main, you only have to do one call to resume builder, this module instead of two to the both submodules.

The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is required for capital essay, AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in teaching assistant the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the deterrent to crime essay kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. Speculative Teaching! 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the capital punishment deterrent to crime neighbors of a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of this, but it was not the case. The signal strength and the range was different between the hosts. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. Science Research! A host is to crime, classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and resume builder if the capital deterrent essay receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and resume builder can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of being flooded by multiple request for the same address.

This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of messages that the daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. 6.2 Setup The computers used for this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.

The implementation started first with the capital punishment essay 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the resume builder best documentation of capital to crime its kernel source. Romania Essay! It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in the laptops. Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in capital deterrent to crime essay the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of a thesis statements testing the implementation is to verify that the implementation works correctly and to see if the performance is suitable for real life applications. Capital Punishment Essay! 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to resume builder, each other and deterrent essay registry the counterpart as a neighbor. Tay Sachs Research! Unidirectional links and neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from each other causes the punishment link between them to go down. A Thesis Statements! Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is punishment to crime, correctly received.

This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the situation where node S searches the route to D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by B, which knows the route to romania essay, D and sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and punishment to crime the destination. Romania Essay! The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.

Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. To Crime! The results for so few nodes would be misleading. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to the on-demand nature of AODV. Speculative Letter Teaching Assistant! Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to a computer on the first attempt. The second attempt however is to crime essay, successful. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.

This will result in an error message from the kernel to Telnet, at the same time as a new request is sent to the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to the destination and letter teaching assistant it is installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to capital essay, the same host, a route will already exist in the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the destination host. The solution to this problem is simply to take care of the error messages that the kernel sends to the application. The error message should be buffered and speculative teaching if a route is not found in a certain amount of time, the error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is actually found the error message can be discarded. Capital Punishment Deterrent Essay! 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to a thesis, FreeBSD forced the implementation study to be done under Linux. Capital Punishment Deterrent Essay! Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is however done for write, IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.

The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the a thesis sending node to its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of one wastes bandwidth, but could also in a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of each other accepts the deterrent to crime essay bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to the source.

The problem with this temporary route is first of all that the request is unaware of if the route ever will be used and a thesis statements secondly who will use it. This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is capital to crime essay, propagating back through the network. 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to communication, this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of capital to crime essay link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the romania essay performance as the capital punishment deterrent essay simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to a destination, not only the one we are currently using. If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to popcorn science project paper, be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is capital to crime, a requirement for these kind of letter teaching assistant networks.

Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for capital deterrent, this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to get these protocols to speculative teaching assistant, work in real-life. It must however be noted that real-life in this case only consisted of capital deterrent to crime five computers. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into resume builder the problems that arise when trying to run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the capital deterrent to crime route successfully. Resume Builder! This has to do with the on-demand feature of the AODV protocol.

68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for capital deterrent, a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. It is however necessary to have some sort of feedback from the link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for neighbor discovery. Speculative! To only capital punishment deterrent be dependent on periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of packet losses even when mobility increases a little. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in popcorn science research performance when mobility increases and are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.

DSR is however based on source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the total byte overhead in the network quite drastically when the offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the source routing approach is deterrent to crime, however that in its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Source routing is however not desirable in ordinary forwarding of data packets because of the large byte overhead. A combination of AODV and DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and romania essay DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to test them in realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the punishment to crime essay best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by speech the source route in each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.

It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in punishment deterrent essay Gothenburg has shown that it is romania essay, possible to get a real ad-hoc network up and running. Punishment To Crime! The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the tay sachs paper protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by capital to crime the application and popcorn science project research paper the route did not exist in the routing table, the kernel informed the punishment to crime applications of resume builder a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is capital punishment deterrent essay, a rather hot concept in computer communications.

This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to be solved. Resume Builder! Due to limited time, we have only focused on punishment deterrent essay, the routing protocols. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the simulator environment could be improved. These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of resume builder computing complexity.

Secondly, there are many issues related to ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into consideration. Some sort of analysis of punishment deterrent whether many small control messages are more costly to science project research, send in capital deterrent essay terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in an ad-hoc network. Speech Oral! Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in a distributed fashion.

This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec [14] authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the necessary key management to distribute keys to capital punishment deterrent essay, the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for Quality of Service in an ad-hoc network? This is related to write, what the punishment deterrent networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of write a thesis statements real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to to crime essay, another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only looked at resume builder, unicast routing. Capital Punishment To Crime Essay! Multicast routing is also an interesting issue that has to be considered.

Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an cover letter teaching ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is not possible to to crime, just add the access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of oral mobile IP into ad-hoc networks. Essay! Addressing of hosts: How should the hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is write a thesis statements, partitioned in to to crime essay, two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. Romania Essay! There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on both routers and hosts.

In the Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by IP addresses. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on punishment deterrent, the routing policy. There are three approaches to MANET router identification and addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. Paper! This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of deterrent essay hosts attached to a MANET router?

N How to support the use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. Cover Teaching Assistant! The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. Capital Deterrent! The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of a thesis statements multiple wireless technologies.

Approach a) and deterrent essay b) seem tailored to support a mobile host that acts like a router. Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about how IP addresses are assigned to cover letter teaching, interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the capital deterrent to crime RID is and paper how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is related to routing. 70 8 References [1] Dimitri Bertsekas and capital punishment essay Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1. [2] Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [3] Josh Broch, David A. Speculative Teaching Assistant! Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of capital punishment Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998. Speech Communication! [4] Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. [5] Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and punishment deterrent to crime essay Evaluation Considerations”.

Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. Tay Sachs Research Paper! [6] M.Scott Corson, S. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and to crime essay Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [7] Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Work in write a thesis statements progress. [8] Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for capital punishment to crime, Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [9] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. [10] Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [11] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Romania Essay! Work in progress. [12] David B. Johnson and punishment deterrent essay David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers. [13] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for popcorn science project research, adaptive wireless and mobile computing”. In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. [14] Stephen Kent and capital deterrent essay Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.

Work in progress. Speech! [15] Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html. Punishment To Crime Essay! (1998-11-29). Resume Builder! Work in progress. 71 [16] Vincent D. Capital! Park and M. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Cover Assistant! Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [17] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of capital to crime essay IEEE Symposium on Computers and romania essay Communication ’98, June 1998. Capital Punishment Deterrent Essay! [18] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: http://www.svrloc.org/ charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Work in progress. [19] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [20] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [21] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Romania Essay! Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. [22] Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for capital punishment deterrent essay, mobile computers”. In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is available from resume builder, http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/mcml/papers/Sigcomm94.ps. (1998-11-29) [23] Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. ISBN 1-55860-368-9. Capital Punishment To Crime! [24] Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982. [25] Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and letter teaching assistant Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375536-3. [26] Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.

Work in progress. [27] Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in capital deterrent communication networks”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Romania Essay! ISBN 0-13010752-2. [28] Jerry Svedlund and Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Master thesis. [29] D. Punishment! L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an oral active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996. [30] The CMU Monarch Project. “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns”. URL: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. (1998-11-29).

Work in progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology [21] that is related to ad-hoc networks. Punishment To Crime! A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into popcorn science research paper logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the punishment deterrent to crime essay medium. Channels may be made available by subdividing the resume builder medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the deterrent network.

Flooding: The process of delivering data or control messages to every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Speculative Cover Letter! Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at deterrent essay, the link layer. Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the same intermediate node twice before arrival at resume builder, the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the link interface of a node on a physical link. Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the punishment way to a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Popcorn Project Paper! Node: A device that implements IP.

Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. In case of capital essay ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for tay sachs paper, various destinations. This information can include nexthop and capital punishment to crime the number of hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the source to the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of oral communication data from a source to punishment to crime essay, a destination processed by the protocol for which throughput is to be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.

Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the transmitter and receiver. For instance, the range of popcorn research paper one transmitter may be much higher than the deterrent to crime essay range of another transmitter on the same medium. The transmission between the two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in tay sachs paper its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of capital punishment to crime each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. Research! The cluster head ID identifies the cluster. Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and capital punishment deterrent to crime essay therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. A Thesis! Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to maintain the routing map for punishment essay, the whole network all the time.

See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon receiving a specific request. See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. Speculative Teaching Assistant! A message used by AODV for the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions.

See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Science Project Research Paper! Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Capital! Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for romania essay, ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for ns. The implementation of AODV is punishment deterrent to crime essay, done according to the draft [19] released in speech August 1998. Capital Deterrent Essay! B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for research, route discovery and route maintenance.

All messages are sent using UDP. B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the punishment essay route request message is shown in Figure 29. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Broadcast ID[32] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Source IP address[32] Source Sequence Number[32] Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to resume builder, the node handling the request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the source nodes IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is punishment deterrent, required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for any route towards the destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the resume builder route request. Punishment Deterrent! 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in popcorn science paper Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] L Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Lifetime[32] Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is a hello message and contains a list of the nodes neighbors. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and capital deterrent essay ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the destination IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for romania essay, which a route is supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to punishment deterrent to crime essay, the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. The difference is resume builder, that a hello message always supplies the capital deterrent essay route to itself. This means that the hop count field is set to 0, the destination address set to the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.

B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. Popcorn Science Paper! The broken route is assigned an infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for simulator. Tay Sachs Paper! AODV The tcl script that starts the AODV routing agent and deterrent to crime creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.

Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. Romania Essay! It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on route entries and the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the request buffer that prevents a node to process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. Capital Punishment Deterrent! AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for instance the hello interval. Resume Builder! 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only capital punishment essay be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Romania Essay! 10. 11.

12. Capital! B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the RREQ. The RREQ is discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the source address and cover letter teaching the broadcast ID from RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from being processed again. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in request buffer ) else The next step is to create or update the route entry in the routing table. Deterrent To Crime Essay! This route can be used by the RREP when a route is found.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Letter Assistant! 7. 8. Capital Deterrent To Crime! if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in route entry )) Then, the node must check if it knows the route to speech, the wanted destination. If the node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to the source. Otherwise it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to punishment to crime essay, destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. Popcorn Project Research Paper! 4. Punishment! 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is not addressed for the node, it will set up the forward route by updating the routing table and forward the romania essay RREP back to capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, the requesting source. This part is however not explicit specified in a thesis statements the AODV draft. 1. 2. 3. Deterrent! 4. Statements! 5. To Crime Essay! 6. Cover Letter Teaching! 7. 8. 9. Punishment! 10. 11. Popcorn Science Project Research Paper! 12.

13. if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND ( hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the RREP it will update the routing table. 1. 2. 3. 4. Deterrent To Crime Essay! 5. 5. 6. 7. 8. Popcorn Paper! 9. 10. 11. if (route to destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in punishment essay route entry ) AND (hop count in speculative cover RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the sending node is a neighbor and will update the routing table. 1. Capital Punishment To Crime! 2. 3. Speculative Cover Letter! 4. Essay! 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. B.3.7 if (route entry for HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is forwarded. 1. 2. Tay Sachs! 3. 4. 5. 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the punishment deterrent routing agent or by speech using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from deterrent to crime, a node for a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is down. Every time a link is detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. Popcorn Project Paper! 1. 2. 3. 4. B.3.9 for (each address in the active neighbor list for capital, a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is received informing about romania essay, a broken link, the affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.

1. 2. 3. 4. if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of capital deterrent essay Network animator and popcorn project research paper Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of deterrent essay Network animator. The scenario contains 19 nodes in resume builder a wired network. Some of the nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. With this tool it is punishment deterrent essay, very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the nodes and the lines between the circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the romania essay playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.

The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the nodes. The colors of the capital deterrent essay nodes represent what action the science paper nodes are performing at the moment. Capital Deterrent To Crime! It could for instance be that the node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the tay sachs research paper nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime! routing protocol, ad-hoc network.

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07 Adhoc Networks. Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from Vietnamese-German University, Binh Duong Province EEIT 28 - Winter 2016 Lecture (11-14) -On-Demand-Driven Reactive Routing protocols Chandra Prakash Assistan. Copyright © 2017. Letter Assistant! Course Hero, Inc. Privacy Terms.

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5 Things You Should Never Put in Your Cover Letter. Punishment Essay. A cover letter can demonstrate to a hiring manager why you are the best fit for a position, so it#39;s worth your time and effort to get it just right. However, it can be challenging to romania essay, craft an effective cover letter that showcases your skills without making you seem self-important or succumbing to cliches. To help you stay clear of the most treacherous cover letter pitfalls, Business News Daily asked hiring managers and business owners for the absolute worst thing a candidate can include in his or her cover letter. Capital Punishment Essay. From small details like typos to huge red flags like bad-mouthing your old boss, here are the five most damaging cover letter mistakes. 1. Highlighting any lack of romania essay skills. It#39;s easy to capital punishment to crime, feel vulnerable when applying for tay sachs paper a job, especially if you know that you have limited experience with some of the skills the position requires. However, starting off a cover letter by underselling yourself or drawing attention to the skills or knowledge you are lacking is punishment essay, never the way to romania essay, go. I have seen one too many cover letters with the following phrase: #39;Although I do not yet have. #39; If you do not have something, why are you emphasizing it? said Lavie Margolin, author, consultant and career coach.

Instead, Margolin advised job seekers to focus on writing about capital deterrent to crime existing skills, experiences and talents that will be of interest to the potential employer. If you are looking for research paper a job, then you are in capital deterrent to crime essay the sales business. What you write in speech your cover letter should most effectively sell the skills, experience and capital deterrent to crime, abilities that you do have, as opposed to emphasizing those things that are lacking. Emphasizing a weakness on a thesis, your cover letter may be costing you the job, explained Margolin. Sometimes job seekers get so caught up with trying to deterrent to crime, find the best way to a thesis statements, express their big ideas that they forget to pay close attention to the fine details. Typos are one of the top mistakes job seekers make when it comes to cover letters, said Joe Weinlick, senior vice president of marketing with Beyond. Rigorously proofreading your cover letter will give your great content an opportunity to shine.

Spell-check is your friend. Use it, but don#39;t rely on punishment deterrent essay, it, said Weinlick. Research Paper. Print out your cover letter, read it from start to punishment deterrent to crime, finish and make sure there aren#39;t any typos before sending it out. Speculative Cover Teaching. Your cover letter is the first impression you make on a hiring manager make sure it#39;s a good one. Capital Deterrent To Crime. You can reuse parts of your cover letter when applying for similar positions with different companies. Romania Essay. However, failing to update the company information for each letter is an unforgivable offense. Nothing will get your cover letter thrown in the recycling bin faster than giving the wrong company name, said Chaz Pitts-Kyser, founder and author of punishment to crime essay Careeranista. According to science research paper, Pitts-Kyser, checking for accuracy includes making sure you have the capital punishment, correct company name and resume builder, address, specifying the position for which you are applying, and including the name of the hiring manager, if available. While you are proofreading, you may also want to delete all those cliches that sound nice, but say very little. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay. Instead of using vague words to oral, describe your work ethic or experience, provide specific examples that demonstrate the qualities that you#39;d like to punishment to crime, highlight.

Don#39;t use buzzwords, said Bob Kovalsky, vice president of North Highland. Including descriptors such as #39;detail-oriented,#39; #39;hardworking,#39; #39;team player#39; and #39;proactive#39; doesn#39;t tell HR managers anything about your experience. Maybe you were let go from your last job or maybe you are just looking for new opportunities. But regardless of the reason for romania essay your job search, don#39;t spend the limited space available of to crime your cover letter focusing on your past. The worst thing a potential employee can do is to explain why they left their current or former position, said Kim Kaupe, co-founder of ZinePak. It#39;s like starting out a first date by talking about letter assistant your ex! I don#39;t want to punishment deterrent essay, hear about your past; I want to hear about your now and future, and how you are going to become an asset to my company.

Steering clear of the past is especially important if you had a contentious relationship with an employer. Cover Teaching Assistant. Saying that you#39;re looking for a new opportunity because your previous employer was unfair or you had an incompetent boss will only make you look bad, said Tracey Russell, talent acquisition professional for 5-Star Staffing Solutions. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay. Oftentimes, if this type of negative information is in the cover letter, recruiters won#39;t even look at the resume, explained Russell. There is a time and place to discuss salary during the hiring process, but your cover letter isn#39;t it. Lisa Benson, president and CEO of Mary Kraft Staffing HR Solutions, recommends that job seekers not provide any unsolicited salary information in their cover letter, unless they are specifically asked to do so, particularly if there is a disparity between what is advertised or indicated in the ad they are responding to. No prospective employer wants to hire someone who is only about the speech oral communication, money, Benson added.

Another common mistake that applicants make is using their cover letter to boast about their talents without acknowledging how they will use these skills to benefit a perspective employer. The worst thing a candidate can do in their cover letter is make it all about themselves and what they#39;re looking for, said Ian Yates, co-founder and managing director of Fitzii. The best thing to do is to crime essay, focus on why they#39;ll be a great fit, how they#39;ll make a contribution and what they#39;ve done, or will do, to support [the organization]. It is a fine line between confident and arrogant, added Sue Hardek, managing partner and talent acquisition consultant at Sue Hardek Associates. Tay Sachs Paper. She noted that any candidate should avoid overselling him or herself, or being boastful about accomplishments and capital deterrent essay, strengths. Applicants should also stay clear of oversharing personal history, exaggerating or providing false information. Teaching Assistant. Ultimately, the capital deterrent, job seekers who do their homework researching the company, learning about industry trends, and identifying specific ways they can address challenges faced by the business have a much better shot at setting the right tone with their cover letters. Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan.

Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Paula is a New Jersey-based writer with a Bachelor#39;s degree in English and popcorn science project, a Master#39;s degree in Education. She spent nearly a decade working in education, primarily as the director of capital deterrent a college#39;s service-learning and community outreach center. Her prior experience includes stints in corporate communications, publishing, and public relations for non-profits. Reach her by email.

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Capital Punishment Essay - Death Penalty as a Deterrent to Crime

cma essay wizard WWI Draft Registration Cards and Essays. Jelly Roll Morton · Relatives · Associates · Musicians. Ragtime Composers · Bandleaders · Authors · Broadcasters. 12th September 1918. Louis Armstrong believed all his life that he was an All-American jazz boy, born on the Fourth of July, 1900. Louis was almost universally loved, and few Americans, black or white, would ever dispute his claim. Punishment Essay? As Duke Ellington pointed out, he never consciously hurt anyone along the way in a life crammed full of achievement. It was not until over a decade after his death that Tad Jones (1952-2007), a music historian and writer on jazz and rhythm and blues in speech oral, New Orleans, and organiser of the Satchmo SummerFest, obtained a baptismal certificate from the Archives of the Catholic Archdiocese of capital punishment deterrent to crime essay New Orleans, which disclosed that Louis was born on 4th August 1901. He was taken to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Church at 139 South Lopez Street, New Orleans on 25th August 1901 and, described as “niger illegitimus,” baptised by the Reverend J. M. Toohey. © November 2007 Peter Hanley.

Paul Adolph Barbarin. 12th September 1918. Paul Adolph Barbarin, one of New Orleans’ greatest drummers, was born in that city on 5th May 1899. Previously, his birth year has been listed as 1901 by some sources (including this writer) but the draft card, above, sets the record straight. © May 2007 Hal Smith. Bennie B. Borders. Bennie “Rhythm Ben” Borders played drums on the first commercially issued jazz recording by an African-American band, “Spikes’ Seven Pods of statements Pepper/Ory’s Sunshine Orchestra”.

Most sources give spring or summer 1922 as the time the punishment, recordings took place. However, the paper, late Floyd Levin stated that they were made in June 1921 and that 1921 was the year given in the record company’s files. © February 2007 Hal Smith. Note: See also the article titled: Kid Ory’s Legendary Nordskog/Sunshine Recordings by Floyd Levin, which was published in the Jazz Journal International magazine, dated July 1993, Vol. 46, No. 7, pages 6—10. Emile J. Christian.

Very few jazz musicians had such a varied career as Emile Christian. He is best known as the trombonist who replaced Eddie Edwards in the Original Dixieland Jazz Band when Edwards was drafted, and punishment deterrent to crime essay, who was therefore on romania essay, their 1919-20 visit to essay England and their English Columbia records. He returned with the band to teaching the U.S.A. on 8th July 1920 giving the same birth date as the capital punishment deterrent essay, draft card and his address as 2538 Rampart Street, New Orleans. © March 2007 Howard Rye. 12th September 1918. My first experience of J. Lawrence Cook’s work came when I acquired my first player piano many years ago. Resume Builder? Included in the purchase were two “Fats” Waller QRS rolls, which greatly impressed me — so much so that they were very quickly reduced to shreds with constant playing. What I did not know at the time was that Cook had edited all of Waller’s QRS output. To Crime Essay? Having collected all the available Waller rolls, I am now firmly of the opinion that Cook’s contribution to them went much further than a simple editing job — there is at least one documented instance of “Fats” starting a roll but failing to tay sachs research turn up to finish it, so Cook had to complete the job. [FW] © March 2002 John Farrell.

Joseph Crawford was the real name of Buddie Petit, the renowned second generation New Orleans cornet player. Crawford was the natural son of Alfred Crawford and Rose Batiste (Baptiste), and capital punishment deterrent, was born in statements, the infant town of White Castle, Iberville Parish, Louisiana, located on part of White Castle Plantation, about seventy miles upriver from New Orleans on the western side of the capital deterrent, Mississippi. According to his World War I Draft Card, Buddie was born on 23rd December 1896, but there is considerable conjecture about the actual date of his birth. Karl Koenig, a prolific researcher of early New Orleans music, opted for a birth date of 4th August 1896 in his book “Under the Influence: The Four Hornsmen of speech oral communication New Orleans Jazz, 1994”. Deterrent To Crime? The 1900 U.S. Census recorded a date of write statements August 1895 (as Joseph Petit); the 1910 U.S. Capital Punishment Essay? Census recorded an age of 12 (born 1897) on 15th April 1910 (as Joseph Crawford); Buddie married Lizzie Braxton on romania essay, 24th December 1912 and gave his age as twenty-two (born 1890); the age of twenty-four (born 1895) was recorded as at capital punishment essay, 1st January 1920 in the 1920 U.S. Census (as Joseph Crawford); he was listed as Joseph Crawford in the 1930 U.S. Census as thirty-three years of age on 1st April 1930 (born 1896); and his death certificate is consistent with a birth year of 1897. “But, man, those guys could really play.

Petit was second only to Keppard on the cornet, had tremendous power in tay sachs paper, all registers and great ideas. Deterrent To Crime Essay? He was a slow reader, but if the tune was played off first, he would pick up his part so fast no one knew he couldn’t read. Oral Communication? And, as for Dusen (Duson), he was the best there was at that time on trombone. So we had a very hot five-piece band and punishment deterrent, made plenty money — $75 a night and tips doubled the salaries. An offer from Bill Johnson in 1918 to play at letter teaching, the Lincoln Gardens in deterrent essay, Chicago was refused by Petit.

For the rest of his life, he confined his playing to paper his home state, Louisiana, and the other Gulf of Mexico states of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. © January 2009 Peter Hanley. Special thanks to Daniel Vernhettes who sent me his well-researched article on Buddie Petit, published in the April and June 2002 issues of Jazz Classique magazine (France), and to the late Sir Georges Souyave, formerly Chief Justice of Seychelles and a judge of the UK High Court of Justice in Hong Kong, for capital punishment to crime essay translating the article into English for me. Charles Edward Davenport. In the early years of the 20th century men like Charlie Spand, Charlie Avery, Leroy Garnett, Will Ezell, Montana Taylor, Doug Suggs and Pinetop Smith were evolving the popcorn science paper, blues based piano style which was to to crime essay become known as “fast western” or “boogie woogie”. Cow Cow Davenport was another such pioneer, but one whose experience in speculative assistant, the entertainment business was greater than most. © December 2006 Derek Coller. The elusive Sammy Davis, or Sam Davis as he preferred to be called, registered for the draft in Chicago on 5th June 1917, after his Storyville days were well behind him. As his draft card shows, he was born in New Orleans on 8th October 1889, the date and place also shown on capital deterrent, his birth certificate issued in Orleans Parish. © January 2007 Peter Hanley.

Hurley William Diemer. 12th September 1918. Drummer Hurley William Diemer was the youngest of the three sons of Rev. Thomas J. Diemer, born in Mississippi in resume builder, August 1854, and his wife Harriett, born in Texas in January 1863, to appear in jazz discography. Deterrent To Crime Essay? In fact Hurley William appears twice because it has not been realized that Hurley Diemer and William Diemer are the letter teaching assistant, same musician, though this was reported many years ago by researcher John Heinz, who met him in capital to crime essay, Albany, NY, towards the end of his life. In the 1900 U.S. Census, taken before Hurley William’s birth on a thesis, 2nd August, the family was living at 1034 Olive Street, Campbell Township, Springfield, Missouri. All seven survivors of the couple’s nine children were still at home. Though this information is not on the draft card, Hurley William was himself born in Springfield, according to punishment what he told the romania essay, purser of the punishment deterrent, “S.S. DeGrasse” in speech communication, 1938. © November 2007 Howard Rye.

John Dodds was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on 12th April 1892, as noted on his WWI draft card. To Crime? His 1900, 1920 and 1930 U.S. Census entries, and his marriage record from 26th May 1915 support this date. (New Orleans, Louisiana Marriage Records Index, 1831-1925, Volume 37, page 620) While the cover teaching assistant, location of his birth is all but certain, he gave Alabama (where his parents originated from) as his place of birth in the 1920 U.S. Census and California in the 1930 U.S. Census, while John Chilton gives Waverley, Louisiana. [WWJ 95] In addition, it has also been suggested that he was born in Waggaman, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, which is over the river from capital punishment deterrent to crime New Orleans, and now part of the Greater New Orleans Metropolitan District. His younger brother Warren Dodds Jr. (1894-1959), who was invariably known as “Baby” Dodds, was the famous jazz drummer. © October 2008 Brian Goggin. The Draft Registration Card for New Orleans-born Warren Dodds confirms the date of birth of December 24, 1894 he gave to biographer Larry Gara in speech communication, 1953. [BDS 4] Lacking his birth certificate, most writers cite 1898 — yet U.S. Census information (held by deterrent Peter Hanley) supports an earlier date. Warren, the teaching assistant, fifth of six children, was named after his father, but his mother called him “Baby”.

The name stuck. It was a musical family and brother Johnny (born 12th April 1892) was an accomplished clarinettist when Warren took basic drum lessons from Dave Perkins and capital punishment, studied theory with Walter Brundy. His first music job was with Willie Hightower c. 1912. He worked with bands led by Manuel Manetta, Frankie Duson and research, Oscar Celestin, and in parades with Bunk Johnson. Deterrent To Crime Essay? From autumn 1918 until August 1921 Baby played in Fate Marable’s star-studded orchestra on the Mississippi riverboats. © February 2007 Bill Haesler. Anatie Dominique registered for the World War I draft in project research paper, Benton Harbor, Berrien County, Michigan on 5th June 1917. The draft card gives his occupation as a cigar maker and his date of punishment to crime essay birth as 2nd August 1893. The 1900 U.S.

Census places his birth a year later, in August 1894, while the 1910 census is consistent with the a thesis, draft card and gives his occupation as a stock boy in a cigar factory. The later birth date is capital to crime essay, also given in science research, his Social Security Death Index entry. Anatie’s older brother Ferdinand, who was born in August 1877, was also a cigar maker. Ferdinand’s son, Albert Dominique, was the capital deterrent to crime essay, well-known bandleader who worked under the name “Don Albert”. The Dominique brothers were cousins of clarinettist Barney Bigard. © April 2008 Brian Goggin. Henry J. Duncan registered for the World War I draft in romania essay, his home town of Bowling Green, Kentucky, on 5th June 1918. His draft card states that he was born on 26th October 1896, but the 1900 U.S.

Census gives his birth date as October 1897. Capital Punishment Essay? The 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census data support the birth date on the draft card, but his age as per write statements, the 1930 U.S. To Crime Essay? Census concurs with that for the 1900 enumeration. John Chilton gives a birth date of 26th October 1894 in “Who’s Who of Jazz”; while Duncan himself told Johnny Simmen that he was either born in teaching assistant, “the same year as James P. Johnson” (1894) or 1893. [JJHD] Henry Duncan registered for the World War II draft on 27th April 1942 and his WWII draft card notes “James” as his middle name. This card and his Social Security Death Index entry also give the 26th October 1896 birth date, which it would seem from the evidence, is deterrent to crime, correct.

© April 2009 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918. The legend of Frankie Duson was immortalised by Jelly Roll Morton when he sang the last verse of Buddy Bolden’s Blues for statements General Records in New York on 16th December 1939: Thought I heard Frankie Duson shout, Gal gim-me that money, I’m gonna beat it out. I mean gim-me that money, like I explain ya, I’m gonna beat it out, ‘Cause I thought I heard Frankie Duson say . Behind the legend, however, there was a real person who played a part in the evolution of jazz music in New Orleans. Capital To Crime? Previously relying on the recollections of old musicians, census and other public records are now available to replace much of the legend with fact. © February 2007 Peter Hanley.

Horace Eubanks worked with Jelly Roll Morton in romania essay, 1920-21 in the Pacific North-West, including Vancouver, and again in Chicago around 1923, when he recorded with him for OKeh and was a member of the shadowy Morton-Handy Band recalled in punishment, the 1946 Esquire’s Jazz Book . [EJB 21] © March 2007 Howard Rye. Walter S. Farrington. Walter S. Romania Essay? Farrington was born 16th November 1892, as indicated on capital punishment deterrent to crime, his World War I draft card. Tay Sachs? He registered on capital to crime, 5th June 1917 in his home city of St. Louis, Missouri. His parents were Walter S. Farrington (Sr.) and Mary Farrington (ne Payne). The 1900 U.S.

Census is in agreement with the year of his birth on the draft card, but gives the month of birth as October. Romania Essay? The 1910 U.S. Census lists his occupation as a porter in a barbershop, and the 1920 U.S. Census records him as a musician. Both of these Census entries note his age to be approximately one year younger. His death record supports either of the 1892 birth dates, while his Social Security Death Index Entry states that he was born on capital to crime essay, 23rd October 1893. (California Social Security Death Index, Walter Farrington, SSN 496-18-9892, issued in communication, Missouri before 1951) Marcellus Sherrod and to crime, Walter Farrington, WIL Radio Artists, will augment the tay sachs paper, program of punishment deterrent to crime dance music offered by speculative letter Harvey Lankford and his Synco High Hatters at the People’s Finance Ballroom Saturday Night, April 4. ‘The Royal Beau Brummels’, a popular social club, is sponsoring the affair. [SLA]

Walter S. Farrington moved from Missouri, and lived in to crime essay, California in his later years. His draft card had noted that he was suffering from letter gonorrhea when he registered on 5th June 1917. He must have recovered from punishment to crime essay this disease, as he died forty-eight years later in Los Angeles, on 6th July 1965. The pianist’s California Death Record notes that he was 72 years of age when he died. [CDR] [BG 7] © July 2009 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918. One of the many fascinating stories Jelly Roll Morton narrated on the Library of Congress recordings was about his travels with a would-be tough man from Jackson, the popcorn research, capital of Mississippi, who went by the name of Jack the deterrent essay, Bear. Jelly Roll said that he “first went to Memphis around nineteen eight, possibly the earliest part of the year.” [AFS 1664-B] However, it was probably, on speculative cover teaching assistant, the basis of the information presented below, the early part of 1911. Starting from Jackson, the unlikely pair moved on to the Mississippi towns of Yazoo, then to Clarksdale where they tried peddling a consumption cure made of Coca Cola and salt, [AFS 1665-A] and on capital deterrent to crime essay, to Helena, Arkansas to board The Natchez for their ultimate destination upriver, Memphis, Tennessee. [AFS 1665-B] © March 2008 Peter Hanley. Minor Hall played a distinctive style on the drums. He was a key component of the “Ory rhythm” sound that characterized Kid Ory’s best bands.

© October 2008 Hal Smith. Special thanks to romania essay Sue Fischer for capital essay assistance with research concerning Minor Hall’s birthplace, and to Brian Goggin for assistance with research about the Hall family. Previously, the author wrote about Minor Hall for the July-August 2001 JAZZ RAMBLER, published by America’s Finest City Dixieland Jazz Society, San Diego, California. Andrew Henry Hilaire. 12th September 1918. Andrew Hilaire only played on a few recordings, but they easily support the view that he was one of the greatest drummers in the history of jazz. Unfortunately, his biographical information is just as scarce as the recordings . . . © March 2008 Hal Smith. Dink Johnson was the speech oral communication, youngest brother of Anita Gonzales Ford (Bessie Johnson), the woman Jelly Roll Morton referred to as his wife, although there is to crime, no evidence they were ever married. Dink registered for the draft on 5th June 1917 as “Dink Johnson”, not under his real name. His draft card contains some information in conflict with what has been previously accepted as factual.

© May 2007 Peter Hanley. William Manuel Johnson. 12th September 1918. William Manuel (Bill) Johnson was one of the popcorn research paper, earliest jazz musicians, and his career as a musician began in the late 1880s and extended to the 1950s. Capital Deterrent To Crime? Although the registering officer at the draft board wrote his middle name as “Manual”, Bill clearly signed the write statements, card as “William Manuel Johnson”.

A fine guitar and banjo player, he was better known as a pioneering string bass player, perhaps the best of the golden period of the capital punishment deterrent, 1920s. Historically, Bill Johnson is remembered as the organiser and manager of the Creole Band, the speculative letter teaching, first band to take jazz across the United States and into capital punishment essay, Canada on their many tours in the period from 1914 to the early part of 1918. For a detailed history of the band, our readers should read Prof. Lawrence Gushee’s fine book, “Pioneers of Jazz: The Story of the Creole Band”. [SCB] © June 2007 Peter Hanley. 12th September 1918. Willie Geary (Bunk) Johnson was certainly a travelling man. After he left New Orleans permanently about 1914, he was incessantly on write statements, the move, establishing a base in New Iberia only in 1928 when he commenced to live with Maude Balque. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? Bunk was known to resume builder have played at various times in the Louisiana towns of Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Bogalusa, Crowley, Madisonvillle and essay, Mandeville; he played in Beaumont, Dallas, Electra, Houston, and Port Arthur in Texas; and romania essay, he claimed that he was in bands in Chicago, Kansas City, Montana, San Francisco and capital punishment to crime essay, West Virginia. © February 2007 Peter Hanley. At the time of his death in resume builder, 1945, Richard Jones was described as the ‘forgotten man of punishment deterrent to crime jazz’ but, happily, he is statements, now remembered and admired for his achievements as a composer, pianist/bandleader and record producer.

His compositions include such classics as 29th and Dearborn, Heebie Jeebie(s), Jazzin’ Babies Blues and essay, Trouble In Mind and speculative letter, his small-group recordings, usually under the name Richard M. Jones’ Jazz Wizards , set both the essay, format and the standard for romania essay “south-side” Chicago jazz. Although his piano playing is deterrent to crime, now usually described as “competent”, the people he played with include Louis Armstrong, Shirley Clay, Johnny Dodds, Preston Jackson, Dave Nelson, Albert Nicholas, Jimmie Noone, King Oliver, Roy Palmer, Luis Russell, Bud Scott, Omer Simeon and Johnny St. Cyr. As a record producer he brought King Oliver to the attention of speculative teaching assistant Gennett and Ma Rainey to the attention of Paramount. For Okeh, he organised the first recordings by the Louis Armstrong Hot Five. © February 2007 Anton Crouch. Max Kortlander (1890-1961) was an important figure in the QRS piano roll company. Deterrent? An excellent pianist, he had joined the company in 1914 progressing to become manager of the Recording Department. Teaching Assistant? As a songwriter, he had scored a big success in punishment deterrent to crime, 1918 with Tell Me , which was recorded by a thesis Al Jolson among others. It is capital punishment deterrent to crime, said that the sale of this song to the Remick publishing firm was the basis of Kortlander’s fortune. © November 2006 John Farrell.

Thomas James Ladnier. 12th September 1918. According to his WWI draft card, Thomas James Ladnier lived in Chicago and was employed as a labourer with Armour Co., which was one of the largest meatpacking companies in the U.S.A. For many years, along with a handful of other companies, Armour helped to make Chicago’s Union Stockyards the tay sachs paper, centre of the meat industry in capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, the country. Ladnier’s 1925 passport application and statements, ship passenger lists from trips between Europe and New York in 1926, 1930 and deterrent to crime, 1931 support the birth date of 28th May 1900 that is research paper, shown on the draft card. Capital To Crime? His obituary, published in The Chicago Defender, dated 17th June 1939, spells his name “Ladiner”, while John Chilton states that the original family name was “Ladner”. [WWJ 191] However, Ladnier’s cousin Calvin Ladner (sic) stated that “Ladnier” was indeed the correct spelling of the name. Ladnier was almost certainly born in St. Cover Teaching Assistant? Tammany Parish, Florenville (not “Florenceville”), Louisiana, but had relatives in Biloxi, Mississippi.

He received cornet tuition from Bunk Johnson as a youngster and moved to Chicago around 1917. He was primarily based there until 1925, during which time his employers included Ollie Powers, King Oliver, Fate Marable and capital punishment deterrent to crime, Charlie Creath. Tommy Ladnier is popcorn project, generally identified by many discographers as the cornet player on Jelly Roll Morton’s earliest verified recording session in Chicago in 1923. [JRM] We later went on to play for dancing at some villa, where the orchestra was to appear privately for the Royal family. Here occurred one of the most amusing incidents, but it also was an deterrent to crime essay incident of almost international importance. Resume Builder? Willie Lewis always had the bad habit of ‘butting in’ during another instrumentalist’s solo.

At this dance he did it again during a spot taken by Tommy Ladnier. Tommy, usually the mildest of capital punishment to crime men, got to his feet and write statements, slowly walked across stage and, thrusting his trumpet in capital to crime, Willie’s face, said: ‘Here you want to speech oral communication play my solo, go take my horn and get on with it.’ Sam Wooding got in a towering rage: ‘Alright now damn you both, cut it out! Can’t you see the Royal family are out there watching! ‘To hell with the King and the whole . . . Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? lot of ‘em’ replied Tommy. Tay Sachs Research? ‘If he can play my solo better than I can, let ‘em. And as for to crime essay that monkey over there (pointing to Willie Lewis), you tell him stay out of my solos or else . . .’ [HF 23-25] Wooding preferred Doc Cheatham as a trumpeter, with whom he later replaced Ladnier, but he regarded Tommy as a fine storyteller and popcorn science project, good for the morale of the band.

© September 2008 Brian Goggin. George William Mitchell. 12th September 1918. George William Mitchell was working as a labourer in Jeffersonville, Indiana, when he registered for the draft in his home city of to crime Louisville, Kentucky, on 12th September 1918. The Ohio River naturally demarcates the entire border between the states of Indiana, to the north, and Kentucky, to the south. Popcorn Science Project Research Paper? The cities of Jeffersonville and Louisville are built on punishment deterrent essay, opposite banks of the river at the Falls Of The Ohio. Jeffersonville is currently home to communication the United States Census Bureau’s National Processing Center, while Louisville has produced several people of note, and was well known for its jug band tradition. Mitchell’s draft card gives a birth date of capital punishment to crime 8th March 1898, which is supported by the ages given for him in speech oral, the Kentucky 1910 Miracode Index, along with the 1910 and 1920 U.S. Censuses. However, his death certificate, his Social Security Death Index entry and capital punishment deterrent, jazz reference books give a birth date of 8th March 1899. The earlier date is almost certainly correct though, considering that the speech oral, sources that support it predate those that do not by several decades.

It seems that he also went by his middle name, “William”, as that is the name he supplied to capital essay the 1920 census taker, rather than “George”. Perhaps this is why he signed his draft card with “George” abbreviated to communication “Geo” and “William” written in capital deterrent to crime essay, full. Jelly would write out the parts for tay sachs research all the guys to play. Punishment Essay? Some of those boys, like Simeon and Ory, could just sit down and go through a thing and play without any music, but I’d have to letter have something as a guide. I was a little thick-headed I guess. Capital Deterrent Essay? Some of those boys like Louis Armstrong or Joe Oliver, they had wonderful ideas and could play the communication, life out of them. So Jelly would always fix up something for capital punishment to crime me. He would show me and give me ideas about speech oral communication something to play. Capital Deterrent Essay? Sometimes he would play the write a thesis statements, whole piece over on the piano, or he’d just play or hum the part he wanted you to play. But he always wanted you to play your own ideas, yeah. Punishment To Crime? Then he’d tell us “Just throw the music away and resume builder, play.” . . . He was a fellow who liked to capital punishment to crime essay have a lot of fun you know.

He liked to do a lot of kidding. But Jelly was alright and I always got along with him. [OMJ 363-364] Mitchell rejoined Doc Cooke in 1927, replacing Freddie Keppard and joining his Red Hot Peppers colleagues Johnny St. Cyr and Andrew Hilaire. Write A Thesis? He worked with Earl Hines’s orchestra for most of the capital, period from 1929 through to 1931, and romania essay, recorded with them. Deterrent Essay? He was also present on the “Dixie Rhythm Kings” records, made by a contingent from Hines’s orchestra under the leadership of another Red Hot Peppers colleague Omer Simeon. He is also thought by some discographers to be the cornet player on the 25th February 1929 “King Oliver’s Orchestra” session, which has generated so much debate and discussion over the years. “Little Mitch” left full-time music in the early 1930s to romania essay become a bank messenger, but continued to capital punishment deterrent play occasional engagements during that decade.

He worked as a messenger for a brokerage firm during most of the oral, 1950s and punishment to crime, 60s alongside another wonderful old trumpeter Claude Alexander, who’d been with Tiny Parham. Claude remembered once when they went after work to the London House to hear Jonah Jones, who was then one of the hottest acts in the music business. Jonah was tickled to tay sachs research see Mitch and made sure he took a big bow when he introduced him, as Mitchell had taught him how to play back when he was a boy in Louisville. Mitch was needless to say quite moved by the ovation. Although George Mitchell didn’t hail from capital punishment deterrent to crime essay New Orleans, he worked with many, probably even most of the then well-known New Orleans musicians in speculative letter teaching assistant, Chicago, and adopted their style with ease. His main influence there was King Oliver who he had heard regularly since his arrival in the Windy City. Mitchell was a very capable cornet player, arguably second only to Armstrong and Oliver in that particular style in Chicago during the mid 1920s.

With a precise, clean lead, he could play hot , lyrically or poignantly, where appropriate. He had a very individual sound, and displayed great dexterity and effectiveness with his use of mutes. His lead work and solos on all of the Morton sides was excellent. Black Bottom Stomp stands out, while his solos on The Chant and Steamboat Stomp swing very nicely, and he is particularly fluid and melodic on Dead Man Blues . © May 2009 Brian Goggin. Benson Foraker Moore. Joseph Benson Foraker Moore was born in Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky on 26th January 1889. His parents were John Frances McGinnis Moore and Sarah Angeline “Dine” Smith. He married Clara Elizabeth Kolhoven (born 28th November 1888) on 19th March 1912.

Their only child, Charles Burse Moore, was born on 17th September 1913. IS TAKEN BY DEATH. Benson “Froggy” Moore Dies. at Home of His Sister. Funeral services for Benson “Froggy” Moore, widely known night club and cafe entertainer in northern Kentucky, will be held at capital punishment to crime, 2 p.m. Saturday at the Allison and communication, Rose Funeral Home, Covington. Burial will be in punishment, Highland Cemetery. © October 2007 Mike Meddings.

12th September 1918. King Oliver arrived in Chicago from New Orleans early in 1918, just a few months after the Department of the oral communication, Navy closed down the Storyville sporting district. Punishment To Crime? He registered for the World War I draft on 12th September 1918 in Chicago as Joseph Nathram Oliver. In actual fact, his middle name was Nathan, after his father, Nathan Oliver. At the time of registration, Joe was working at a thesis statements, Bill Bottoms’ Dreamland Caf, located at 35th and State Street, in the band of Lawrence Duh who had taken over the group after the death of Sugar Johnny (Thomas Smith). © March 2007 Peter Hanley. 12th September 1918. If the main bridge connecting ragtime to jazz is named after Jelly Roll Morton and essay, a smaller crossing is called the O.D.J.B., then perhaps there is a footbridge, which bears the name of clarinetist Tony Parenti. Romania Essay? Born in New Orleans on 6th August 1900, of Sicilian immigrants, he was a natural musician, with legitimate training. At 15 he was considered too young by to crime essay his parents to join a Dixieland band Johnny Stein was planning to take to paper New York, but by the age of 17 he was playing with cornetist Johnny DeDroit’s group. The pianist with DeDroit’s band was Tom Zimmerman, reported to be the greatest ragtime piano player of the “tango belt”.

© July 2007 Derek Coller. According to capital deterrent to crime his World War I draft card, Lee Perry was born 15th August 1896 in Louisville, Kentucky. The card gives his occupation as a musician in the Park Theatre in Indianapolis, where he registered for research the draft on 5th June 1917. He was recorded in Louisville in the 1900 U.S. Census, strangely, as Myrtle L. Perry, a daughter of the head of the punishment essay, house, born in August 1895. The 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census entries record Perry in Indianapolis as a musician in addresses that are two blocks away from assistant each other. His name is given as “Mertie L. Perry” in 1910 and “Lee Perry” in capital punishment to crime, 1920 and both of these entries are consistent with a birth date in August 1895. The 1930 U.S.

Census saw him recorded as Mert Perry in New York and write statements, his occupation is capital deterrent essay, again given as a musician, but his age is given as 32. Perry’s Social Security Death Index entry gives his name as Merton Perry, and romania essay, the same birth date as entered on capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, the draft card, 15th August 1896. Letter Assistant? Combining all of this information, it would seem that his full name was Merton Lee Perry and he was born on 15th August in either 1895 or 1896. © April 2008 Brian Goggin. Jelly Roll Morton referred to an African-American pianist he met in capital punishment to crime, St. Louis around 1914 as “George Randalls” on the Library of Congress recordings. Romania Essay? [AFS 1653-B] But later on, he called him “George Reynolds” — his correct name. [AFS 2487-B] George Reynolds was born in St.

Louis, Missouri on capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, 24th February 1888, according to his World War I Draft Card. He was drafted into the Army on tay sachs paper, 5th August 1918 and was discharged with the rank of corporal on 18th December 1918. © November 2006 Peter Hanley. Leland Stanford Roberts. 7th September 1918. What Lee S. Roberts (1884-1949) did before joining the Melville Clark Piano Co. is capital punishment deterrent to crime essay, unknown, but it seems clear that he early became regarded as the central figure in romania essay, the company’s QRS roll division. After the Pletcher interests purchased QRS in 1918, Roberts became the capital punishment to crime, company’s vice president and was billed in contemporary sales literature as “the world’s leading expert in player rolls.” © January 2007 Bob Berkman. James Andrew Rushing. 12th September 1918.

James Andrew Rushing registered for the World War I draft in his home city of resume builder Oklahoma. His draft card gives a date of birth of 26th of punishment essay August 1900, but this is certainly not true, as he was recorded as James A. Rushing in the U.S. Census on speculative cover letter teaching assistant, 8th June 1900 in a rather curious entry. His birth details in capital to crime, the entry disagree, stating explicitly that he was born June 1899, but that he was 10 months old, which would mean he was born August 1899. He is popcorn research paper, also said to be the granddaughter of the head of the house! The 1910 U.S.

Census agrees with the 1900 entry, giving his age as 10, while the capital deterrent to crime essay, 1920 U.S. Census gives his age as 19, in line with the resume builder, draft card. However, his Social Security Death Record states that he was born 15th June 1899. Combining all of this information, Rushing was almost certainly born on either 15th June or 26th August 1899. My biggest thrill was when I met Jelly Roll Morton. 1923. Right in punishment deterrent essay, California, Los Angeles.

In California, in Los Angeles. Were you working out here then? No. I came out here . . . Speech? I came out here, incidentally to marry! [laughs] But something happened. I don’t know. I was too young a man. So, er, got out here in California and to crime essay, I went to work and I decided to go to a nightclub in Los Angeles, it was. I went to this nightclub and, er, Jelly Roll was playing there and tay sachs research paper, I thought he was the greatest thing I ever heard and I just went and made myself acquainted with him. And er, we got to capital punishment essay be real chummy and er, one night I was hired to pl . . . I was hired to research paper play piano! He played drums! So when I was an intermission pianist I asked the fellow for the job.

I could only play in essay, three keys. We had entertainers those days that, er, when they hit the romania essay, floor — I mean with that when they come out to go to punishment to crime tables and speech oral, sing. Er, I guess the people are robbed of that kind of stuff today. Rushing also worked with bandleader and reedman Paul Howard during his time in California. Capital? It was as a singer however, rather than as a pianist, that Rushing gained fame. He moved back to the midwest in the mid-1920s and popcorn science project research paper, his next break came when he joined bassist “Walter Page’s Blue Devils”. Capital Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay? His distinctive voice and already mature vocal style are audible on one half of the only coupling Page’s legendary band made, Blue Devil Blues in 1929.

He left Page to join “Bennie Moten’s Kansas City Orchestra” in 1929 and remained with Moten until that leader’s untimely death during a tonsillectomy in 1935. Count Basie took over the nucleus of Moten’s band and in addition to appearances with other bandleaders; Rushing was Basie’s featured singer until 1948. Due to his short size and huge girth, he was known affectionately as “Mr. Communication? Five by Five”. Deterrent To Crime? He made countless recordings with Basie and appeared in some “Soundies” as well, becoming one of the most famous and popular of jazz singers and blues shouters during his long career. © November 2007 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918.

Arthur Scott registered for the WWI draft in New York City, unlike practically all of speech oral his contemporaries from capital punishment deterrent essay New Orleans, who registered either in their home city or Chicago. Write A Thesis? The draft card gives his birth date as 11th January 1885. However, the 1900 U.S. Census gives a birth date of January 1886. The 1910 U.S. Census is in agreement with the draft card, giving his age as 25, while he deducted ten years from capital punishment deterrent to crime this when he gave his age as 24 to the census taker on 8th January 1920. Scott’s Social Security Death Index gives his birth date as 11th January 1890, and that is the communication, date supplied by capital deterrent most jazz reference books. The date on the card is most likely correct though, since Scott was said to have been working professionally from the turn of the century, and he said that he joined John Robichaux’s band in 1904. [NOS 90] In addition, Scott taught Louis Keppard (1888-1986) who started on the guitar aged 14; and he gave tips to Johnny St. Cyr (1890 or 1891-1966). This would strongly suggest that he was already an established musician, and at least a little older than both of them when they started learning to play. [NOS 65, 73, 86] “And I become to speculative be a very efficient guitarist, until I met, er, Bud Scott, one of the famous guitarists in capital punishment deterrent to crime, this country today.

I was known to be the best. And when I found out that, er, he was dividing with me my popularity, I decided immediately to quit playing guitar and try the piano, which I did secretly — that is, with the communication, exception of my family. They’re the only ones that knew.” [AFS 1640-B] Bud Scott left New Orleans in 1913 as featured violinist with “Billy King’s Travelling Show”. He moved to New York in 1915, and worked there and capital essay, elsewhere in the northeast, primarily on romania essay, violin and banjo. Scott attended the School of Art in 1917, where symphony conductor Walter Damrosch (1862-1950) taught him music theory and deterrent, he also graduated from the popcorn paper, Peabody Institute of Music. He did many engagements as a vocalist and a violinist at the Clef Club, which is listed as his employer on his draft card, and during this time he even appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1919. [TJR 13-14] and punishment deterrent to crime essay, [WWJ 294] Scott moved to Chicago in 1923, where he worked and recorded with King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.

He spent two periods in California, including stints with Kid Ory, before rejoining Oliver full time from 1925 until late 1926. During this time, he recorded on banjo with Oliver’s Dixie Syncopators. Like Johnny St. Cyr, to whom he provided guidance, photographic evidence confirms that Scott played both the popcorn, tenor banjo and the six-string guitar banjo. He was also responsible for punishment essay delivering the “Oh, Play That Thing!” exclamation on speculative cover assistant, the second version of “Dippermouth Blues” in 1923 and the 1926 remake of the punishment deterrent essay, tune, “Sugar Foot Stomp”. © November 2008 Brian Goggin.

William Henry Smith. William Henry Smith, better known as Willie (The Lion) Smith, was always prone to exaggeration when he spoke or wrote about himself. There was often an oral communication element of half-truth in capital punishment deterrent to crime, what he said, and his version of events was invariably self-serving. He had half a dozen different stories about how he got his nickname, but most jazz writers merely glossed over these inconsistencies, commenting that it was just his way. Resume Builder? In many respects, The Lion was like Bunk Johnson, volunteering information, but not the whole story.

He was something of a nightmare for researchers, but not any longer. © February 2007 Peter Hanley. John Alexander St. Cyr. John Alexander St. Cyr was born in New Orleans on 17th April 1891, as per his draft card.

This birth date is consistent with the deterrent to crime essay, ages recorded for him in the 1910 and tay sachs, 1920 U.S. Census entries. However, his Social Security Death Index entry places his birth a year earlier, on 17th April 1890 and this is the date generally given in jazz literature. There also exists a New Orleans birth record, which gives a different date again of 1st February 1891. (New Orleans, Louisiana Birth Records index, 1790-1899, Volume 115, page 680) © November 2008 Brian Goggin. Percussionist Jasper Taylor was an innovative and gifted performer. His recordings are a testament to his distinguished career in jazz.

He was born 1st January 1894 in Texarkana, Arkansas — a dual municipality that encompasses Miller County, Arkansas and Bowie County, Texas. (Scott Joplin, ragtime’s greatest composer, was born 26 years earlier on the Texas side of the line). © September 2008 Hal Smith. James Edward Yancey. 12th September 1918. The broad outline of to crime James Edward “Jimmy” Yancey’s early life probably doesn’t differ much from what Bill Russell wrote in his notes for tay sachs Yancey’s 1940 RCA Victor album. He was born sometime near the turn of the 20th century in Chicago, and punishment essay, as a very young child began performing as a singer and dancer, possibly with his father, who was a singer and guitarist. Romania Essay? Before reaching his teens he was on the road with various troupes from capital to crime essay coast to coast, then all over Europe just before World War I, including a command performance for speech communication King George V in capital essay, London.

While still a teenager, he left the road and returned to Chicago. He had never played piano onstage, but at some point had begun teaching himself to romania essay play blues. Working at various non-music jobs after his return to Chicago, he also began appearing at rent parties and various clubs. [WWJ 368] At some point, probably about 1925, he took a job at Comiskey Park, home of the Chicago White Sox baseball team.

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How to Guide to Racing Resume / Sponsorship Proposal. So you want to race. Welcome to the club. Whether you are trying to work this out with family support, or on your own, unless you are fabulously wealthy, you have already realized that sponsorship is a must for nearly every racer on punishment deterrent essay the track. In your pre-racing days you had to oral, pay for parts to capital deterrent essay, make your ride go as fast as your buddy's, or to make it easier on your bod while having fun. Resume Builder! As a racer, whether you are a first year amateur or a factory pro, you will have to obtain the performance modifications and replace product when you mess it up, on or off the track. In fact I know of quite a few times that perfectly good brand new parts have been destroyed in the process of installing them (an expensive education and a lesson in why we should read the directions that come with our new toys).

The point being that your little obsession/habit of racing/riding is going to be a costly adventure, but also the time of your life. Anyone that has been to a race track has noticed the stickers on the bikes and capital punishment to crime haulers. These are sometimes put there because they came free in the shipment of nerfs, handlebars or in a sticker pack the speculative cover letter teaching assistant, rider got at the local Honda shop. Capital Deterrent Essay! If you are a sponsored rider, then the branding/stickers on your quad and write a thesis statements hauler establish you as a part of the company that you represent. Capital To Crime! Your actions while wearing the resume builder, stickers of your sponsor reflect on to crime the sponsor as well as yourself. Romania Essay! Sponsors consider that when choosing riders. Next question, How do I get a bunch of those stickers without paying for them or the capital punishment deterrent to crime, parts they come with? Answer: You do your darndest to earn sponsorship. Simple. Tay Sachs Research Paper! Right?

Not really. When I first got into this arena I was in capital essay the same shoes you are in right now (unless you have a marketing degree- in which case disregard the rest of this article). Resume Builder! My background had nothing to capital punishment deterrent essay, do with how to write a resume for speculative assistant, a racer. Sure I could find examples from books at the library or bookstore on resumes, but none for a professional or semi-professional athlete, much less a racer. So I had to deterrent to crime, determine what to do to mix the style of resume that I would submit if was looking for a position with a secretarial pool or a teaching position and that of a professional athlete forming a `Racer's Resume'. If you are still reading this right now, you are probably one of the sponsor hungry population who are running out of time to get noticed and be considered for this season's budget from most companies. How it works: Nearly every company has a `Sponsorship Budget' in their program. Each company has a person or team of persons responsible for distributing the monies/products or a combination of both to deserving athletes. This person or team of popcorn science research, persons is called `Rider Support'.

Nearly every company that offers sponsorship has levels of sponsorship. Common levels are A, B C level support, Pro and Factory. Support can range from punishment essay, a discount on certain products to research, free products, contingency (this would be money paid for your wins at certain events) all the way to the Holy Grail of the racer: Factory Support. Now let's get down to how to keep your resume on the top of the pile and essay out of the trash can. Aside from the basics like your name, street address, city, state, zip code, home and cell phone numbers, you should also include your email. Cover! A common mistake, believe it or not, is to leave out contact information.

Jack Bednar, from Lonestar Racing, has had to dig through the trash pile before to find the right envelope that a resume came in to find out capital deterrent to crime, how to get in touch with the tay sachs, rider. Also necessary in your resume is a short bio of you and your riding history. Don't go into great detail of every second, third or less finishes you have had, and don't include reasons why you didn't podium at specific races. Until you are sponsored, no one really cares why you didn't finish a race except your parents. Photos are a must. You need to include a head-shot of yourself, one of your bike and one action shot of you at the very least. References must be listed on your resume. Make sure to include contact information on your references as well. Submit your resume to the right people, during the right time frame. What this means is make sure that you address your resume to the correct department within your target sponsor.

Check on the target sponsor's website or call their operator to make sure you have the right address, right name and right time frame to punishment to crime, submit your resume. OK, these are the rules. Sounds pretty easy so far. If this was all there is to it, you would not have read this far. This section is more the strategy than cheat codes. There aren't really `Cheat Codes' to oral, a resume, but there are bonus points you can score. Let's review what we have done so far. We have a basic 4 page resume. You have included all the capital deterrent to crime essay, `regular' stuff and are following all the rules. Speculative Letter! Now, let's get creative and capital to crime find the resume builder, way to keep your resume on capital to crime the `keep' pile of your target sponsor's desk.

First of all do not even consider handwriting your resume. Make sure you use a good word-processor and spell check it. Kevin Mummuah, from Lost Creek Cycle, says, Don't expect someone to do more for you, than the resume builder, effort you put into your resume. I can tell how much work they put into deterrent to crime it when I open them. The ones that haven't spent the time are obvious. Your focus should be to resume builder, maximize what you can offer your potential sponsor in the form of endorsing their product and punishment deterrent to crime how to communicate that you can do this to the sponsor. Tay Sachs Research! If you are sending resumes out to companies that you really like, then it shouldn't be too hard to express your enthusiasm for the company and their product or to come up with ideas on how you would carry the message to potential customers on how awesome their products are. Is your brain full yet? Maybe this is where you should reconsider that job at the sawmill instead of racing.

I know I have suggested something like this a couple of times to my racer. Beginning with your contact information review what you have there. Format your information with your name in capital punishment deterrent to crime essay bold print. This is important. If you have included your email, and I am hoping you ARE including an email, you need to keep it professional. You are asking companies to invest a serious amount of resume builder, confidence in you as well as money in you to support their products and represent their company. If you have an to crime essay, email of toker420@hotmail.com or radicalrider69@yahoo.com (I don't know if these are real emails or not), it definitely gives a certain impression. Most companies have so much interest in their sponsorship programs that they can throw away any potential riders that even hint of unprofessionalism. Popcorn Project! Go ahead and keep your identity nickname for deterrent to crime essay, chat and private messages, but obtain a professional email with your name in speech oral it like dana@danacreechracing.com or john_smith@hotmail.com either of capital deterrent to crime, these would be acceptable and have no unprofessional image.

A note on professionalism: if you include your cell phone number or private home number make sure that your recording is also mainstream. No radical music interludes, raps, or weird recordings. Keep it short and oral sweet. Capital To Crime Essay! People in rider support don't have all day to listen to your favorite tunes or you goofing off on your answering machines. Make the choice to go with something grown-up, since you are asking for a grown-up gift. Most of the Rider Support people take about 30 seconds on resume builder each resume before deciding what pile to file it in. You need to get their attention to punishment deterrent to crime essay, make them even slightly interested in you in romania essay the first 10 seconds so they will put you in capital the `keep' pile rather than the `round' file next to the desk (trash can). Start your resume with an communication, eye catcher. What catches your eye?

An action photo would be a good idea. OK, here comes the kicker: you actually need a decent action photo to put there. If you don't have some that have been professionally done, get some. Capital Deterrent To Crime! Next make sure that the reader can tell it's you. Below are two examples. They are both great `action' photos but the second one is defiantly more eye-catching. Also use good sizes but not to overwhelming and use good quality prints.

After you have your resume completed don't mess it all up by printing on your home computer with a low color cartridge. You can have them printed in color on a laser printer for under a buck a page at the local Kinkos. Make sure that you are the focus and that action is clear. Oral! As Kevin Mummuah said, Don't send me substandard photos with ant people in them. Next you need to describe what your abilities and qualifications are. Get rid of all the descriptions of how cool you are and what people think about you. Capital Deterrent To Crime Essay! Do include action words describing what you can do. Be willing to back it up. And keep it short. Make sure to include a short history of your wins.

Don't include every race you did or why you didn't podium or finish a particular race. If you have a photo of your pit area at a race this would be a good place to communication, include it. I am thinking of a photo of your pit area, neat, no garbage, clean well maintained quad, your tools organized and maybe you and your mechanic (or Dad, or your dog) standing next to your quad in full clean gear. Remember you are asking a company to be identified with your professionalism. Do you really think they will be interested in being associated with someone who has no respect for their bike or surroundings? Include where you plan to race for the upcoming season. Just list the series that you plan to do in full. If you are going to do something like the full GNC National schedule then include it, otherwise say you will be attending selected National events.

Be realistic on capital deterrent essay where you are going to race and choose one series to focus on. Spell check. Letter Teaching! Read it aloud to someone (that usually catches something that is worded weird). Check your formatting. Make sure you don't have lines that look. this in your resume. Do your homework.

Find out exactly who to send your resume to by calling the company or looking up on their website for information on where and who to send your resume to AND make sure that you are submitting your resume in the right time frame. For instance Shift's Rider Support head, Rob Salcedo, says that they ONLY accept resumes during October 1-31 period. Any resumes that show up even one day early or one day late go straight into the garbage can. Shift gets over 300 resumes from amateur riders in punishment essay the ATV discipline alone. Clancy Schmitt, from Hiper-Technology, says they get over 500 per tay sachs research paper, year. The competition is stiff for those sponsorships. So make sure yours comes to the attention of the right person during the right time period. Spell out how you plan on earning your sponsorship. Simply `promoting my sponsors to the best of punishment to crime essay, my ability and speech communication listing my sponsors on my sign-ups' is capital to crime, not enough.

This is EXPECTED not a perk from resume builder, you. Running the punishment essay, sponsor's stickers and saying `Thank-You' when interviewed are also expected. Oral! Whew, now that we have that out of the way, think on what YOU can do that only you can do. Punishment Deterrent To Crime! Be original. Be clear on what your plans are. Spell out exactly what you would like your sponsor to romania essay, do for you. Deterrent! Do not expect free stuff. Write Statements! More realistically you can expect to to crime essay, receive some kind of a discount on product if you are selected for sponsorship. Many companies offer their main products at resume builder a special rate for sponsored riders.

If for capital punishment to crime, instance you are approaching LoneStar Racing, you can let them know what products you are planning on purchasing and when you would need to make a decision on purchasing. Fasst Company said they want to see at tay sachs least six things that you can do for them. Chris and Cole say, Whatever you want from this company, you need to be prepared to capital deterrent, do double in romania essay return. References are important. Just like a `regular' resume, be prepared to supply the names, addresses, and phone numbers of people that have knowledge of your riding and personality. Your school counselor could write a quick letter of support (on school letterhead) as well as be a reference, a family member, the owner of the local bike shop and other sponsors are great references. Other riders are not good references.

If you can get someone who is nationally recognized to be a reference this is punishment deterrent essay, best. The ATV industry is science research paper, quite small and many people know each other well enough to just give a quick call. If you are under 18 years old, it is absolutely imperative that you include the fact that you have family support. Capital Punishment Deterrent Essay! Even young adults will benefit from showing a strong family support system. Be prepared to show who you are, not just what you do. This is hard to accomplish in a 4 page resume but can be done.

Presentation. Make sure that you have a cover page, your resume, history/bio page, and a photo page. This is research, all standard stuff that most of the deterrent essay, Rider Support personnel that I spoke with wanted to see. They also have some pet peeves of what is not cool to them. Rob Salcedo absolutely hates those slippery covers that you get for school reports. What happens is you get a stack of them together and they all start sliding out, ending up on the floor, in the coffee etc. Popcorn Project! So binders are a big no-no. Punishment Deterrent To Crime Essay! A simple staple or cover that is not slippery is good. Have I mentioned spell checking yet? Take pride in yourself and your request. Let your potential sponsor see who you are.

Biggest mistakes include: non typed or non word processed resume; slippery folders; the quote, `will promote your company to the best of my ability'; large files emailed to tay sachs, company; too short of a resume; too long of a resume; and misspelled words. Every company that I spoke with accepted resumes in mail form. A few accepted emails, and fewer still accepted FAXed resumes. Capital Punishment To Crime! Nearly every company accepted resumes in October and November. A few accepted them in September and a few accepted them in December. Resume Builder! After January 1 no one that I spoke with would look at a resume. Each company that I spoke with had different levels of support. Scot Denton, from Denton Racing, said they have four levels of support. Punishment! Kevin Mummuah from romania essay, Lost Creek Racing works with a lot of riders at capital punishment deterrent to crime different levels of resume builder, support.

Lost Creek has their pros but also a large number of amateurs and capital punishment to crime essay pros who are not even on the roster for write, Lost Creek, who sometimes end up getting on punishment deterrent track support from Kevin. Hiper Technology has three levels of support. Basically most of the romania essay, companies that I spoke with have different levels of punishment to crime, increasing support the longer you have been with the company or as your racing wins or popularity as an ATV personality increases. If you refer a customer to your sponsor, ask the customer to tell your sponsor where they found out about the romania essay, product. Capital Punishment Deterrent! This looks very good for you and your sponsor will remember this when it comes time to re-evaluate their budget the next year. Jack Bednar summed it up pretty well, Obviously we can't see them all ride, so we have to speech oral communication, go on how they present themselves to us through a resume. There are a lot of people using the Sponsorhouse system for generating a resume. Punishment To Crime! This is a great resource, and OK to use, for research paper, a starting point. Deterrent To Crime! The format of the Sponsorhouse system takes care of all the basics but the individuality is lacking and many times it seems that the potential sponsor or overwhelmed Rider Support personnel are directed to a web-page to go over.

Keeping in mind that the Rider Support people see so many resumes each year, do you really think they are going to be interested in sitting in front of a computer surfing your webpage? Sponsorhouse is a great addition to a traditional resume that is sent out tay sachs paper, as a hard-copy to your target companies and can really help as the year goes on capital punishment deterrent essay by keeping your hard-won sponsors up to date on what is write a thesis, happening with you. I would not rely on Sponsorhouse to do it all for you though. If you end up getting sponsorship, and I am sure you will if you follow the tips in this article, make sure that you keep contact with your sponsors. Even if it is capital punishment deterrent essay, a small sponsorship the first year, you need to start somewhere. Paper! Cultivate your relationships and in a few years you should have a much better sponsorship, assuming you live up to capital punishment deterrent, what you say you will do for your sponsor. Speech Oral Communication! Johnny Jump, from KN Engineering, says he likes to punishment deterrent essay, see photos of the bike with his company's stickers on it.

It would be a fatal mistake to apply for a second year including a photo without your sponsor's sticker visible. Keep in mind all the riders you have seen in person, on popcorn research paper the track, movies, magazines and on the internet. They are all potentially competing with you for the sponsor budget. You have to capital punishment, sell yourself. I know this is kind of weird but basically the `you-ness' of you is all that really separates you from write a thesis statements, any other rider who applies for punishment deterrent, sponsorship.

I know it feels odd but you need to popcorn project, bite the bullet and go for it. As an added bonus you can view Dana Creech's 2003 Resume online through his website. Have fun, ride safe and deterrent to crime don't forget to call your Mom.