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Thesis acknowledgements project

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A Short Essay on the Life of a Pianist. After a recent post, I received a request in the form of a comment from a reader, suggesting I might expand on my last paragraph. Acknowledgements Project! The last paragraph was as follows: I wonder how many people embark on serious piano studies because they want to lizzie, be performers or because they are passionate about music, about the piano and about playing the piano? Public performance is quite a different thing, it#8217;s not for the thin-skinned or the faint-hearted. The act of performance is an art in thesis, itself, distinct from one#8217;s abilities as a musician or as a pianist. It is like any sort of performance art, be it acting, dancing, or walking the lizzie tightrope. Thesis Project! Actually, walking the tightrope is an thesis how long, analogy I often use for performing solo piano works from memory in public. The only thesis acknowledgements project safety nets are the ones we build in afsa school essay, during our practising, and I reckon I spend a huge amount of time and energy in my own practice securing the memory. This is thesis basically the equivalent of spending a fortune on insurance policies you hope you never need to use.

In his later years, the great pianist Sviatoslav Richter gave up playing from memory and brought his scores, along with a trusted page turner on to the hacking essays platform with him. Thesis Acknowledgements! He even eschewed the limelight, preferring a muted lamp by the side of the piano. In interviews, he said the time spent memorising or maintaining the memory was no longer worth it, and that he could learn a multitude of new pieces in lizzie borden, the time it would have taken him to attend to his memory. There are those, it seems, who were born to play the piano in public, and I don#8217;t need to acknowledgements project, go into a list of the greats (past and present) who fulfilled their destinies in this regard. The people who are on the top rung of this particular ladder would need to find playing the instrument, learning and memorising new repertoire and maintaining old repertoire relatively effortless (but not necessarily without a considerable investment of time, like any job).

They would also need to be adrenaline junkies to some extent, and to lizzie, be able to handle travel and spending chunks of time alone. Are the acknowledgements great solo pianists born, and not made? Whether one is a performer or not comes down to talent (most obviously), but also temperament and personality. The secret of performance is to be able to get out of one#8217;s own way, and to free up the mind so it is not beset by thesis how long, doubts and insecurities (and therefore tensions) during the process of performing. The performer becomes one with the music, one with the instrument. We all know that a memory slip can cause panic. Acknowledgements Project! Errors lead to terrors and then to possible paralysis. There have been those who, after the trauma of a memory slip, never played without the score again for the rest of their careers. For others, a memory slip or momentary lapse in concentration can lead to such acute insecurity that another slip ensues, until it is virtually impossible to carry on. It#8217;s all in faulkner, the mind! Surely the single biggest fear around public performance is acknowledgements project that we will forget.

It is perfectly possible to health care paper, be an amazing pianist without being an amazing musician, and to be a great musician and yet have quite average skills at an instrument. I recall the apocryphal story of the thesis acknowledgements debut of Adele Marcus, one of the most significant and faulkner research paper ideas, brilliant teachers of piano of the second half of the last century. She was responsible for producing an impressive list of pianists, and yet had no real performing career of her own. It is thesis acknowledgements said that at her debut with the Schumann concerto, so nervous was she that she vomited on afsa 2013, the keyboard and thesis project, left the stage, never to return. This did not mean she was not a PHENOMENAL pianist, able to play with ease the most fiendish pieces in the piano repertoire and to toss off scales in double notes at the drop of a hat. It meant that her vocation was as a teacher of the piano, not a performer. Thesis! Think of thesis project, one of the faulkner research other great teachers of the era, Maria Curcio not known as a performing pianist, at all.

A great virtuoso might not make a constructive or insightful teacher because they might never have had to struggle with the instrument. Everything came naturally to them, and they have little idea how to build a pianist. A great teacher may also be a great performer, but very often they are two different animals. When I look at thesis acknowledgements the students who have gone through my hands over the years, I have had the gamut. Do I look at the small handful who are now making careers as concert pianists as being better than, or more successful than others who have thriving piano teaching studios or those who decided to thesis, pursue more general musical careers, or those who played for a time and then stopped? No, not at all! The elderly person who wants to thesis acknowledgements, keep up their piano playing because it brings them joy and care research paper outline, keeps their mind active, the lawyer who can#8217;t live without Beethoven sonatas even though he has very limited time to practise these are just as valid (no more or less so) in acknowledgements, the grand (no pun intended) scheme of things than the talented child who absorbs music like a sponge or the tertiary level students about to high school essay, play their practical exams. Heaven forbid that everyone who comes to me for lessons has aspirations for a career as a concert pianist. Imagine a world overtaken by acknowledgements project, concert pianists! What a nightmare thought!

There are very many reasons why people start having piano lessons in their childhood. Those who are destined to hacking essays, be pianists will usually (although not always) take to thesis acknowledgements project, it like a duck to water and faulkner research paper, race ahead. Thesis! For those others, many find solace in the act of playing, a channel for self expression, an appreciation of the music, and school essay, the deep satisfaction of mastering an instrument. For myself, it was a burning passion to play the piano that, for various reasons, had to wait a bit. I think I was just as smitten with music itself as I was with the piano, and perhaps my yearning to play had its roots in acknowledgements project, the need (yes, need) to express music through my fingers. Embarking on tertiary level piano studies at the RCM was in research paper ideas, many ways an thesis project, irrational decision, based on an overriding passion for the subject (not necessarily for performance, though this came later as a necessary evil). Thesis How Long! I think there is a lot of angst among piano students as they draw to the end of undergraduate studies.

Most of them decided to follow this path because of their passion, yet what sort of job will there be at the end of it? Should I be a performer or a teacher, or a bit of both? How will I support a family, or even pay the acknowledgements rent? This crisis of identity is common, and there are big decisions to be made. As for mit libraries thesis, the “performer” dilemma, it doesn’t matter how much you may enjoy doing it and feel like this is the life for you, if you haven’t excelled in exams and acknowledgements project, college competitions by hacking essays, your final year, you need to see this as some sort of barometer for how you will stack up against the fierce competition in the professional world. Remember nobody thinking of booking Vladimir Horowitz ever asked his agent if he had a doctorate… Unless you love the idea of thesis acknowledgements project, teaching piano, then the realities of this path may not always be glamorous. For me, it was a vocation from the beginning and lizzie borden, it still gives me enormous satisfaction. Yet we don’t need to be so cut-and-dried about things a portfolio career is absolutely the way of the future for conservatory graduates, and modern institutions are preparing their students for thesis acknowledgements, this (along with business management and other tools I wish I had learned back then). Some playing, some ensemble work, some teaching, some writing, even something else non-musical.

Why not? A freelance career based on mixed activities like this would be the envy of many trapped in a more regular job. And in these uncertain times, if one area dried up, you would still have the others. The point I am slowly coming to is that everyone can find their niche in the wider world of the piano. We embark on mit libraries thesis, a career in thesis acknowledgements project, this area because we love it, and as such we are extremely fortunate already. Mit Libraries! Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Excellent post #8212; thank you. It applies to all instruments, not just piano. One thing I find sad or frustrating is that most of the teachers at conservatories are people who have excelled as performers in some way but are not necessarily skilled as teachers. The hiring process seems geared toward obtaining star performers and project, not great teachers (the latter of course being harder to identify).

It#8217;s been a while since I#8217;ve been involved in that world, but that was my experience with it. Thanks for your comment, Harriet. Perhaps the great teachers are able to choose to be independent? Just a thought#8230; Yes, there is borden some of that. However, don#8217;t you think it#8217;s troubling that in many cases the students on higher levels are not really getting the best teaching? I remember seeing very talented students on my major instrument (cello) struggling because they didn#8217;t know how to get better, and their teachers weren#8217;t helping them because they didn#8217;t know how, either. Perhaps with the piano this is less likely because the standards are higher than for other instruments (repertoire is more challenging, it must be memorized, there is thesis project more competition), so the school 2013 piano students who get into the schools are probably more accomplished than those on thesis acknowledgements, other instruments. Conservatories are businesses at the end of the day and have to remain competitive in paper, the market place. It is an acknowledgements project, enormous draw for them to have a big name performer on the staff. Thesis How Long! I think it depends on the level of the student the higher level (postgraduate) student secure in their technique can gain a ton from being inspired and thesis project, guided by a top-flight virtuoso. In my experience, the average undergraduate needs a lot of TLC from an experienced teacher who will be able to deliver on a regular, committed basis.

It is the difference between training and coaching the former dealing with the construction of a pianist from grass roots upwards, the latter concerned with improving or enhancing an end product on a given day. These activities are poles apart, and thesis how long, should not be confused. After studying classical guitar and thesis, getting my repertoire and performance skills up enough to play full concerts I have forsaken the guitar and paper ideas, have started again on thesis, the piano three years ago and my goal is to get to the same place. Care Research! I am going to have to hurry as I will be 60 next year. Oh and there is a special rung on the ladder of music for everyone of us! Hi Robin! You are an inspiration to us all I know someone who gave up an executive position in the corporate world to retrain, in his early 40s, as a beginner piano student. Acknowledgements! He ended up a very successful piano teacher for youngsters. What he lacks in monetary terms he tells me he more than makes up for borden, in job satisfaction, and is relieved to have found an escape from the cut-throat world of office politics. [#8230;] While piano is very important to acknowledgements project, me, I also have a life outside of piano; and I know my students do too. When you consider the lizzie borden essay small percentage of concert pianists there are in the world compared to the number of children and thesis project, adults who begin piano lessons, you come to the realization that not every student will find themselves on the great stage of Carnegie Hall. (Here is an interesting article on this same idea #8220;A Short Essay on the Life of a Pianist#8221; by mit libraries thesis, Graham Fitch) [#8230;] Featuring a comprehensive library of lessons, articles and resources, the Practising the Piano Online Academy is the ultimate online resource for pianists, teachers and anyone seeking to master the thesis acknowledgements project piano.

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Patent Claim Drafting 101: The Basics. Frequently inventors will ask me if it is a good idea for thesis project them to prepare and file their own patent applications. Whenever I am asked such a question I suspect the person doing the essay, asking already knows the answer, but is hoping against hope that they might find someone who will tell them what they really want to thesis acknowledgements project, hear. You have probably seen the commercial where the guy is sitting at his kitchen table and mit libraries thesis is on the phone with the surgeon who is acknowledgements telling him where to cut to hacking essays, take out his appendix while using a butter knife. The guy asks: “shouldn’t you be doing this?” Well, writing your own patent application is a little like taking out your own appendix. You won’t die if you screw a patent application, which is virtually inevitable, but you will not likely be pleased with the acknowledgements, outcome. William Faulkner Paper Ideas? If you do achieve rights they will be far more narrow than necessary and you will have created an unnavigable prosecution history that will almost certainly make the claims you do have rather useless. Having said this, it is not at all uncommon for inventors to thesis project, want to attempt to afsa school essay, draft and thesis acknowledgements file patent applications on their own. The cost of hiring an attorney to draft a patent application can price some inventors out of the market, so they are left with the choice of doing nothing to thesis how long, pursue their invention and dreams or trying to do something on their own. Inventors who are going to acknowledgements project, attempt to draft their own patent applications need to go into the process with their eyes wide open, realize that the resulting patent application will be better if a patent attorney is involved in the drafting, and high 2013 most importantly understand that there are a good number of things that you can and likely will do that will lead to a resulting right that is compromised or completely worthless. So those who are unable to pay a patent attorney to draft and file a patent application must be willing to educate themselves to project, the greatest extent possible in order to have any chance at a modestly successful outcome.

Toward that end, I have created a system that helps you create a provisional patent application, which is called The Invent Patent System ™. Provisional patent applications, however, do not need claims and can and should focus on providing the broadest disclosure possible. Thus, while not preferable, a conscientious inventor who uses The Invent Patent System ™ can create a pretty good disclosure. What would be best, however, is to use this as a draft and then get professional assistance. What The Invent Patent System ™ does not do is try and help you create any patent claims, although if you follow the instructions you will have all that you need there to translate parts of the disclosure into draft patent claims. Patent claims are enormously difficult to write due to the peculiar format rules required by the Patent Office.

Indeed, the United States Supreme Court has on a number of occasions discussed in detail just how difficult it is to draft and ultimately obtain a patent. See Don’t be Fooled, Drafting Patents is Complicated . So most inventors should focus on trying to make sure you have an adequate disclosure and all the ingredients necessary, and do the best they can with these peculiar rules. Starting to essay, Draft Claims. First, include a claim that defines your invention in broad terms, leaving out any and all unnecessary options. Second, include another claim that defines your invention with as much specificity and thesis project with every option you can think of. It does not matter that the claims won’t be in perfect format, with appropriate being defined as the format the Patent Office will ultimately require. At the mit libraries, initial filing stage what matters most is that claims are present and they have appropriate scope, with some being broad and some being narrow and quite specific. Thesis Acknowledgements Project? By starting to write these two claims you will “bookend” your invention. By this I mean you have disclosed the very broad and generic version of your invention, as well as the highly specified version. When writing a claim it is important to describe how the various components are structured and how the various components interact and afsa contest 2013 connect. It is necessary to describe the invention so that it is complete, so that it works, but also so that it is different than what is known in the prior art.

What makes your invention different? This must be made clear in the claims. When drafting a claim you want to start with something like this: 1. A sandwich comprising: 2 pieces of bread, peanut butter and jelly, wherein the peanut butter is spread on 1 piece of bread and the jelly is thesis acknowledgements spread on thesis how long, the other piece of bread and acknowledgements then the two pieces of william faulkner ideas bread are put together so that the thesis, peanut butter and jelly are touching. This is maybe a silly example, but you should get the idea. Then in another claim what you want to thesis, do is project describe the invention with every possible option you can think of.

Let’s say that my preferred peanut butter and jelly sandwich has bacon, lettuce, tomato and fluff. I would have a second claim that is something like: 2. The sandwich of claim 1 further comprising: bacon, lettuce, tomato and fluff, wherein these ingredients are disposed between the hacking essays, peanut butter and jelly. Notice how I simply add the extra parts and then say where they go. Now, neither of these claims are in perfect Patent Office format, but for now the important thing is trying to get something here that is close. You want to figure out what your basic invention is and then little by project, little add more specificity. Here is another example for borden essay a claim to an ordinary shovel: 1. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle; and. wherein said shovel head is attached to said elongated handle. Now lets introduce the concept of “antecedent basis.” Notice that the elements are introduced with either “a” or “an”, as is acknowledgements project grammatically appropriate. Then when you subsequently refer to the element introduced you refer to is by either “said” or “the,” hence introducing “a shovel head” and then later referring to “said shovel head.” Notice also that the shovel head could be attached to the elongated handle in a wide variety of ways, none of which would really create a shovel.

To handle this description difficulty we introduce internal reference points that make it easier to describe how to connect the elements. So try this claim: 1. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle having a first end and a second end; and. wherein said shovel head is attached to said first end of said elongated handle. Let’s say you want to add a rubberized grip to the handle, you would do this with dependent claims. In fact, in dependent claims you build on a claim earlier to narrow the description to make it more specific. Some dependent claims to a shovel might look like: 2. Hacking Essays? The invention of project claim 1 further comprising a grip disposed around said second end of said elongated handle. 3. The invention of thesis claim 2 wherein the grip is made of rubber. If your invention were really this shovel you would probably want to further describe the shovel head and thesis project explain that it has a neck and a concave portion and the neck is what is really connected to the handle.

Also, you can and high school essay contest 2013 should add claims that discuss how things are specifically attached. Examples would be: 4. The invention of claim 3 wherein the shovel head is attached to project, said elongated handle by insertion of a screw through said neck of the shovel head and into said elongated handle. Notice here we wanted to health research outline, refer to the neck in order to explain where and how the thesis acknowledgements, screw connects the shovel head with the handle. Unfortunately we have not introduced the neck as an element, and referring to is as “said neck” signals the patent examiner that we are referring to something that we believe has already been introduced. So if we wanted to health care research outline, add this claim we might find it easiest to modify claim 1 as follows:

1. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle having a first end and a second end; and. a shovel head, which is made up of a neck leading up into acknowledgements, a blade; wherein said shovel head is attached to said first end of said elongated handle. Perhaps the best way to go about writing claims is to just start writing, then as you need to add elements to lizzie essay, the invention to define ever more specific versions check to see if the pieces and parts being added have been introduced properly and result in an description of the version that is complete and describes what you have pictured in your mind’s eye. There is much to thesis acknowledgements project, be learned with respect to drafting claims, which is why inventors are at a substantial disadvantage if they are representing themselves. But if there is sufficient interest in this posting I will write some follow-up articles teaching additional lessons and exposing pitfalls. For more information on patent application drafting please see: Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and william research ideas founder of IPWatchdog.com. Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Gene’s specialty is in thesis acknowledgements the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution.

He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to thesis how long, send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of thesis acknowledgements IPWatchdog.com. Mit Libraries? Read more. There are currently 14 Comments comments. For a patent to be of value, it must be a fit subject for scrutiny by a judge and in thesis acknowledgements the US also by a jury, or at thesis how long the very least fit for acknowledgements project third party due diligence scrutiny. Reform? Anyone who has been in thesis project litigation and done that knows just how high a standard that is.

If the invention is lizzie serious, raise the money and hire an attorney. Drafting the specification is the least expensive part of patenting (again I do that every day for clients with international patent portfolios) but the most important. If you are not that committed to the invention, then find something else to do. And so far as Europe is acknowledgements project concerned, a rough and ready provisional will not do – you need a document to hacking essays, the same standards as a utility patent. If the necessary generalisations are not in the provisional, priority will be denied. I have long advocated that a provisional requires every bit as much diligence as a non-provisional, and in project that regard, we are of accord. I noticed omitted was talk about thesis how long, what elements of a patent applicatoin an engineer is thesis project capable of doing. In my opinion, the engineer/entrepreneur (since we’re talking small companies) is more than capable of writing a solid description – given some basic guidelines. Afterall, if your software application can do it (and software/hardware are simply a sequence of non-abstract steps), then a human can as well. This isn’t a GPS-guided missile #128578; Writing the Claims should clearly be one of the aspects that the attorney/agent handles – but other than filing and interfacing directly with the PTO – what else should be handled by the attorney/agent?

Where is the evidence that an entrepreneur cannot save SOME $costs by writing the core of the application and william ideas throwing that over project the wall to hacking essays, the patent attorney or agent. After all, aren’t most of your applications already based on discussions with engineers and/or design documents? Given that most of the thesis project, recent anti-patent sentiments originate from the software crowd – I would like to suggest that helping those folks to understand what goes into a patent (with a particular focus on software) might help lessen their continuous babble. Teach a man to hacking essays, fish… Thanks Jodi. In my opinion, what you write begs the key question, that of protection for a patentable invention that is intermediate in scope, between Claim 1 written by your patent attorney, and the description of the preferred embodiments that you are going to provide. In the real world, the patent will issue with an independent claim narrower in scope than the independent claim of the patent application as filed. except in chem/bio, that difference in scope will likely not be just a dependent claim taken into the main claim. Thesis Acknowledgements Project? Who is going to sculpture the application as filed, so that it is an effective basis for william research the claim you want to acknowledgements, take to thesis how long, issue?

That is the highest value drafting skill, in my opinion. I ask because, time and time again, we find at thesis project the EPO that applications from the USA fail to provide adequate support for the “intermediate generalisation” which the afsa high essay 2013, Inventor wants to take to issue and to which she iwould have been entitled, if only the thesis acknowledgements, patent attorney had done an adequate job of drafting in the first place. Typically, there’s the balloon of thesis how long Claim 1 and, inside it, the diamond of the Best Mode. But between the diamond and the envelope, we find nothing of substance, just hot air. Somehow, domestic US patent law seems to tolerate such drafting style, with no adverse consequences for the Inventor. Outside the USA though, that’s another world. Readers, tell me again that I’m wrong. I love it when you do that.

You state “ Where is the evidence that an thesis acknowledgements entrepreneur cannot save SOME $costs by writing the core of the application and throwing that over care reform research paper the wall to the patent attorney or agent ” While I think this can work in some limited instances, by project, and large this type of thesis how long ‘throwing over acknowledgements the wall’ actually ends up costing more – sometimes appreciably more. An application, a well-written application, must be integrated throughout, including the thesis how long, specification, the drawings, the claims, the abstract, and even the continuing prosecution. With that said, teaching an understanding of patents may be a well intentioned goal. But just look at the recent threads and you will see an unreasonableness by acknowledgements project, many to thesis how long, even take the time to understand. Thesis Project? Such do not want to understand, and thesis you would likely be merely wasting your time (and your client’s money) on such education. Make the offer of education, and to those willing to understand, teach them to fish. I ask because, time and time again, we find at thesis acknowledgements project the EPO that applications from the USA fail to mit libraries, provide adequate support for the “intermediate generalisation” which the Inventor wants to take to issue and to which she iwould have been entitled, if only the patent attorney had done an thesis acknowledgements project adequate job of drafting in the first place. Which essentially supports my point – the fact that “time and time again” the inventor finds out lizzie later that “if only the patent attorney had done an adequate job” suggests today’s common method of the thesis, attorney writing the entire patent may not be all its hyped up to be. Most of the attorney-written software patents I come across are somewhere around 10-15 pages – so once they are narrowed during prosecution then of course they might be missing adequate support.

The attorney really doesn’t have the time to flesh out all sorts of hacking essays possible extraneous details. Contrast this with the engineer/entrepreneur with everything on the line who finds it worth his/her time to thesis acknowledgements, include all sorts of mit libraries extra details. In fact, what added value does an attorney/agent provide in acknowledgements project writing the details of the specification over the average engineer-entrepreneur armed with some basic guidelines? Not the mit libraries thesis, Claims – but the Description, Summary, and acknowledgements Figures. The engineer can envision and generate all sorts of possible embodiments, and health research paper outline depth of thesis project details – after all – who knows the material better? An application, a well-written application, must be integrated throughout, including the essay, specification, the drawings, the claims, the abstract, and thesis project even the continuing prosecution.

Right, by “integrated” you are referring to consistent terminology – a guideline that the engineer/inventor could be informed of. Good stuff Jodi, but you demonstrate my point. At least in william research paper ideas Europe, the acme of the patent attorney’s skill and talent is to abstract out of all the endless detail the thesis, generalisation, the concept which is hacking essays “the Invention”. Where I come from, the threat is not from the slavish copier of the detail but from the well-funded competitor that eschews all the detail, disdains it, but nevertheless robs you of the thesis acknowledgements, one thing that’s really valuable, the concept. Can you abstract “the concept” like a top patent attorney can. iI has taken me 40 years of trying, and I’m still not there, seeing perfectly the concept, out of all the background detail. Was it Malcolm Gladwell who explained to us that you need at least 10000 hours of practice, to perfect a skill? You know, i think he was right. Hacking Essays? What do you think? A decent engineer has the ability to see the 3 or 4 steps that combined together form the acknowledgements, core or “the concept” as you term it.

Determining WHAT that core is – and HOW it distinguishes over prior art is the hard part but isn’t that what the engineer usually brings to the attorney anyways? No – common terminology is thesis but a mere result of the integration I speak of. An application is a legal document. Thesis Acknowledgements Project? You will fail more than you succeed going down your path. Jodi, yes. It is your Invention. As the patent attorney, I just get the william faulkner research, privilege of writing it up. A Ghost Writer will provide the thesis project, text of the autobiography of paper ideas a sports star, but the life being described is that of the sports star not the Ghost Writer. Before the writer sets to work, there are hours and hours of thesis acknowledgements discussions about what to write and how to manage the key issues.

It has to care research outline, convince readers, that the writer is the Sports Star. Will the autobiography be a success? That might depend on the quality of the writing. One thing’s for sure, whenever a patent application is written, ist legal effectiveness is going to be decided by whether it has been written by a competent patent attorney or not. Or think of a film about the Sports Star. Should the Star Play the role? Will that make the film a success. Thesis Acknowledgements? Acting is a skill that takes years to learn. Hacking Essays? So too the writing of patent applications.

On that, anon is right. Frankly, I think Gene Quinn missed an opportunity to thesis acknowledgements, get across to readers how important it is to thesis, identify the inventive concept. Instead, he emphasises the imperative, in domestic US practice, of selecting the right Magic Words for the Claim. In practice outside the USA, however,English is a foreign language, so that it is the getting of the substance right that is crucial. Outside the USA, there are no magic words. Thanks for all of the helpful information and comments. I am an aspiring DIY inventor. Thesis Acknowledgements? Everything that I’ve read up to mit libraries thesis, this point has concentrated heavily on Pro Se pitfalls. Realizing this is mainly the case, are there any success stories I can read about from inventors who were granted a patent based off of their own efforts at the USPTO? I am a water-sports enthusiast, wakeboard specific, and I have a wake-shaping device that I’m trying to patent. I have 2 weeks until my utility application needs to be filed and up to acknowledgements, now I’ve been unsuccessful in thesis raising enough money to hire an IP Attorney.

I have a working prototype and a demo-video that I’ve used to pique the thesis project, interest of an inboard boat manufacturer, but I don’t have the funds for legal assistance. It’s an unfortunate situation I know but I’ve been trying regardless. Are there any options that I am not aware of? To my knowledge, if I do not convert my provisional to a utility or file a new utility app by Jan. 23, 2014 then I could lose all of my patent rights. Well, my provisional application is as detailed as I could make it (17pgs including drawings), so I figure worst case is care reform research paper outline I will attempt to draft my own claims. Thesis Acknowledgements Project? Currently, the mfg who has expressed interest has me on hold until Spring.

They don’t have the capacity to open up any projects right now until after boat-show season. Trying to keep the health reform outline, ball rolling so I don’t completely. lose out… Any advice will help. Thank you kind regards! – Elliott Dollar. I am an attorney from Greece, deling with business law.

In the context of my practice I had to make an application for patent. I would not say I am specialized in that sector, cause in Greece there are not attorneys dealing exclusively with patents, however I managed to project, grant my cliend a patent with a good examination report. It was very hard for me to explain the engineering details that had to be icluded in the claims. For this purpose, I had a very good cooperation with an engineer and through team work we had a good result. I think that the combination of the mit libraries thesis, two specialties is necessary. I assume from what i read that remunaration of IP attorneys is thesis acknowledgements project much higher in relation to high, Greece, but if you believe in your invention it is acknowledgements worth it to hire both attorneys and engineers to increase the possibility of thesis how long a better result. Thnx, Kostas Kalantzis. Thank you for thesis acknowledgements the valuable feedback! Very inspiring to know you figured it out and received a granted patent for your client.

I bet they were thrilled! I did go ahead draft file my own non-provisional application. USPTO said that as long as all the subject matter is there by the deadline, then an high contest inventor can go back and adjust or add claims, (expect filing fees). Thank you again for thesis acknowledgements your attention to this matter. Essay? Currently, I’m working to further organize my team, so I can continue proto-typing and thesis pursue commercialization with an inboard boat MFG.

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Thesis Acknowledgement

The College Essay as an thesis acknowledgements project, Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on mit libraries thesis, the admissions process by Caren Osten Gerszberg, the mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in thesis a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the thesis how long art of memoir writing. On the first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to enter into acknowledgements the telling — and in our case, writing — of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of my story onto thesis how long paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to project, delve? How would it feel to thesis how long, unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words?

At one point, I looked out the project window and the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of their memoir. My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. Mit Libraries Thesis. I’d read the drafts of those essays, and was touched and amused by the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and thesis acknowledgements project, a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and borden, recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. Acknowledgements. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.

Her essay will not be an afsa school 2013, account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of herself that reveals itself on paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of files and papers was part of my summer agenda. And in thesis project doing so, I came upon my own college essay. Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. Essay. The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and all that I’d learned from his passions and thesis acknowledgements, ability to appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of life and all it comprises. This seed will grow, and lizzie borden, I will pass it on to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the acknowledgements writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. I don’t even recall showing it to anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is mit libraries ever easy.

We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of what may one day make it into their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and acknowledgements, life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. It felt liberating to be, and faulkner research, write, in such an environment.

For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the slice of thesis, their story will be writing of another realm. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is afsa high essay contest simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive. This will be their chance to acknowledgements project, give a very different set of strangers an high school essay contest 2013, opportunity to project, turn the pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for school essay a long time. To offer your thoughts on what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below. To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and thesis acknowledgements, essays without allowing anyone to review them – especially her parents. Hacking Essays. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in thesis acknowledgements project the sense that they weren’t polished and thesis how long, proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants.

I’m sure there were flaws in the writing and misspellings (she is dyslexic), but somehow the genuine person came through. Of course it made me nervous. Acknowledgements Project. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasn’t; the best thing is that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and that’s the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and let the care kids do this on their own?

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of compiling resumes of activities they don’t care about but look impressive on a college application? And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of adults pushing them to be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the thesis project process. Sure they will make mistakes. Mit Libraries Thesis. Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for acknowledgements life?

As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward. It is lizzie borden essay hard to consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to thesis, demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and standardized test scores. Although it is important to spell all the words right and for william research ideas goodness sake get the name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself.

Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to sell themselves and their personality to acknowledgements, a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay. Still, it is hard to convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about thesis how long their role model in life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion. Acknowledgements Project. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for five or six schools). The key for lizzie essay me, was writing the essay on my terms.

I planned it, but not too far in advance that the thesis project topic was no longer personally relevant. I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for research him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to college and starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about acknowledgements project injuries. According to her, injuries, like the hacking essays death of thesis acknowledgements project, a grandparent, are commonly written about. Hacking Essays. She explained to a group of parents and prospective students, that, by in thesis project large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to stand out. I like to think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and the death of a grandparent because there is very little else in their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in thesis how long the way these experiences do.

Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for instance), may be just too painful and private to thesis acknowledgements, write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of hacking essays, some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and acknowledgements, shares very little about thesis how long how she feels about project them. William. She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to thesis, stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by her “first choice” college and hacking essays, has begun her freshman year. While reading Ms. Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by the requests for acknowledgements project the students to thesis how long, share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones. This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny.

In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to thesis acknowledgements, the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and thesis, succeed. Acknowledgements Project. However, I can’t help wondering about the lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the afsa contest 2013 remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the “final summer”, the acknowledgements countdown to matriculation day, and the ride back home from hacking essays college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated.

Perhaps she can write about it in her personal statement for graduate school. re: «Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.» If Nicole can give herself “permission” to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of thesis acknowledgements, writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. Lizzie Borden. You too, for that matter, with your own writing.

What are colleges looking for? People who don’t care what they’re looking for. Acknowledgements Project. That’s what the hacking essays amazing process of thesis acknowledgements project, writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. Here’s an thesis, interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to thesis acknowledgements project, buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style. The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard. It’s like polishing a piece of faulkner, figured silver–the polish makes the figures clearer and sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and acknowledgements project, the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. In the end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted.

I got into mit libraries my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the thesis acknowledgements project essay must have stood out in afsa high 2013 the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to acknowledgements project, play a sport at that school, and maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process. We also have ex-college admissions officers on mit libraries thesis, board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. In many cases it is the thesis project only way to afsa school 2013, personalize yourself (especially when there is thesis acknowledgements no interview) to the admissions officer, and essay 2013, show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by thesis acknowledgements project, no means be a memoir. It is much easier for the writers character to be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the curtain” of their life, instead of the whole picture. Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young. Athletes writing about their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an thesis how long, officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on the transcript.

I also do not envy the kids applying to project, colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the next 4 years of their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is not important at all really and it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. Afsa School Essay. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to acknowledgements, ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered. Hacking Essays. One less stress on seniors in project the application process. Ms.

Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. Thesis How Long. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department. Acknowledgements Project. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college. Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to essay 2013, take you there.

Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and thesis acknowledgements project, about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is listening and listening close enough to evaluate the essay’s content invites all kinds of paper, tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for thesis project College Admissions–but it’s here to thesis how long, stay.

Like any memoir, however, it’s important to make sure it fits the thesis project audience.

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GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - PolyU ELC

4th grade homework This 4th Grade Spiral Reading resource is acknowledgements, perfect for Reading HOMEWORK, Reading MORNING WORK, or a DAILY READING REVIEW! These quality written passages and william, text dependent questions build in thesis project, complexity each week, as more skills are introduced. All pages are 100% EDITABLE and easy to school essay contest, differentiate to fit your students' needs. Join the thousands of project teachers who are using this spiral review system in their classroom and see why they love it! ?? Check out this HUGE 4th Grade SPIRAL REVIEW BUNDLE! Includes Spiral Reviews for mit libraries thesis, Math, Reading, and Language. PLUS, perfectly aligned weekly assessments! ?34 weeks of Reading Comprehension sheets (139 pages) ?Covers the ENTIRE YEAR of 4th grade Reading, Fiction and Nonfiction Standards! ?Includes a condensed format (for saving paper) and a More Space to Write format to give student double the acknowledgements project, space to care research outline, answer questions (your choice) ?ALL passages were written by a professional writer (QUALITY) ?Some weeks have two passages (paired passages)* ?4 text-dependent questions per day, Monday-Thursday (16 questions per project week) (not too overwhelming) ?Each week focuses on one standard while still reviewing skills you've already taught. ?Comes with a “My Thinking” and Progress Monitoring page (optional) ?Answer Keys included! ?ALL Questions are 100% Editable . School Contest 2013. (passages are not editable) ?Includes Correlation Chart so you can easily find the standards you are looking for. ?Comes in TWO formats: PDF and Word Document (Editable) ?3 weeks of 5th Grade Reading sheets included for an end of the year preview of the next grade level! (optional) O A dose of daily review helps build, strengthen, and review reading comprehension skills all year. OStudents focus on one passage per project week, digging deeper each day!

Ideal for Close Reading. OAll passages are on grade level! (Perfect for afsa high essay contest, exposure to grade-level texts) OQuestions are text-dependent and slowly increase in rigor as the week progresses. O The daily assignments are meaningful and NOT overwhelming. O The progress monitoring section holds students accountable for their own learning. O Parents appreciate the consistency of the homework (if using as homework). Project. O Teachers can easily see where students are still struggling on a regular basis. O It's Editable - change questions or wording to differentiate and fit your students' needs. O Teachers find students need almost NO test-prep before standardized testing when using this resource all year. O Homework completion rates increase! (if using as homework) How is afsa high essay, this Spiral Review Resource Different From Others? ?This spiral review was strategically designed so that students DO NOT see standards they HAVE NOT been exposed to. Acknowledgements Project. (expecting students to complete work they have never been taught is lizzie borden essay, not effective and can increase frustration) ?All Passages were written by a professional author. ?Each week’s homework requires less paper (only 1-2 pages)! This helps schools and teachers save on thesis project, copies while still providing meaningful review. ?This resource is EDITABLE (Microsoft Word). You can easily edit, copy, paste, or delete all questions (stories are not editable). Use these sheets to customize the perfect daily review system for your classroom! ?It's also NO-Prep!

If you aren't looking to edit the sheets, you can use the easy print option in the file to just print and william ideas, go. ?I am ALWAYS updating this resource to thesis project, make it even more effective. If you decide to thesis how long, purchase this resource, you will receive ALL future updates for FREE! Education is always changing and thesis acknowledgements project, so is this resource! ? ? ? Please see the PREVIEW for research ideas, pictures and a FREE sample! ? ? ? Looking for another grade level? Using This Spiral Reading Resource as HOMEWORK! Give each student a homework sheet on Monday. They will complete one section each night (Monday through Thursday).

At the beginning of class each day, I like to take about acknowledgements 10 minutes to review the previous night's homework and clarify any questions my students may have. Students use the My Progress section to keep track of how they are doing and it helps hold them accountable for their own learning. Another option is to review the thesis how long, homework during guided reading groups. This is a great time to dig deeper into the questions and project, text to lizzie essay, see where students are struggling. Each morning, students complete just one section (Monday through Thursday).

Before beginning the day, I take about 10 minutes to review that day's work. This gives students time to monitor their own progress and to ask questions. Thesis Acknowledgements. If you don’t want to use this as homework or morning work, I recommend using it as a daily review in small reading groups. On the first day, read the weekly text with your group. Thesis How Long. Each day, dig into the 4 questions that accompany the passage. This will help you see exactly how students are doing each day and where you need to focus your daily lessons.

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4. Thesis. FICTION - Review (PAIRED PASSAGES) 5. Hacking Essays. NONFICTION – Review. *Also Includes 3 weeks of the next grade level to be used as a preview at the end of the acknowledgements, year! ? ? ? Please see the PREVIEW for pictures and a FREE sample! ? ? ? This item is a paid digital download from my TpT store. As such, it is for use in one classroom only. This item is also bound by copyright laws. Redistributing, editing, selling, or posting this item (or any part thereof) on the Internet are all strictly prohibited without first gaining permission from the author. Violations are subject to the penalties of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

Please contact me if you wish to afsa high essay 2013, be granted special permissions! If you would like to post this resource on the internet, please contact me at 1stopteachershop@gmail.com for special permission. The only time permission will be granted is if you are using a platform such as Google Classroom where ONLY YOUR students are granted access to the documents, and they are not made public (searchable) on the internet (login to thesis acknowledgements, site required). If you are unsure if you are allowed to post this resource on contest, the internet, please email me first. Thesis Acknowledgements. Please log in to post a question. Total: Overall Quality: Accuracy: Practicality: Thoroughness: Creativity: Clarity: 4th Grade Reading Homework 4th Grade Morning Work Reading Comprehension Passages. Subjects: English Language Arts, Reading, Reading Strategies Grades: 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , Homeschool. For this item, the cost for one user (you) is $21.99. If you plan to share this product with other teachers in hacking essays, your school, please add the number of acknowledgements project additional users licenses that you need to care reform paper, purchase. Each additional license costs only $19.79.

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Acknowledgements - CalTech Thesis

Essay: The Arab Uprisings and Their Global Repercussions. by Arch Puddington. The political uprisings that swept across the Arab world over the past year represent the most significant challenge to authoritarian rule since the collapse of Soviet communism. In a region that had seemed immune to democratic change, coalitions of activist reformers and ordinary citizens succeeded in removing dictators who had spent decades entrenching themselves in power. Acknowledgements Project. In some cases, protest and upheaval was followed by the beginnings of democratic institution building.

At year’s end, two countries with unbroken histories of fraudulent polling, Tunisia and Egypt, had conducted elections that observers deemed competitive and credible, and freedom of expression had gained momentum in many Middle Eastern societies. Unfortunately, the gains that were recorded in Tunisia, and to a considerably lesser extent in Egypt and Libya, were offset by more dubious trends elsewhere in william faulkner research the region. Indeed, the overthrow of autocrats in these countries provoked determined and often violent responses in many others, most notably in Syria, where by acknowledgements, year’s end the Assad dictatorship had killed over 5,000 people in its efforts to crush widespread antigovernment protests. Similar if less bloody crackdowns took place in essay Bahrain and Yemen. This pattern of protest and repression—with an emphasis on the latter—was echoed elsewhere in the world as news of the thesis acknowledgements, Arab uprisings spread beyond the Middle East and health care research paper North Africa. In China, the authorities responded to events in Cairo’s Tahrir Square with a near-hysterical campaign of acknowledgements arrests, incommunicado detentions, press censorship, and stepped-up control over essay contest 2013, the internet.

The Chinese Communist Party’s pushback, which aimed to quash potential prodemocracy demonstrations before they even emerged, reached a crescendo in December with the sentencing of a number of thesis project dissident writers to long terms in prison. In Russia, the state-controlled media bombarded domestic audiences with predictions of chaos and instability as a consequence of the Arab protests, with a clear message that demands for political reform in Russia would have similarly catastrophic results. Mit Libraries Thesis. In other Eurasian countries and in parts of Africa, the authorities went to considerable lengths to suppress demonstrations and isolate the democratic opposition. The authoritarian response to change in the Middle East had a significant impact on the state of global freedom at year’s end. Project. The findings of afsa school 2013 Freedom in the World 2012 , the latest edition of Freedom House’s annual report on political rights and civil liberties, showed that slightly more countries registered declines than exhibited gains over the course of 2011. This marks the thesis project, sixth consecutive year in which countries with declines outnumbered those with improvements.

The continued pattern of global backsliding—especially in such critical areas as press freedom, the rule of hacking essays law, and the rights of civil society—is a sobering reminder that the institutions that anchor democratic governance cannot be achieved by protests alone. Yet if there is an overarching message for the year, it is one of hope and not of reversal. For the thesis acknowledgements, first time in some years, governments and rulers who mistreated their people were on the defensive. This represents a welcome change from the dominant trends of just a year ago, when authoritarian powers repressed domestic critics and dismissed mild objections from the democratic world with brazen contempt. In 2010, China conducted a bullying campaign against the Nobel committee for honoring jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo, Russia imposed a second prison term on former oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky after a fraudulent judicial proceeding, and Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak’s National Democratic Party claimed to have won heavily rigged parliamentary elections with well over 80 percent of the afsa school essay contest, seats. In 2011, by contrast, the signal events were the overthrow of Mubarak, Tunisia’s Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, and Libya’s Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi; successful elections in Tunisia; and democratic ferment throughout the Arab world.

Meanwhile, China’s perpetual campaign of acknowledgements project repression, directed at writers, lawyers, journalists, religious believers, ethnic minorities, and ordinary citizens who had spoken out against injustice and state abuses, seemed only to hacking essays show the staggering fears and weaknesses of a regime that otherwise presents the image of a confident, globally integrated economic powerhouse. And in Russia, Vladimir Putin faced his first serious political crisis, as election fraud and the prospect of 12 more years without new leadership drew tens of thesis acknowledgements thousands of protesters to the streets. Whether the events of 2011 will lead to a true wave of democratic revolution is uncertain. Tunisia was clearly the high school 2013, greatest beneficiary of the year’s changes. It experienced one of the largest single-year improvements in the history of the Freedom in the World report, rising from among the worst-performing Middle Eastern countries to achieve electoral democracy status and scores that place it roughly alongside such Partly Free countries as Colombia and Philippines. But much remains to be done, and there are some questions about the positions of the new leaders on such crucial issues as minority rights, freedom of belief, and freedom of expression. Egypt also made significant gains, but they have been overshadowed in many respects by the continued political dominance of the military, its hostility toward media critics, its campaign against human rights organizations, and its humiliating treatment of acknowledgements project female protesters. In many other Arab countries, democracy movements have yet to reach even the initial milestone of forcing the william ideas, resignation of their longtime rulers. The perceived success or failure of these efforts will either continue to inspire similar changes in the rest of the world, or bolster authoritarian calls for “stability” at any price.

The number of countries exhibiting gains for the past year, 12, lagged somewhat behind the number with declines, 26. The most noteworthy gains were in the Middle East—in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya—and in three Asian countries—Burma, Singapore, and Thailand. It should be noted that despite their gains, Burma, Egypt, and Libya remained in the Not Free category. Moreover, while the Middle East experienced the most significant improvements, it also registered the most declines, with a list of worsening countries that includes Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Declines were also noted in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, including Albania, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.

Glimmers of Hope for thesis project the Most Repressed: Burma, which has ranked alongside North Korea as one of the world’s most closed societies, experienced what many hope will become a major political opening. The government of President Thein Sein has permitted more public discussion, tolerated a measure of press commentary, freed longtime opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and thesis how long cleared the path for her party’s participation in project elections. Another country that endured decades of brutal misrule, Libya, now has the potential for significant gains thanks to the overthrow of al-Qadhafi. Cuba, also one of the world’s most repressive countries, experienced a small improvement linked to the limited reduction of economic restrictions by the government of Raul Castro. Unlike in Burma, however, Cuba underwent no political liberalization. (Some) Good News in Asia: In a region whose dominant power, China, maintains the world’s most sophisticated and comprehensive system of thesis authoritarian political control, the recent trend has been largely positive.

Aside from the improvements in Burma, the past year was notable for more open and competitive elections in Singapore, whose unique variant of “guided democracy” has been in place for several decades. In fact, for the countries of Asia proper, practically every indicator measured by Freedom in the World improved to some degree. Project. Sectarian Strife in the Middle East: The intensified violence between Sunni and Shiite Muslims in Iraq as U.S. forces completed their withdrawal touched on a broader threat posed by sectarianism to mit libraries thesis democracy’s future in the region. Differences among various strains of Islam complicated the crackdown on mainly Shiite protesters in Bahrain, and thesis project played a role in the crisis in Syria, principally propelled by President Bashar al-Assad’s desperate efforts to remain in power. Sunni-Shiite rivalry also presents a serious threat to political stability in Lebanon, while in william faulkner Egypt, anti-Christian sentiment flared into violence during the year, with notable help from the military. Long-Term Setbacks in thesis Energy-Rich Eurasia: The past year featured the continuation of a decade-long trend of setbacks for the wealthiest and most “modern” former Soviet countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan.

The level of freedom fell further despite rising popular demands for reform and warning signs from the thesis how long, Middle East. Indeed, beginning with the “color revolutions” of 2003 to 05, authoritarians in Eurasia have consistently responded to freedom movements outside their borders with intensified clampdowns at home. Year-end protests in Moscow and violent labor unrest in Kazakhstan should remind the world that repression does not in fact lead to stability. Danger Signs for New Democracies: Until recently, Ukraine, Hungary, South Africa, and Turkey were regarded as important success stories for democratic development. Now, increasingly, the thesis acknowledgements project, democratic credentials of each is coming under question. The steepest decline in the institutions of freedom has taken place in Ukraine, where a series of negative developments was punctuated by the conviction of opposition leader Yuliya Tymoshenko on dubious charges. In the mit libraries, past two years, Ukraine has moved from a status of Free to Partly Free and suffered deterioration on most indicators measured by Freedom House. Developments in Turkey are also worrying, given the country’s role as a model for democracy in Muslim-majority countries and its aspirations to regional leadership.

While the government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has instituted important reforms since coming to acknowledgements project power, stepped-up arrests of advocates for Kurdish rights and the continued pursuit of the wide-ranging and politically fraught Ergenekon conspiracy case, which has led to lengthy detentions without charge, are both causes for concern. In Hungary, the government of Prime Minister Viktor Orban, taking advantage of a parliamentary supermajority, has pushed through a new constitution and a raft of laws that could seriously weaken press freedom, judicial independence, and a fair election process. And in thesis how long South Africa, new media regulations and evidence of thesis acknowledgements pervasive corruption within the African National Congress leadership threaten to undermine the health care research, country’s past achievements in peaceful democratic change. The number of countries designated by Freedom in the World as Free in 2011 stood at 87, representing 45 percent of the acknowledgements, world’s 195 polities and 3,016,566,100 people—43 percent of the global population. The number of Free countries did not change from the previous year’s survey. The number of countries qualifying as Partly Free stood at hacking essays, 60, or 31 percent of thesis all countries assessed by mit libraries thesis, the survey, and they were home to 1,497,442,500 people, or 22 percent of the world’s total. The number of Partly Free countries did not change from the previous year. A total of 48 countries were deemed Not Free, representing 24 percent of the world’s polities. The number of people living under Not Free conditions stood at 2,453,231,500, or 35 percent of the thesis, global population, though it is important to note that more than half of this number lives in care reform paper just one country: China. The number of Not Free countries increased by thesis project, one from 2010 due to hacking essays the inclusion for the first time of South Sudan, a new state that was given a Not Free designation.

The number of thesis electoral democracies increased by two and stands at 117. Three countries achieved electoral democracy status due to elections that were widely regarded as improvements: Niger, Thailand, and Tunisia. One country, Nicaragua, was dropped from the electoral democracy roster. One country moved from Not Free to Partly Free: Tunisia. One country, The Gambia, dropped from Partly Free to Not Free. Middle East and North Africa: The Arab Spring’s Ambiguous Achievements. Even in a region that was notorious for its leaders’ disdain for borden essay honest government and civil liberties, Tunisia had long stood out for the thoroughness of its system of control and oppression. Its longtime strongman, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, had seemingly smothered all significant sources of opposition. Acknowledgements Project. Dissenters had been jailed or exiled, press censorship was scrupulously enforced, and the judiciary was under strict political control.

This country seemed a highly unlikely setting for a democratic revolution. Yet it is Tunisia that has emerged as the lizzie borden, most dramatic success story thus far in the series of thesis acknowledgements project popular uprisings that took place across the Arab world during 2011. High Essay Contest 2013. It has been transformed from a showcase for Arab autocracy to an electoral democracy whose new leaders have pledged themselves to project moderation, adherence to civil liberties, and the rule of law. The press is critical and vibrant; there are practically no taboo subjects. Civil society has proliferated, and elements within the new leadership appear committed to thesis how long tackling the problem of pervasive corruption, though achieving such deep institutional reforms will likely require many years of effort. Some gains were also made in Egypt and Libya, but in thesis acknowledgements project both of these societies, the future prospects for democratic reform are still very much in doubt. In Egypt, governing authority shifted from the thesis how long, Mubarak regime to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), a group of military leaders who have dispensed justice through military tribunals, engaged in periodic crackdowns on critical media, raided the offices of civil society organizations, mistreated women activists, and engaged in violence against Christians. While a protracted election process, still under way at year’s end, was conducted with an adherence to acknowledgements project fair practices that stood in vivid contrast to the sham polls of the Mubarak regime, the dominant forces in the new parliament will be Islamist parties whose devotion to democracy is open to question. And while Libya has benefited greatly from the demise of the Qadhafi dictatorship, the country confronts an thesis array of daunting political and security challenges, and has yet to hold its first elections. In other regional countries, demands for freedom have been met with stepped-up repression. In the worst case, Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad responded to widespread peaceful protests with a campaign of arrests, torture, and urban fusillades that took the lives of an estimated 5,000 Syrians by year’s end.

In Bahrain, a prodemocracy movement consisting principally of members of the Shiite majority encountered violent repression by the monarchy and thesis project intervention by the Saudi military. The government’s tactics included mass arrests, torture, and hacking essays the use of military justice in cases of political activists. In Yemen, security forces loyal to President Ali Abdullah Saleh killed hundreds of civilians as Saleh repeatedly slipped out of agreements on project, a transfer of lizzie borden power. The authorities in Saudi Arabia intensified their persecution of Shiites and other Muslim sects, while Iran escalated its persecution of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civic leaders who were critical of regime actions. Thesis Acknowledgements Project. Lebanon suffered a decline in civil liberties due to the violent treatment of lizzie essay protesters and punitive measures against those demanding regime change in neighboring Syria. The United Arab Emirates also experienced a civil liberties decline after the government tightened restrictions on free speech and civil society and arrested those calling for political change. Israel’s relations with Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and with other countries in the region, worsened as the year’s tumult raised expectations and shook old assumptions. Israel also faced condemnation for thesis acknowledgements a series of mit libraries measures that were either introduced in the Knesset or signed into law and were seen by acknowledgements, critics as threats to afsa high school contest freedom of speech. Thesis Project. One measure that was enacted called for mit libraries punishment of those who support boycotts against Israel or its institutions, including universities and project businesses located in West Bank settlements. Asia-Pacific: Important Gains, Despite China and Conflict. Over the past five years, the Asia-Pacific region has been the only one to thesis how long record steady gains in the majority of indicators that are measured by Freedom in the World . Progress is especially noteworthy in the countries of Asia proper, excluding the small Pacific island nations.

The most impressive gains have come in thesis acknowledgements the institutions of electoral democracy—elections, political parties, pluralism—and in freedom of association. The embrace of free institutions has taken place in the face of significant regional obstacles, including, most notably, the influence of China. In recent years China has accelerated its efforts to project its power beyond its borders, and its Asian neighbors have been important targets of this effort. Thesis. Despite several incidents in which critics of the thesis acknowledgements project, Chinese government and exiled Chinese minorities encountered repression in Nepal, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the faulkner research ideas, allure of the so-called China model—combining state-led economic growth, a Leninist one-party political system, and strict control over project, the media—has gained only modest traction in the region. Meanwhile, the Chinese leadership has demonstrated no serious interest in political liberalization at home, and has devoted impressive resources to lizzie essay internet censorship, the suppression of minorities, and the elimination of even oblique political dissent. In 2011, the authorities carried out acknowledgements, a major campaign of repression in the wake of the Arab uprisings by censoring public discussion of the movement for hacking essays Arab democratization, prosecuting or arbitrarily detaining scores of social-media commentators and thesis human rights lawyers, and borden essay strengthening the online censorship of domestic social-networking services. Another regional challenge is the acknowledgements project, explosion of civil and sectarian strife in South Asia. In Afghanistan, violence continued unabated in 2011, with high-profile political assassinations and high civilian casualty rates. In Pakistan, there was growing discord over enforcement of the country’s blasphemy laws, punctuated by the murders of Punjab governor Salmaan Taseer and Shahbaz Bhatti, the high contest 2013, minister for minority affairs, both of whom had criticized the blasphemy statutes. Thesis. Bangladesh also suffered a decline due to the ruling Awami League’s prosecution of opposition politicians and research ideas efforts to muzzle NGOs. On the other hand, India, the world’s largest democracy, showed increased room for project peaceful demonstrations, particularly with the rise of an anticorruption movement that brought tens of health care paper thousands of people to the streets.

Indian-administered Kashmir experienced a notable improvement in project the space for open public discussion amid growing use of social media and a drop in violence. The most significant gain occurred in Burma, which had endured decades of political repression under a military junta. What observers interpreted as a major political opening was initiated during 2011. Thesis How Long. In a series of steps toward a more liberal domestic environment, the leadership allowed opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her political party, the National League for Democracy, to register and compete in thesis acknowledgements project forthcoming by-elections, eased press censorship, and thesis legalized political protest. Project. At the william paper, same time, many cautioned that it was still unclear whether the changes in Burma were durable or simply cosmetic improvements by the regime. In Singapore, the project, system of managed democracy engineered by the former prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, was loosened, and opposition candidates gained popular support in national elections, though the system ensured that this did not translate into significantly increased representation in the parliament. Conditions also improved in Thailand, whose deeply polarized political life had been dominated by riots and crippling demonstrations for several years. A July election led to school a peaceful transfer of power to the opposition party and the installation as prime minister of Yingluck Shinawatra, the sister of controversial former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. However, there has been some backsliding on thesis acknowledgements, civil liberties since the end of November. Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia: Stability and Stagnation.

The protests that roiled Moscow and other Russian cities in the wake of deeply flawed December parliamentary elections were stark reminders that no authoritarian leadership, no matter how sophisticated its methods, is immune to popular demands for afsa contest change. While the immediate trigger for the mass demonstrations were widely circulated YouTube videos that suggested ballot-stuffing and other forms of election fraud, the protests also reflected displeasure with the earlier announcement that Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and President Dmitry Medvedev had forged an agreement to swap positions at acknowledgements, the end of Medvedev’s term in 2012. Hacking Essays. The two men had failed to thesis fulfill long-standing promises to lizzie reform Russia’s corrupt, stagnant, and unresponsive government system, and project the idea of Putin’s return for a third and possibly fourth presidential term helped drive ordinary Russians to the unprecedented demonstrations. There are many questions about the ability of the thesis how long, forces that led the postelection protests to influence future politics in Russia. But clearly Russia is not alone in its vulnerability to popular discontent with authoritarian leadership. As the 20th anniversary of the acknowledgements project, Soviet Union’s disintegration was marked at thesis, year’s end, most Eurasian countries were still subject to autocratic rule of one variant or another. Whereas prior to 2011 the “president for life” phenomenon was principally associated with the Middle East, it is thesis project, today more likely to apply to the long-term leaders of the afsa contest, former Soviet Union. The authoritarian temptation poses a threat even in thesis project countries with recent histories of lizzie borden essay free-wheeling democracy. Thus Ukraine suffered a major decline due to President Viktor Yanukovych’s moves to crush the political opposition through a variety of antidemocratic tactics, including the prosecution of opposition political leader and former prime minister Yuliya Tymoshenko. Other “color revolution” countries also faced problems.

Kyrgyzstan, recovering from a 2010 revolt against an authoritarian president, held national elections that were judged to be relatively fair and acknowledgements competitive. Nevertheless, deep divisions lingered between the faulkner paper, majority Kyrgyz and acknowledgements project minority Uzbeks, and little progress was made in bringing to justice those responsible for anti-Uzbek violence in mid-2010. In Georgia, President Mikheil Saakashvili continued to face criticism for afsa high his apparent efforts to marginalize potential opposition figures. Meanwhile, in several cases, the region’s most repressive regimes declined still further. In Azerbaijan, the government of President Ilham Aliyev used force to break up demonstrations, jailed opposition activists, tried to neutralize the international press, and misused state power to acknowledgements evict citizens from their homes as part of grandiose building schemes.

Kazakhstan suffered a decline due to the adoption of legislation that restricted religious belief. In December, conditions deteriorated further when the regime used violence in an effort to put down labor protests by oil workers. And in Belarus, the high school essay contest 2013, regime of President Alyaksandr Lukashenka held scores of political prisoners and adopted a series of bizarre policies—such as outlawing public clapping in thesis acknowledgements project unison—to prevent creative expressions of popular discontent over political repression and economic decline. For most of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics, by contrast, the year was notable for research paper ideas the ability of most countries to thesis acknowledgements weather the European economic crisis without major damage to the basic institutions of democracy. At the same time, a number of countries in the region remained highly vulnerable to precarious economies, the merging of business and political interests, and corruption. Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, and care research the Western Balkans could face problems as Europe’s economic woes persist. Hungary poses the most serious problem in Central Europe. The government of thesis acknowledgements project Viktor Orban has taken advantage of a two-thirds parliamentary majority to push through a new and problematic constitution without adequate input from the opposition, and a series of laws that are widely seen as threats to mit libraries thesis press freedom, judicial independence, and political pluralism. Albania experienced declines due to violence against demonstrators, flawed municipal elections, and thesis the failure of the borden, courts to deal effectively with major corruption cases.

On the positive side, Slovakia was credited for having adopted legislation designed to shield the press from political intimidation. The Balkans achieved mixed progress on the road to democratization and European Union (EU) accession. In July, Serbia’s government finally surrendered the last of the acknowledgements, 161 suspected war criminals indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, including Ratko Mladic, a leading figure in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre who had evaded arrest for 16 years. Mladic’s extradition met with disapproval from over 50 percent of Serbia’s population, triggering sizeable protests. Nationalism in much of the Balkan region continues to undermine regional reconciliation efforts and complicate relations with the EU. Pressures on free media increased across the william faulkner ideas, Balkans, particularly in Macedonia, where an opposition-oriented television station and several newspapers were harassed and closed. Sub-Saharan Africa: Civil Society Under Pressure.

A decade ago, sub-Saharan Africa was notable for the steady if sometimes halting progress that its societies were making toward the establishment of democratic institutions. In recent years, however, that progress has first stalled and then been somewhat reversed. The year 2011 gave evidence of moderate decline, with particular problems in countries where members of the opposition and acknowledgements civil society made pleas for change in emulation of protests in the Arab world. Five of the 10 countries that registered the most significant declines in the Freedom in the World report over mit libraries thesis, the two-year period from 2010 to acknowledgements 2011 were in Africa: The Gambia, Ethiopia, Burundi, Rwanda, and Djibouti. Likewise, over the five-year period from 2007 through 2011, Africa as a region has exhibited declines in each of the topical subcategories measured by Freedom in hacking essays the World . Particularly substantial declines were recorded for rule of law and freedom of association. The Gambia experienced the most notable decline over the past year. Its status moved from Partly Free to Not Free due to a presidential election that was judged neither free nor fair, and President Yahya Jammeh’s suppression ofthe political opposition, the media, and civil society in the run-up to the vote. Five other regional countries experienced declines for the year. Ethiopia continued a decade-long trend of growing authoritarianism, with the government of thesis acknowledgements project Prime Minister Meles Zenawi making increased use of antiterrorism laws against the political opposition and journalists. In Sudan, the administration of President Omar al-Bashir engaged in stepped-up arrests of opposition leaders, banned a leading political party, used violent tactics against demonstrators, and persecuted the media. In Uganda, President Yoweri Museveni cracked down on critical members of the press in a year.

that also featured flawed national elections, repressive tactics against protesters, and lizzie continued harassment of the gay community. Malawi witnessed pressure against acknowledgements journalists and afsa high school essay contest violence against protesters as well as violations of academic freedom. Antigovernment protests were also met with repressive tactics in Djibouti, where the intimidation of opposition political parties was followed by acknowledgements project, the election of President Ismail Omar Guelleh to thesis how long a third term in office. Two countries with recent histories of political upheaval registered gains. Conditions in Cote d’Ivoire improved somewhat after Alassane Ouattara assumed the presidency, ending months of thesis acknowledgements project civil strife associated with incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo’s refusal to surrender power despite his defeat in mit libraries 2010 elections. Gbagbo was later turned over to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. Niger experienced a major improvement in thesis acknowledgements its political rights rating due to credible national and local elections that marked the end of more than a year of essay military rule. Americas: Continuity Despite Populist Threat.

Over the past decade, left-wing populist leaders have risen to power in a number of Latin American countries, causing some to predict that the project, authoritarian model established by Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez would come to dominate the lizzie, politics of the project, region. In fact, authoritarian populism has remained a minority phenomenon, as most societies have embraced the model of private-sector growth, social-welfare initiatives, and adherence to paper democratic standards established by leaders in acknowledgements Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Nevertheless, events in 2011 demonstrated that quasi-authoritarian populism still stands as a threat to the region’s political stability. In the most serious case, Nicaragua suffered a steep decline in political rights due to faulkner research irregularities in advance of and during the presidential election, which gave Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega another term in office. Likewise, Ecuador suffered a decline due to President Rafael Correa’s intensified campaign against media critics, the government’s use of state resources to influence the outcome of a referendum, and a restructuring of the judiciary that was in blatant violation of constitutional provisions. Chavez himself was preoccupied with medical treatment, mostly carried out under less-than-transparent conditions in Cuba, reportedly for prostate cancer. Chavez has announced that he will seek reelection in 2012, but the campaign promises to be more competitive than in the past due to the apparent unity of the opposition. Violent crime, much of it generated by drug-trafficking groups, continued to plague societies throughout the region, causing ripple effects in thesis acknowledgements the political system and contributing to a growing trend toward the militarization of police work.

In Mexico, government institutions remained unable to protect ordinary citizens, journalists, and elected officials in many areas from organized crime. Mexican journalism in certain regions remains shackled by thesis how long, drug-gang intimidation, with some editors significantly altering coverage to avoid violent repercussions. In Venezuela, the kidnapping for ransom of professional baseball catcher Wilson Ramos stood out as a vivid reminder of the violent criminality that more commonly affects the population at large. In Brazil, the thesis acknowledgements project, government’s efforts to bring down crime in the most troubled urban districts in advance of the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament have been met by hacking essays, determined resistance from organized gangs. In other developments, Guatemala registered an thesis acknowledgements improvement in afsa essay contest 2013 political rights due to progress made by an international commission set up to acknowledgements investigate impunity and afsa high school corruption in the country’s institutions. Puerto Rico suffered a civil liberties decline stemming from reports of widespread police misconduct and brutality. Western Europe and North America: Economic Crisis, Protests, and Civil Liberties. In the face of the thesis, most serious economic crisis in the postwar period, the countries of Western Europe and North America maintained their traditionally high level of respect for democratic standards and civil liberties.

This was even the case in countries that were compelled to make major cuts to social-welfare provisions in response to high levels of indebtedness. Throughout Europe, citizens mounted massive demonstrations to protest policies, often dictated by the EU and the International Monetary Fund, that called for fiscal austerity and mit libraries thesis the removal of thesis project various protections for faulkner paper many workers and industries. By and large, the demonstrations were peaceful and the police response nonviolent. The exception was Greece, where anarchists frequently set fires and threw projectiles at police, and the police responded with batons and tear gas. It is unlikely that Europe’s democratic standards will suffer serious setbacks in the wake of the ongoing debt crisis. Nonetheless, the region does face major challenges. A number of European countries are already confronted by problems associated with the influx of thesis immigrants from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, and research ideas have shown little willingness to devise rational and thesis humane policies toward their integration. Economic decline could well exacerbate polarization over immigration policy, as migrants seek refuge from care reform research, upheavals in thesis acknowledgements project the Arab world and unemployment levels in some European countries are at record levels.

Until recently a marginal phenomenon, the parties of the hacking essays, anti-immigrant right emerged as major forces in Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, France, Finland, and the Netherlands during the thesis acknowledgements project, past decade, and they occasionally achieve voter support of over 20 percent. Many European countries have opted for policies that restrict future immigration and, in some instances, asylum applications. A growing number have taken steps to curtail customs identified with Islam that much of the population finds offensive. William Research Paper. In 2011, women in acknowledgements project France and Belgium were arrested in cases related to the wearing of thesis how long ultraconservative Muslim female attire. Also during the thesis acknowledgements project, year, observers raised doubts about the durability of the current Turkish political model, in which a ruling party with moderate Islamist roots has committed itself to lizzie essay the norms of acknowledgements liberal democracy. While the Justice and Development Party (AKP) was credited with instituting important reforms during its early years in power, its recent behavior has triggered concern among supporters of press freedom and civil liberties.

In the past few years, thousands of people have been arrested on charges of involvement with Kurdish terrorist organizations or participation in health paper outline an alleged military conspiracy to overthrow the government. Those detained include journalists, scholars, and thesis project even defense lawyers. Britain was rocked first by a series of health urban riots, which many felt were handled poorly by the authorities, and then by a “phone hacking” case in which members of the tabloid press were accused of widespread abuse of privacy rights in pursuit of sensationalistic stories about thesis, celebrities and, most controversially, crime victims. At the same time, the coalition government of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats indicated that a law aimed at reforming the country’s punitive libel laws would be introduced in 2012. The measure is meant to deal with the phenomenon of “libel tourism,” in william faulkner research paper ideas which foreign individuals use the thesis acknowledgements, plaintiff-friendly English courts to press libel suits against critical journalists and scholars. If adopted, the new law would place the hacking essays, burden of proof on thesis project, the plaintiff rather than the defense in thesis how long libel cases.

Press freedom advocates have described Britain’s current libel laws as a serious menace to intellectual inquiry and the robust exchange of ideas. The United States endured a year of acknowledgements project deep political polarization and legislative gridlock. Despite the efforts of a bipartisan commission and a select committee of lawmakers drawn equally from both major parties, the legislative branch and the White House were unable to reach agreement on a plan to reduce the federal deficit to hacking essays manageable levels. Even as Congress and the president failed to agree on key economic measures, left-wing critics of the country’s wealth disparities and ties between politics and big business came together to launch the Occupy Wall Street movement. Beginning with an thesis acknowledgements encampment near the financial district in New York City, the reform outline, Occupy movement spread to cities across the country, with protesters camping out in thesis project parks or other public spaces for indefinite periods. After several months, municipal authorities moved to evict the william faulkner research ideas, protesters, often through peaceful police actions but in some cases using batons, tear gas, pepper spray, and arrests. Some observers voiced criticism of the police for employing confrontational tactics and thesis military-style equipment when dealing with protesters. In fulfillment of a pledge made during his election campaign, President Barack Obama revoked the policy known as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” under which military personnel were not asked about their sexual orientation, but openly gay and lesbian individuals were barred from military service.

In another step toward observance of homosexual rights, the state of New York legalized gay marriage through legislative action, joining a small number of other states that allow same-sex marriage or civil unions. Winning Freedom, Sustaining Democracy. As 2011 drew to a close, officials in Egypt made headlines by conducting a series of raids on NGOs that monitor human rights and promote democracy. Most of the targeted organizations were Egyptian; a few were international groups (Freedom House was one of the latter). The authorities were insistent that the raids, which included the seizure of files and computers, were legal and afsa essay technical in nature. Government officials emphasized and reemphasized that they believed human rights organizations had a role to play in a democratic Egypt. Their actions indicated otherwise.

In fact, the behavior of the Egyptian authorities, now and under Mubarak, reflects a deep-seated hostility to thesis NGOs that support democracy and human rights. This in turn points to borden essay a broader institutional continuity between the current Egyptian state and the old regime that will present major obstacles to thesis project democratic development in the coming months and mit libraries years, and thesis acknowledgements similar dynamics may play out in other countries where authoritarian rule is being defied. There were many heroes, many casualties, and many martyrs to freedom’s cause in 2011. Essay. There were also many extraordinary achievements. Authoritarians who aspired to rule in perpetuity were toppled in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, and autocratic heads of state in Yemen and Syria seem likely to project follow. But unlike in health reform communist Eastern Europe in project 1989, today’s oppressive leaders have for the most part refused to go quietly, without a fight. Some have adopted a rule or ruin strategy that threatens to condemn those who would supplant them to failure. Indeed, one of the great disappointments of the Arab Spring is that its principal lesson—that people will eventually rise up against despotism and injustice—has been almost universally rejected by the world’s authoritarian powers. Rather than responding to popular demands for freedom with, at minimum, a gradual plan of moderate reforms, despots in the Middle East and afsa high school essay contest 2013 elsewhere have either tightened the screws or flatly excluded changes to the status quo.

China fell into the first category with its frenzied campaign against political dissent. So too did Bashar al-Assad in Syria, with his repudiation of project talks with the opposition and a murderous campaign against peaceful protesters across the country. Russia was front and center in the status quo camp, with its imposed Putin-Medvedev leadership swap and shameless election-day violations. Clearly, constructing successful democratic states in the Middle East and elsewhere represents a far more formidable challenge than was the case in Europe after the Berlin Wall came down. Research. Adding to the difficulty is the role of China and Russia, both major economic powers and permanent members of the UN Security Council whose political elites have a stake in the failure of new and aspiring democracies.

There is reason to believe that the influence of thesis acknowledgements these two powers could become magnified in the near future. As the European debt crisis deepened in 2011, there were widespread reports that EU leaders were looking to Beijing for bailout assistance. Likewise, the Russian president traveled to mit libraries thesis several European capitals with a package of economic deals designed to help the beleaguered region in thesis project its time of need, with strings attached. Ultimately, China seems to have rejected serious involvement in Europe’s woes, and nothing of significance materialized from Medvedev’s initiative. But the very fact that the world’s most successful league of democracies would countenance involving two of the world’s great authoritarian powers in afsa school essay contest 2013 its financial rescue is a chilling commentary on the current state of both the global economy and thesis project the democratic world’s political morality, not to mention its survival instincts.

What of the United States? Can it be relied on to stand as the ideas, international beacon of freedom given its present economic torpor and political gridlock? American politics have sent conflicting signals over the past year. The notion that it is time for America to shrug off its global commitments has been increasingly posited by foreign policy analysts and thesis some political figures. A prominent candidate for the Republican presidential nomination has put himself squarely in favor of backing away from the world’s problems, saying the United States should simply “mind its own business.” Leading figures from both major political parties criticized the Obama administration for its role in essay the NATO campaign that helped Libyan rebels overthrow the Qadhafi regime. On the positive side, the Obama administration has evolved from acknowledgements, its early discomfort with democracy as a foreign policy theme to a position where it episodically places its words, and in a few cases policy muscle, behind struggles for freedom abroad. Despite the unfortunate characterization that it was “leading from behind,” America’s firmness in assisting NATO’s Libyan campaign was an important step. After initial hesitation, the administration has also cautiously supported the process of building democratic systems in Tunisia, Egypt, and thesis how long Libya. At the same time, it has too often been hesitant in speaking out against antidemocratic backsliding, particularly in Egypt. President Obama himself has made several important statements about America’s commitment to thesis project democratic change around the world, but he has failed to school essay contest invoke the authority of the White House on specific cases.

Instead it is Secretary of State Hillary Clinton who has publicly addressed violations of human rights in Russia, Hungary, and Turkey, and aligned the administration with the project, forces of change in Burma and hacking essays elsewhere where prospects for freedom’s growth have opened up. If the past year has demonstrated that courage and sacrifice are essential to the achievement of freedom, a somewhat different set of characteristics are required to build the democratic infrastructure that will ensure long-term observance of political rights and civil liberties. These characteristics include the self-confidence needed to accept the thesis acknowledgements, complexities, and occasionally irresponsibility, of a free press; the fortitude to impose restrictions on oneself as well as on one’s political opponents as part of the fight against corruption; and the perspicacity to high 2013 accept that the judiciary, police, and other critical institutions must function without political interference. In far too many parts of the world, these qualities proved to be in short supply during 2011. Thus in addition to acknowledgements project singling out the full-fledged authoritarians for special attention, it is. imperative to shine the william faulkner ideas, spotlight on leaders who, having come to power through legitimate democratic means, have set about systematically undermining the thesis project, aspects of freedom that they find inconvenient. The temptation to create a quasi-authoritarian regime, in which standards that reinforce the hacking essays, leader’s authority are embraced and those that complicate his goals are dispensed with, can have disastrous consequences for democracies with shallow roots.

Prosecuting an opposition leader or closing a television station can be the first steps down a slippery slope, as witnessed in thesis acknowledgements the careers of Vladimir Putin and Hugo Chavez, both of whom dragged seriously flawed political systems into new depths of dysfunction and stagnation. Still, while the year 2010 ended on a pessimistic note, with authoritarianism seemingly on the march, the events of 2011 have presented more hopeful prospects. Unaccountable and oppressive rulers have been put on notice that their actions will not be tolerated forever. The year of Arab uprisings has reminded the world that ordinary people want freedom even in high contest societies where such aspirations have been written off as futile. This is thesis, a lesson to which the william faulkner research paper ideas, world’s leading democracies, especially the United States, should pay special heed. It should dispel free societies’ persistent doubts about the thesis, strength and universal appeal of their institutions and values. The opportunities that have been opened up by brave people in reform research Tunis and Cairo should prompt a reenergized democratic world to thesis project address the hacking essays, twin challenges of project how dictatorships can be overturned, and how stable and durable fellow democracies can be built in their place.

Eliza B. Young and Tyler Roylance assisted in the preparation of this report.