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Exceptional coursework extension process - Student Zone - London

StealthCo.com (real name not disclosed) Created a JavaScript DHTML widget for a VLC media player plugin and a video account management web site to support it. The widget could be embedded anywhere (private web pages, blogs), so it used dynamic SCRIPT tags instead of london met coursework results AJAX to communicate with the business, server. It could be skinned using CSS and configured w/ options (auto-start, channel to play, controls, etc.); the viewing area could be re-sized and the width/height ratio changed for met coursework results each video. Expectations. Sidebar of widget showed other channels, mouse-over tooltip for channel status and schedule of videos to follow. London Met Coursework Results. Web site included AJAX sign-up/login w/ email verification and approval for private alpha, captcha image verification, feedback, video upload page with AJAX progress bar, extensive My Channels editing page w/ drag/drop for arranging videos in sequence, ranking and comments, profile page, fixed width or liquid (responsive) layout. Users could change channels but not start them on demand, so multiple progress bars were used to display each channel's current position. Created a series of PHP-5 classes for major server-side components and a 'ViewerEmulate' utility to act as a typical User, unit testing all features and logging results. Implemented image server scripts to create and cache different size jpeg images from original source, for both video covers and profile images.

Senior Software Engineer, Ajax / JavaScript / DHTML / CSS / JSP/JSTL and custom tags. Manager Business Cover Letter. Worked with UX team and visual designer on total re-model of Engage.com - Extensively revised 300+ JSP pages (HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JSTL and custom tags) to new design and style guide, added AJAX and DHTML features including animated actions, hover profiles, dynamic menus and met coursework tooltip dialogs (variable size boxes that appear and disappear as needed with PNG-24 drop shadows, style and behavior differences), new front door AJAX sign-up / sign-in process and related edit profile pages, chopped designer's Photoshop graphics for pixel perfect page layout, site navigation, some aspects of Spring framework. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Created a fully functional DHTML/AJAX-based prototype for photo and video sharing. Business. Features include: thumbnail browsing with filtering (Most Popular, Most Recent, etc.), tag cloud, DHTML 'Viewer' for full size photos and playing videos without leaving thumbnails page, Ranking, Pass It On, Add to Favorites, folders (collections), drag drop to arrange sequence of thumbnails, edit title description tags, single and met coursework results multi-file uploads with progress bar and text, My Channel and view/edit profile, personalized CSS, AJAX login, sign-up (registration).

Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / XSL / XPath / CSS / PHP. Implemented a DHTML / Ajax geography slider to select locale and widen or narrow radius, with add / remove tags, to affect search results. Implemented Edit Item Flow, a multi-page process that allows Users to create their own HTML content using a Rich Text Editor ( WysiwygPro ), to upload images for their content, to essays add rich media attachments with video and audio players, to assign tags from an Ajax updated tag cloud, and to edit other meta data related to each item. London Met Coursework. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. The Internet Memory Book - Collaborate with family and friends to turn photos and memories into a beautiful hardbound book. Developed a DHTML / Ajax based editing system that shows the User exactly what the finished book will look like at all times. Graphic views generated with LaTeX show two pages side by side, precisely as they will appear when printed. Development Cover. Moving the mouse shows hot spots that can be edited by clicking to london met coursework results invoke widgets for titles, captions, text and photos. Photos are placed and repositioned using drag and drop from a tray of assistant business development cover uploaded images. Powerful and intuitive crop, zoom and rotate features are available.

A book can be re-organized by london met coursework results, dragging and dropping whole sections of the pages papers, Table of Contents, including moving sections between different levels in an arbitrary hierarchy. Patent granted: 7917848. Results. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. Help For Writers. Implemented and heavily customized a Yahoo! Store to deliver personalized digital content in london met coursework, the form of pages for research papers astrology reports, including real time export of orders and delivery of product. A link on the confirmation page leads the User to london met coursework results immediately and write good essay securely view the customized reports using birth date info entered before the sale was completed.

A tiny URL system was used to hide the personal information and london met coursework prevent hacking. Developed a report template system to for writers transform XML versions of the reports to HTML with graphic elements. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / AJAX / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. IMVU offers a 3D chat client using animated characters called avatars. A developer community of members creates and sells enhancements that allow avatars to london results be highly personalized. Implemented AJAX editing features to help for writers personalize the public profile pages of each registered user. Created widgets for results setting text, background colors and images, panel borders for of title for research each panel header, panel body and met coursework results the page itself, custom HTML / CSS content in each panel body.

Drag drop to re-arrange panels within and media influence between columns. Graphic stickers attached to panels (with paginated find lost stickers feature) were exchanged between users, along with gifts for use by one's 3D avatar, and developed into results a major micro-transaction business. Import profile from 'myspace.com', safe mode to disable custom content for debugging, inline help and gallery upload features. Hand coded DHTML, CSS, JavaScript classes for essay capitalism a variety of AJAX widgets, including drop down menus for each panel, PHP integration to personalize each page using IMVU's SQL API (MySQL database), implemented a page using AJAX to edit the contents of london results a 'My music' panel using search results from for writers Amazon.com and enhanced a Google map showing the location of avatars currently online at IMVU. London Results. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / AJAX / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Extensive functional prototyping in JSP, DHTML and for writers AJAX; site design and navigation, creating jots and stories using a Rich-Text-Editor, uploading media - none of it appears on their current web site.

Opsware (formerly Loudcloud , now 'HP Data Center Automation Center') Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Hired by the UI Design Lead to do rapid prototyping of DHTML features and london met coursework pages related to a major new Server Groups component of the expectations, Opsware Command Center ( OCC ). Also worked in met coursework results, production code to implement many of the prototype pages for the Darwin release of OCC in Spring 2005. Advanced JavaScript and JSP programming, DHTML, XML processing in both JavaScript and Java; 4.5 months. Help. For the prototyping phase, I created dozens of XML files to london met coursework represent navigable views of a hierarchical structure of manager business cover letter nested groups (each with certain properties) containing servers (each with many columns of met coursework data to display). Then, first with JavaScript and pure DHTML and later with JSP on Tomcat, parsed those XML files and for writers presented increasingly refined and detailed versions of display and navigation, row selection, menu toolbar and popup modal dialog features as defined in a very elaborate written spec (which itself was evolving along with the work). London Results. Did benchmarking and JavaScript optimization at this point to test performance with thousands of rows. For Writers. In the production phase, I spent another two months working with others to translate the prototypes I had created into working pages in the Opsware Command Center ( OCC ). Replaced XML sample data with calls to Java APIs, implemented reliable transactions for New / Copy / Move and other modal dialogs, converted all text to results i18N resources, enhanced DHTML and JavaScript functionality.

Besides my primary focus on new pages for comparing capitalism creating and managing groups of servers, I also contributed significant JavaScript/DHTML and JSP programming to results enhancing two existing pages for groups: the Install Wizard Confirmation Screen and Attached Nodes Tab. Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer. Application programming on the Sprint PCS Vision Picture Mail SM web site ( and here ), primarily front end features using JSP, Java and JavaScript programming, custom and JSTL tags, XML documents, Struts/Tiles coding, CSS and for writers HTML layout. Specific projects included: click to results see VideoMail example. video player detection and display for examples of title papers QuickTime and Windows Media Player formats with JavaScript controls ( see VideoMail example ). filter albums by london met coursework results, Calendar View and Media Type ('Pictures', 'Video' or 'All'). modifiable From email address with email verification link for Shares created on phones. embedded audio player with JavaScript controls. enhanced slideshow pages, consolidated common code, wait for videos to finish, repaired Share creation and essay comparing and socialism preview pages, Address Book enhancements to support Groups and Share creation. Results. functional prototype of Universal Personal Organizer using internal TrueSync Server ( and help for writers here ); two way exchange of london data (backup and restore) between a cellular handheld device (Palm Treo) and web application for phone numbers, contact lists and a wide range of data related to features found in Personal Organizers (events, notes, etc.), which were then available in a web based version of a PIM (Personal Information Manager), merged and essays on the media synchronized with the wireless phone data, available to be downloaded to met coursework results a new cell phone when the old one is replaced or upgraded. participated in conversion of core LightSurf PictureMail technologies to Struts/Tiles for application branding by other wireless carriers; created master default CSS stylesheet and influence customized for each retailer. DHTML drag drop MMS Composer combines pictures, text, audio and met coursework videos for web-based multimedia messages to phones or email addresses; access to media in all Albums and Gallerys, slideshow and capitalism and socialism single slide previews, session persistence, etc. For Verizon field trial and Rogers Wireless of Canada ( LightSurf Press Release ). Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer.

Responsible for creation and maintenance of around 80 JSP pages , doing JSP / Java and london met coursework results JavaScript programming, advanced DHTML including insert, delete and re-sequencing of TABLE rows in the browser, alternate screen layouts of assistant business cover FORM fields based on User input (all without refreshing the page from the server), fixed column headings with scrolling TABLE rows , advanced CSS using positioned content, browser validation of FORM data, User interface design, minor modifications to servlets. JSP application programming on a Spend Management system for eBreviate , part of the A. T. London Met Coursework Results. Kearney Procurement Solutions unit. Spend Management Technology is a database that accepts and consolidates data feeds from on the media influence multiple historical accounts payable systems to track spend across the enterprise by division, business unit, supplier, and london results category/commodity. It allows companies to identify and monitor compliance of negotiated agreements, provides comprehensive spend information on company/subsidiary relationships to media influence fully aggregate and london results leverage spend, and facilitates the management of of title pages TE and P-card (Procard) spending. Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer. Photography-oriented web site, film quality prints from your digital camera , personalized photo greeting cards , framed prints and other products, manipulation of london results images, borders, cropping, address book, shopping cart, etc. Participated in two major revisions of the Shutterfly web site over a period of 19 months. As member of small front end team, focused primarily on JSP ( Java Server Pages ) and JavaScript programming in a BEA WebLogic environment. Produced rapid functional prototype and final production web pages on a regular, short schedule (2..4 weeks). HTML page layout, style sheets, PhotoShop work, JavaScript and Java application programming were used to accomplish the following tasks: Did the majority of front end application programming for the photo greeting cards , framed prints , share and support sections; page layout, navigation and interactive functionality. Developed a simple Java based system of maintaining state and providing extensive functionality among a collection of write pages, independent of back end support (database, image server, etc.), yet easily connected to same (via Java).

Used browser cookie and london met coursework image replacement tricks to make sure no text typed by User into forms is ever lost (no matter what button is pushed!) . Validation of all data entry forms throughout the site, protection against cross site scripting. Help For Writers. Contributed programming to most functional pages throughout the met coursework, site, especially those related to order review, summary, confirmation, history, address book. Also, many hidden features such as: skins for different partners besides Shutterfly. a pop-up warning window that appears with increasing frequency, starting six hours prior to write good essay a planned shutdown (for web site upgrades). saved user preferences, available centrally and scattered individually on london results appropriate pages. Developed in JSP and Java the good, interactive portion of a content management system that allows marketing people to schedule in advance the dynamic content of promo wells (small graphics scattered over dozens of web pages, each with a link to london a promotional page). Included support for promo well content specific to great money each partner (see skins above). Produced two new courseware modules from scratch using dynamic HTML in met coursework, JavaScript functions, positioned LAYERs and DragDrop features. JavaScript programming, HTML layout, maintenance of existing code including ASP pages in money essay, administrative tracking system. Met Coursework Results. Re-architected the way online courseware modules communicate with back-end tracking system. Eliminated all but one ASP page per module and integrated stand-alone and tracking versions of existing modules into single versions working with or without custom content and tracking (tremendous reduction in maintenance!). Introduced text scripted multiple choice quiz builder using JavaScript DHTML layout and write good essay scoring.

Updated many old courseware pages with clean simple FRAMESET-based JavaScript code. Contributed to new company web site including Perl scripts. London Results. Contact forms and Perl scripts, frames based prototyping, URL masking project to provide each charity with unique URL (involved configuring Netscape Enterprise Server to run a custom Perl script instead of File not found message; the script parsed the URL, did a database lookup of the help for writers, directory name to obtain a numeric ID, then called the BroadVision .jsp engine with appropriate query to generate unique page for london met coursework each charity). Essays On The Media Influence. Three weeks consulting. Wingo Web Site Design (formerly wingo.com) Sausalito, Santa Rosa, Half Moon Bay, Santa Cruz, Kauai (HI) Web site design, programming, remodeling and met coursework results repairs. JavaScript programming , dynamic HTML , frames , cookies , CGI forms , Perl and RealAudio Graphics, titles, buttons, site navigation, photo scan / retouch, CSS Stylesheets, positioned content (layers). Domain name registration, search engine placement, meta-tags e-Commerce: Shutterfly.com (JSP and JavaScript applications) ArmchairSailorBooks.com (custom JavaScript and Perl, since acquired by West Marine) Ketubot by write good essay, Naomi (custom JavaScript and Perl, cookie-based) Services , Portfolio. Software Development Manager for PROFIT$ (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) After being acquired by this former competitor, I continued to lead development of the PROFIT$ Merchandising System described below. Implemented reliable unattended document handling between remote store locations for Purchase Orders, Receivers and Transfers. Developed automated client-server utilities using existing pMail wide area network (see below) for continuous upgrading of large installed User base (thousands of stores), enhanced reporting features for results large multi-store operations (30..50, 255 max), and other major functional improvements throughout the comparing capitalism, application.

Software and computer hardware sales related to london the PROFIT$ product grew from four to assistant manager business development seven million dollars per year during this period. Co-founder, VP of Software Development (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) Created the PROFIT$ Merchandising System , a proprietary Point-Of-Sale Inventory and Reporting system for single or multi-store retail shoe and clothing outlets. Systems sold widely in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean (with international currency exchange and display issues!). Was software architect and chief among a team that grew to five programmers. The PROFIT$ product eventually supported dozens of met coursework software and hardware support technicians, sales people, assorted executives and money generated 20+ million dollars in results, gross sales. (see CAM Data above) Among other things, two key features made PROFIT$ unique at great money essay, the time: Report Generator - From the london results, beginning, a powerful custom report generator was key; it offered the ability to produce reports at any level of detail from vendor, department, class, subclass, color and material down to individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units).

A Group-by feature with associated search criteria, user-defined column headings (choose up to 80 from list, arrange sequence), ability to save pre-defined reports and great money other features made the results, Report Generator a centerpiece of any sales demo. UCSD Pascal , an academic leap of the mid '70s similar in portability to today's Java, was used to achieve a powerful multi-user, multi-store application that could be distributed without re-compiling(!) across a variety of hardware (Intel, Motorola) and operating systems including single and essay capitalism and socialism multi-user DOS, Atari machines, Novell Networks and large UNIX networks. A massive library of london general purpose programming tools including database, list and screen handling features was created to support the of title for research, PROFIT$ application (and others), many using object-oriented techniques pioneered in Smalltalk and Modula-2, translated to Pascal. Implemented first on early super-micro computers using an SQL relational database, performance and results data integrity demands eventually dictated a proprietary variable size record file system (VSDO), optimized for good highest performance on london met coursework UNIX systems. Complete with appropriate file maintenance utilities and essays media influence supporting multi-partition files far larger than the limits imposed by the UCSD pSystem, this key development allowed PROFIT$ to grow with the demands of customers having 30..50 stores (255 max) and from 100 to 4000+ receipts per store in a single day. With Jon Bondy , designed and implemented pMail , a peer to peer Wide-Area-Network for unattended file and data (message) transfers between remote stores, including object code updates of all software.

Logical messaging between applications on machines in remote locations supported easy, reliable, distributed database updates. London. Implemented in 1986 using the on the, portable pSystem and direct dial, point to results point modems, prior to development of the commercial Internet as we know it today.

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My Ed.D. thesis proposal: What does it mean to results be ‘digitally literate’? I submitted the second version of my Ed.D. thesis proposal a while back now. Examples Of Title Pages For Research! I had to london met coursework re-submit as I failed the first submission. Essays On The Influence! This was a bit of london met coursework, a shock to the system, never having failed anything academically before. It was actually partly my supervisor’s fault – who has now left the University of Durham and doesn’t have a doctorate himself… :p.

I was advised to wait until I had the marks back for the thesis proposal before posting it on expectations, my blog. Upon reflection, I could see this was a sensible thing to do, so now I’ve heard back and I’ve passed I’m going to post it in its entirity. I received 63% for met coursework, the following, which isn’t disastrous but less than I would have hoped for. For Writers! Because it’s my second submission, however, the mark that’s recorded is london, 50%. At the end of the day, I’m not overly concerned: my Ed.D. overall is pass/fail… #128578; The comments on the following were: This is a solid proposal which provides a detailed reflection of the relevant literature in which the help, proposed study is to be grounded. Although covered in less detail than the literature section, the proposal provides an appropriate methodological base for the research. The proposal suggests a cross-cultural component and it is important in this context that similarities as well as ‘discrepancies’ are identified and that the study does not become unmanageable.

In general this is a good solid proposal. The proposal itself follows after the ‘tag’ cloud that is indicative of its contents (courtesy of TweetClouds) What does it mean to met coursework be ‘educated’ and ‘digitally literate’? The impact of ICT and expectations money, the knowledge society upon education in the 21st century. Society is london, changing at help, an unprecedented rate. The nature of the family, how we connect with other people, the ways in which our leaders are held accountable, and the extent to met coursework which the media controls our lives are fundamentally different even from assistant manager cover, 25 years ago. Members of every culture and society have the world of everyday experience mediated by technologies, traditions and cultural norms or expectations. (Petrina, 2007:168; Achterhuis, 2001:71) The technologies which mediate life in the 21st century in first-world nations are powerful communicative devices and are developing at an incredibly fast pace. This means that the way in which the world is understood and presented to individuals can be somewhat incoherent and is certainly very different from that of results, previous generations. In turn, unless they are willing to assistant development cover letter change to adapt to the needs and future requirements of learners, schools are in danger of becoming, ‘even more quaint and shaky against the backdrop of technology.’ (Smith Curtin, 1998:227) Schools are the london met coursework, link between generations: they bridge the gap between the great expectations, knowledge and skills of the previous generation and that of the results, next generation. One of the good essay, roles of educational institutions is to ensure that young people have the knowledge and skills for the world of work.

But education is not simply about preparing young people for their working life, as evidenced by recent ‘personalising learning’ initiatives that have emerged across the western educational landscape. There remains something more holistic about the education system that aims at producing ‘educated’, ‘literate’ citizens. As we discover more about how the brain works and about how students learn best, so what we mean by an ‘educated’ person changes. Technology also has a role to play in this, as for some educational thinkers it to a great extent redefines what it means to be ‘literate’. Schools, therefore, are increasingly investing in london met coursework, and exploring educational technology in an attempt to ensure that they remain relevant to the world outside the school gates. Whilst there is a top-down drive to adopt such technologies, however, their pedagogical use is still being worked out at a grass-roots level. With society in a state of flux and of radical transformation schools need to find a way of bridging the gap between their traditional role and the technologically-mediated world in which their pupils now inhabit.

It is an open problem about good essay, which Jacques Delors (Delors, 1996a:172), president of UNESCO wrote in 1996: …there is a decisive issue at stake here, and met coursework, it is important that schools and universities should have a central place in essays on the media influence, a profound change that is affecting the whole of society. London Met Coursework Results! There is no doubt but that individuals’ ability to access and process information is set to become the determining factor in their integration not onlyinto the working environment but also into essay capitalism their social and cultural environment. The concept that shall be discussed in what follows as ‘digital literacy’, therefore, would seem to be a key one for schools and london, individuals who want to of title pages play an active role in the ‘knowledge society’. There is a tension at the heart of school life between preparing students for an uncertain future whilst continuing traditional notions of what constitutes a school. Successfully resolving this tension should result in educational institutions producing ‘educated’ young people who are ‘literate’ within the met coursework results, domains they shall operate, both now and in the future. However, due to the scale of social change witnessed over the last 25 years, coupled with the almost exponential rate of technological development and uptake, resolution of this tension is becoming increasingly difficult for schools.

What does an ‘educated’ person look like in the 21st century? Are traditional literacy skills enough? Although some work has been done in attempting to great expectations make a traditional curriculum more flexible, coherent and met coursework results, relevant, few explicit identifications of what constitutes a literate, educated person in the 21st century have been made (McCain, 2005:49). Assistant Manager Business Development Letter! Having a clear focus as to what it means to have the requisite tools for life in the 21st century – to london be ‘digitally literate’ – would enable schools to synthesise the traditional and the new more effectively. Whilst definitions are both historically and culturally situated (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8), it should be possible to identify common usage, at assistant manager business development, least implicitly, of what educators and policy makers mean when they talk about being ‘educated’ – and therefore ‘literate’ in london, a 21st century sense. In contrast to help for writers the view satirised by Charles Dickens’ character of Gradgrind in Hard Times (‘Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts’), to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century is a more slippery idea to pin down. There is little agreement as to met coursework results what the purpose of education is in the 21st century. Help For Writers! Some thinkers on the topic are instrumentalists, seeing education as a means to a (usually vocational) end, whereas others stress the importance of the process. Likewise, as has been argued extensively, (Barton Hamilton, 2000:11-12; Muller, 2000:56; Delors, 1996b:85) ‘literacy’ ranges across domains and results, applies to much more than reading and pencil-and-paper writing. Agreement upon what it means to examples of title pages papers be a ‘literate’ person, therefore, is also difficult to find.

To have some clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ will help move on the debates taking place at all levels in the western education system. Instead of these conceptions being an updated version of what was learned at school by the previous generation, there needs to london met coursework be a thorough review of the essay comparing capitalism and socialism, needs of both students and the workplace. London! An active examination of the possibilities offered by new (educational) technologies should inform this review in order for it to be as forward-looking as possible. The views of stakeholders and interested parties need to be analysed and on the media influence, compared in order to discover motivations, potential conflicts and areas of results, agreement. Assistant Development! Once these notions of met coursework, what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century have been resolved then the way forward for education to move towards new pedagogies and help for writers, ways of working should become clear. At present, however, the lack of london met coursework, clarity as to essays media what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ means that teachers are subjected constantly to new proposals and met coursework results, reforms that aim to resolve the tension between the old and essay and socialism, the new. Without an idea of the results, purpose of education, it would seem that these efforts are ultimately doomed to fail. To explore claims that traditional notions of literacy are not sufficient for 21st century education.

To analyse policy documents from government down to school level in essay comparing, order to discover the level of london results, coherence in evidence. To highlight discrepancies between pedagogy and practice regarding educational technology in schools. To survey briefly the situation in other countries regarding digital literacy skills. To come up with workable, 21st-century definitions of great expectations money essay, what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ (i.e. literate in the 21st century) Despite Tony Blair’s famous commitment to ‘education, education, education’, the Labour government in the United Kingdom is notoriously cagey when it comes to defining and setting out the purpose(s) of london, education and schooling. Implicit in many of the pronouncements made and reforms undertaken is a focus upon the financial well-being of the individual, and therefore the nation. Achieving ‘economic well-being’ is even enshrined in the compulsory Every Child Matters agenda to be implemented by schools (HMSO, 2003). Leaving aside the use of education as a vehicle to economic prosperity, however, at least one of the essay capitalism, purposes of schooling must be to london met coursework produce ‘educated’ young people. What is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century, however, is difficult to define. Help For Writers! In the past this was much more straightforward, defined by the educational elite.

Today, however, even leading educational thinkers such as David Carr (2003:11-12) have difficulty in pinning down a notion of met coursework, what it now means to essays on the be ‘educated’: The best we can so far say is that to be educated is to come to london appreciate or value for their own sake the non-instrumental or teleological (intrinsically valuable) features of assistant development letter, those forms of knowledge, understanding and met coursework, skill for for research papers, which a reasonable educational case has or can be made. Just to have studied or have some knowledge or skill, however, does not make one educated. One must be able to communicate one’s learning in a meaningful way and put it into london results practice. Carr argues that the notions of ‘education’ and ‘schooling’ need to essay comparing and socialism be untangled (Carr, 2003:15,134), much in london met coursework results, the same way that clarification needs to be sought over the difference between being ‘educated’ and being ‘literate’. With the multiplicity of ways in which knowledge can be communicated in the 21st century comes new literacies to be able to transmit and receive knowledge in these new ways. It has been fashionable of late to ascribe to ‘literacy’ those characteristics that would have traditionally gone under the capitalism and socialism, guise of met coursework results, being ‘educated’. (Delors, 1996a:174; Snyder, 2002:181; Rodriguez Illera, 2004:49-50) Literacy, with the emergence of on the, new domains of application such as ‘computer literacy’ and ‘visual literacy’, has enjoyed an elevation in status. From being seen originally as being able to read and write or as a means to gaining an education, it is now widely regarded as an end in itself. An understanding of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century should lead to a greater understanding of met coursework results, what it means to be ‘educated’, if indeed the latter is something over and above the former. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the adjective ‘literate’ means, ‘acquainted with letters or literature; educated, instructed, learned.’ To many educational thinkers, however, this is an outdated definition.

In 1958 UNESCO defined literacy as ‘the ability of an individual to read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life.’ The difficulty with both these definitions is that they categorise people as either literate or illiterate allowing for essay, no shades of grey. Literacy is defined on a ‘macro’, global level without an understanding of literacy within a given domain or for a specific purpose. There is no scope with these definitions to be able to describe an individual as literate when it comes to pencil-and-paper-based reading and met coursework, writing, but almost ‘illiterate’ when dealing within a domain mediated by help technology. Understood broadly, literacy can be an elusive human construct: it means different things and involves different skills depending upon the culture and time period within which an individual operates. Met Coursework Results! Whilst in the western world ‘literacy’ has traditionally meant the ability to read and write with pencil and paper, this makes a nonsense of essays media, societies with oral traditions and records. Postmodern educational thinkers have therefore attempted to deconstruct ‘literacy’, understanding it to consist in many different ‘literacies’. The main stimulus to this, as Kellner (2002:163) attests, is the widening use of technology in society: As technological convergence develops apace, individuals need to london met coursework results combine the essays on the influence, skills of critical media literacy with traditional print literacy and new forms of multiple literacies to access and navigate the new multimedia environments. This depends on an enlarged view of literacy, one that goes beyond the mere functional skills set out in UNESCO’s 1958 definition.

Literacy becomes ‘gaining the skills and knowledge to read and interpret the text of the world and to london results successfully navigate and negotiate its challenges, conflicts, and crises,’ (Kellner, 2002:157) ‘the application of… knowledge for specific purposes in specific contexts,’ (Scribner Cole, 1981 – quoted in great money, Rodriguez Illera, 2004:51), a ‘set of social practices’ that are ‘historically situated’ (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8,13). Literacy in the postmodern view is a fragmented notion: contextually dependent and culturally constructed. New literacies are being formed all the time (Reilly, 1996:218). This has led to the compartmentalisation of different forms of literacy such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘visual literacy’, and ‘critical media literacy’ which served to demonstrate how, for example, an london met coursework results, extremely literate person on the traditional view could be ‘illiterate’ when it comes to communicating with the aid of technology. Whilst the postmodern deconstruction of literacy has been useful for purposes of clarification, something about the original holistic meaning of ‘literacy’ has been lost. Literacy is reduced to a science, as training within a given domain. Help! There remains something of a binary distinction between those who are literate within a domain and those who are not.

UNESCO’s most recent definition in its 2004 position paper (UNESCO, 2004:13) recognises and addresses the limitations of both its own 1958 position and that of postmodern thinkers: Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and london met coursework, written materials associated with varying contexts. Essays On The! Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to london achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and essay comparing, wider society. This definition is an london met coursework results, Hegelian-type synthesis of the original, 1950s holistic definitions of for research papers, literacy, and london met coursework results, its more fragmented definition under postmodernism. Literacy is a process, not a state (Rodriguez Illera, 2004) and as such underpins abilities within a given domain. It is better, therefore, to talk of someone having or lacking literacy skills within the domain of digital technologies, rather than ascribing to them a state of being ‘digitally literate’ or ‘digitally illiterate’. Shades of examples pages, grey within each domain are recognised which build towards an overarching global ‘literacy’. As evidenced above, recent definitions of what it means to london results be ‘educated’ by those in comparing capitalism, control of education in the UK are hard to come by. Elsewhere in met coursework, the western world they are more forthcoming, however.

A representative statement is enshrined, for example, in the definitions set down by Michigan State University as part of its VISION 2004 reorganisation: An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and communicate knowledge and information. An educated person has to essay develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and new challenges in society and the world at large. He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of one set of problems and apply them to another. He or she must be able to met coursework results locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and use information in an appropriate way and ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of that information in a clear and accurate manner. That is to say that being an ‘educated’ person involves taking skills and knowledge from one domain and applying them to another, as well as making links between areas of knowledge and keeping up to date with developments within one’s field and those which affect it. This definition appears to have more in common with traditional conceptions of wisdom than it does with those of literacy (Town, 2003:54). Manager Development! Put simply, becoming literate can be thought of as acquiring the met coursework, skills to help for writers be able to participate in met coursework, the discourse of a particular domain, whereas becoming educated is to be able to range across domains and synthesise the good essay, knowledge that has been gained.

The domains of knowledge within educational schools have traditionally been subject-based. Teachers are teachers of one or more specific subjects and the knowledge, if not the skills, learned are particular to that domain. However, as Muller (2000:2) states, knowledge is intrinsically social – which means that the boundaries and constituent elements of domains of knowledge are socially determined and defined. As a result, literacies change as societal definitions of domains of knowledge change. We view knowledge within a given domain through the lens of current literacies (DiSessa, 2000:65) meaning that what an individual can know and understand is limited by met coursework results and dependent upon their use of great expectations money essay, semantic and technological tools.

Limiting the london results, ‘micro-literacies’ that make up the more holistic view of media influence, literacy (‘macro-literacy’) is to limit the ability of the individual to london access some of the knowledge within a given domain. For example, using the ‘micro-literacy’ of familiarity with some digital technologies could allow Geography students to communicate in real-time with other students around the world. The knowledge they would gain from essay and socialism, this would be of a different order from that which they could construct from the inputs of met coursework, teacher and textbook. Great Expectations! Each ‘micro-literacy’ the students develop counts towards a more global Geographical ‘macro-literacy’. In turn, this would feed into an ever-higher ‘macro-literacy’ that enables the student to met coursework function in the world they inhabit. Write! To be ‘educated’, therefore, could be understood as making links between various domains, which in turn depends upon both micro- and macro-literacies. Macro-literacies cannot be developed without first developing micro-literacies.

If knowledge is information contextualised within a given domain, and domains are dependent upon london results cultural and societal factors, then knowledge is affected by the rate of change of a society. When the rate of societal change and technological innovation is reasonably slow – or at least relatively stable – educational institutions are able to predict what an educated person will look like in ten to fifteen years’ time and prepare students accordingly. When the rate of essays media, societal change and technological innovation increases, however, these predictions become less accurate and met coursework results, strategies have to pages for research employed in order for educational institutions to be able to results function. Assistant Development Cover Letter! In practice this means schools sitting on a spectrum somewhere between reactionary measures and furiously attempting to keep up with the london met coursework, latest initiatives. The difficulty that schools face, as Bourdieu (1988, cited in Snyder, 2002:178) notes, is for writers, that to transform the present one must have a secure grasp upon it. Results! Given the write good, ‘precariousness’ of contemporary life this is difficult to achieve: the ‘sociality’ of knowledge means that domains of knowledge and of enquiry are constantly shifting. As a result educational institutions walk a tightrope between anticipating the world which their students will inhabit and introducing them to the knowledge and skills that have been and are currently being used by society. The rate of change of society in the 21st century is being driven to results a great extent by developments in influence, technology. As the OECD report Learning to Change: ICT in Schools (2001:9) noted, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has changed the way we live and results, communicate with one another:

The ubiquitous presence and write good, utility of ICT in modern life are having a significant impact on the way we live, and london, even on the notion of an educated person. It has led to the concept of the knowledge society – sometimes also called the learning society or information society. There is a widespread awareness that these developments have profound implications for education, and that schools must change, but as yet little detailed consideration of the extent of the change needed and the advantages that ICT can bring. The growth of the knowledge society and the pervasiveness of the technology represent a major challenge and a major opportunity for education. Education has a pivotal role to play in society as it is the link between past and future generations. In the past this link has been relatively easy to manager achieve, as the knowledge and skills useful to acquire would vary only london met coursework results, slightly within a generation. In the brave new world of digital technology, however, fundamental shifts in required knowledge skill sets and knowledge can occur several times within a generation. Essays On The Influence! The most important skill one can have in a world where knowledge has a ‘half-life’ (Machlup, 1962) is to learn how to learn, to have a secure framework or scaffold upon which new knowledge can be grafted and discarded when necessary. This changing nature of knowledge has been described by Siemens (2006) as knowledge having ‘broken away from its moorings, its shackles’. Nowhere is this more evident than in met coursework, the realm of educational technology where, using the tools already available in most schools, learners across the write, world can communicate, interact and share.

The feeling amongst many writers uneasy with current western-style education systems is that tools which can (and in most cases should) be used to radically transform the london, way young people are educated in the future are being used to prop up the existing system. Tools which should be used to create new literacies are being shoehorned to essays media supplement or gloss those of the past. Some writers talk of these digital tools being retro-fitted to outdated pedagogies to produce what could be termed ‘School 1.5’ instead of ‘School 2.0’. Ironically, when these tools do not lead directly to huge learning gains, at least on such measures as school league tables and the like, it is the london met coursework, tools themselves rather than the pedagogy and education system which are blamed. Using relevant technologies is essential in 21st century education when it is the essay comparing and socialism, principal way by which the world is mediated to individuals; new pedagogies need to be constructed to use the tools and technologies invented and used outside of the school gate. When tools such as online read/write reference resources become more accessible than books and lecture notes, a shift occurs in the way that learners conceptualise not only research, but the world itself.

As many authors have noted, we use technology to shape the world – but tools, technological or otherwise, also shape us (Burnett, 2002:145; Apple, cited in london met coursework, Darder, et al., 2003:454; Demetriadis, et al., 2003:34; Provenzo, et al., 1999:40; Sutherland, et al., 2004:6) Although he could not have envisaged the online worlds available to pages for research us through the Internet, the effect of such tools on learners is put perhaps most succinctly by Dewey (1925, quoted in Blacker McKie, 2003:235): A tool is a particular thing, but it is more than a particular thing, since it is a thing in which a connection, a sequential bond of nature is embodied. It possesses an objective relation as its own defining property. Its perception as well as its actual use takes the mind to other things. The use of met coursework, educational technology, then, mediates the experience of learners with regard to education and to knowledge, but then so does the use of any tool. This process of human-created tools mediating human experience has an great expectations essay, impact upon education: learners need to be able to use and met coursework results, shape these tools for their own ends. To be ‘educated’ involves being able to leverage semantic and technological tools across domains in order to make connections. To view the possibilities and help, potential impact of london, educational technology requires a re-imagining of teaching and examples of title, learning. Even with a reconceptualization of london met coursework results, what it means to essay capitalism be ‘educated’ and ‘literate’ in the 21st century, what does not change is the human element in learning, a thread that winds its way from the Socratic dialogues through to 21st century classrooms and london results, (virtual) lecture theatres. Although there were fears in the early 1970s when computers first began to examples for research be integrated into the mainstream that society would become dehumanised, the former still serves as a tool to the latter.

In fact, using ICT is more than just a tool, as computers and other digital devices are flexible enough to adapt to london results the user and present them with many different communication and processing options. It is perhaps better visualised as a plethora of many intellectual tools. For Research! This nuanced view is unfortunately missing in much of the met coursework results, discussions surrounding educational technology and write, the use of computers in schools more generally. Lemke (2002:45) perhaps demonstrates the most balanced understanding of the ways that educational technology can be used to enhance learning. New technologies can often do the job of simulating and talking about the typical activities of the community far better than the average teacher in the average classroom.

Technologies will not, however, be able to substitute for met coursework, direct participation, nor will they be able to replace thoughtful guidance of examples pages, students’ critical reflection and analysis, nor the emotional encouragement of achievement and creativity that live teachers provide. The difficulty is that the majority of educators do not understand the revolutionary potential of ICT to their day-to-day teaching. What they see as akin to the television or overhead projector has, if not the ability to london ‘blow up the school’ (Papert (1984), cited in Cuban, 1986:72), then certainly the ability to essays media help create an environment where learners can construct their own educational tools. London! Micro-literacies can be thought of as having the ability to create, or at least modify, tools in order to make sense of the knowledge within a given domain. Teaching youngsters how to use existing, outdated tools when a culture is undergoing radical change, is at best anachronistic (Claxton, 2002:23). Educational technology is great expectations money, not the answer to everything – a teacher’s pedagogical outlook and teaching ability is still the biggest determinant factor in the quality of a learner’s education – but technology does allow different kinds of ‘ecologies’ to be created.

These are more likely to london results be focused on learning than on ‘teaching’. (Burnett, 2002: 145) ‘Learning ecologies’ demand a different approach to education than has been possible previously, and is reflected in assistant cover letter, some of the ‘personalising learning’ agendas that have made their way into policy in some areas of western education. Instead of the school or teacher-centred model of learning that mass education has been built upon thus far, a learner-centred ecology has been mooted, especially by constructivists. The driving force behind this has been the possibilities opened up by ICT, which has driven curriculum change (OECD, 2001:15) and london, a rethink of what we mean by ‘literacy’. The difficulty lies in what Levin Riffel (1997:18) call the ‘logic of great money essay, confidence’: schools can remain fundamentally unchanged so long as they are seen as embodying the right kind of london met coursework, activities and processes. Instead of taking steps to improve learning, tests are taken as a substitute. Progress is measured by teachers becoming adept at getting learners through examinations at increasingly higher levels. As politicians also have an interest in examples pages for research papers, these examination results, the whole system becomes somewhat of a charade. Given this barrier, the met coursework, greatest bequest of ICT to help education thus far may have been simply to point out met coursework results how stale and boring traditional teaching actually is (Burniske Monke, 2001:258). Of Title Pages For Research! Whilst educational systems remain in the straightjacket of results and are inextricably linked to a country’s political system, the possibilities of new technologies are likely to london results be directed towards existing hegemonic power structures. However, as Blacker McKie (2003:241) argue, ICT may provide the perfect, invisible, weapon: a tool presented as neutral, but actually fundamentally value-laden and used to write essay perpetuate the position of the elite within society.

Whilst those in positions of control can manipulate the education system and the political process to continue their hegemonic power, then the potential of technology and other innovations are likely to met coursework be minimal. Whilst the use of technology is not inevitable, as a society we have made a decision to put it at the centre of our culture – much in the same way as we did with the automobile in the 1950s. (Balle, quoted in Eraut, 1999:89) To ‘jump off the wagon’ and consider a change of direction (Apple, quoted in Darder, et al., 2003:456) would involve a radical change in our civilization. Educators need, therefore, to essays on the media use the tools available – especially those being used outside the london met coursework, school gates, the cultural experiences of the majority (Beavis, 1998:242). To do otherwise is to business development cover letter prepare young people for a reality that no longer exists – something that is perhaps best illustrated by the following tale told by Benjamin (1971, quoted in Tiffin Rajasingham, 2003:117), …a prehistoric tribe… decided to introduce systematic education for its children. The curriculum was specifically designed to meet particular survival needs in the local environment and so included such subjects as sabre-tooth-tiger-scaring-with-fire. But the climate of the london met coursework results, region changes and the sabre tooth tigers perish. Attempts to change the curriculum to meet new survival needs encounter stern opposition. There will always be opposition to major reforms or a new direction: tradition and the status quo are powerful conservative forces.

But education in the 21st century is about using knowledge and making connections to create educated people in a sense relevant to today’s society. To be ‘literate’ is a relative notion depending both upon the domain within which one is operating and great expectations essay, the relevance of that domain to contemporary life. Uniquely, in the 21st century we could be faced with a literacy problem despite over 99% of people in western society being able to london read and write. Whilst it will remain possible, at least for the time being, for write, individuals to be considered ‘educated’ without using ICT, these individuals will miss out on a large chunk of london results, what it means to be ‘literate’ in great expectations money essay, the 21st century. The micro-literacies they lack, involving the results, ability to connect and understand the for writers, world mediated by london digital devices, will serve as barriers to communication and expression. Technology introduces new ways for humans to communicate and create, introduces new micro-literacies that contribute to the wider ‘macro-literacy’ construct and, as a result, redefines what is help for writers, meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century. What does it mean to london be an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century? Is there such a thing as ‘digital literacy’? How do ‘micro literacies’ feed into wider ‘macro literacies’?

What is the write good, most appropriate learning theory for the 21st century? The proposed thesis will be non-empirical; policy documents, official reports, and scholarly works will provide the data required. Whilst this negates problems surrounding ethical treatment of london met coursework results, research subjects, issues remain as to how to approach and make sense of the data. There are two main methodological paradigms to make sense of research data: the for writers, quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. A purely quantitative approach assumes that objective descriptions of ‘reality’ can be made and that context-free generalisations are possible. A purely qualitiative approach, on the other hand, denies any reality external to that created by the enquirer. On top of this resides dialecticism, a meta-paradigm dependent upon the first two – and Pragmatism, more an heuristic to guide research using these paradigms. To attempt to understand domains, societies and digital spaces within the confines of a positivist quantitative paradigm would seem to london met coursework be overly-restrictive. When discussing the physical world it is possible to hold a post-positivist approach, acknowledging the reality of the external world whilst holding that our relations to it can only ever be subjective.

When discussing arenas that include digital spaces and connections, however, it is difficult to essays on the media see how even this nuanced view of the positivist project can be sustained. On the other hand, the qualitative paradigm also seems to suffer from london met coursework results, a poverty of manager development cover letter, descriptive power when it comes to the ‘blended’ digital/physical arenas that constitute the ‘knowledge society’. People do agree upon the way the world is, connect meaningfully, and experience things in broadly similar ways. To take a blindly poststructuralist/postmodernist view and to insist on the subjectivity of the external, therefore, would be to lose the ability to describe blended arenas and spaces in a meaningful way. A dialectical approach, meanwhile, whilst appearing attractive in synthesizing approaches, seems teleological which is something to be avoided. Certainly given the london results, radically democratic nature of the Internet, for example, no individual or group can direct the ends of the capitalism and socialism, masses. At the london met coursework results, same time, the technology itself does not dictate what it is used for; this depends upon the human user(s). Perhaps the best approach to take, therefore, is the Pragmatic one.

This is essays influence, a ‘multi-methodology’ that looks to understand the world from london met coursework, many viewpoints, therefore building up a more coherent picture. This fits in well with the idea discussed above of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ literacies and also gives more of a picture of what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Pragmatism was originally formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the pragmatic maxim: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the essay, object. (quoted in met coursework, Potter, 1996:94) By this, Peirce meant that concepts (and therefore knowledge statements) emerge from the effects of things such as tools and objects. We need, therefore, to know how tools – digital and otherwise – are actually being used rather than how it was that they were intended to be used. Objects and concepts cannot be separated and considered to write good have a separate ‘reality’ from the sum total of the effects they have upon people and the environment. As a result, considering these effects from multiple points of view allows us to understand better those objects and concepts. In terms of ‘digital literacy’ this means analysing how government pronouncements work in practice, how policy documents translate into ‘reality’, and considering how representative are surveys and studies making claims about learners in the 21st century. The thesis, then, shall include data collection in the form of analysis of policy documents from government down to grass-roots level.

An adaptation of the eight-step process outlined by met coursework results Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) shall be considered as a model to move from research question through to analysis. This, briefly stated is: Formulation of research question(s) Outline of purpose of mixed research Selection of research methodologies Data collection Data analysis Data interpretation Legitimation Final report with conclusions drawn. The data being collected in help for writers, this non-empirical thesis comes from a multitude of sources. As a result, the met coursework, Pragmatic method will allow for research from essays media influence, various backgrounds to be juxtaposed and synthesised where appropriate to give a bigger and more coherent picture.

Steps 4-6, data collection, analysis and interpretation will therefore be somewhat combined rather than in distinctive ‘steps’. Results! Step 7 (Legitimation) will have to come at the same time as Step 3 (Selection of methodologies) to give credence to the entire project. This will result, therefore, in a five-step process: Formulation of research questions(s) Outline of purpose of research Selection and legitimation of research methodologies Data collection, analysis and interpretation Conclusion. This process within the help, Pragmatic framework will allow an met coursework results, understanding to be gained of how the many stakeholders, interested parties and pressure groups within the UK education system conceive of ‘digital literacy’ and help for writers, what it means to be ‘educated’. A multi-methodological approach should ascertain the extent to met coursework results which these conceptions are diverse. At times, ‘hard’ data – such as that provided by comparing capitalism and socialism research from results, a predominantly quantitative perspective – will be analysed and at others a ‘thicker’, more descriptive perspective will be required. The thesis will not attempt to make general and sweeping claims about the assistant manager business, whole education system but instead, where appropriate, highlight conflicts, disagreements and disparities in the wording and implementation of policies surrounding digital literacies. This should inform what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Finally, a comparison shall be drawn with other countries in terms of varying approaches to met coursework results 21st century education and papers, what it means to be ‘digitally literate’.

Difficulties shall certainly arise here in london met coursework results, terms of ease of access to policy documents below governmental level. However, where it would seem that the policies and incentives evident in write good, another country or culture would benefit the educational system in England and Wales, these shall be highlighted. Those countries that it would be worth researching initially, it would seem, are Singapore (government commitment to digital infrastructure), the United States (for purposes of comparison), and another European country such as Sweden or Norway. This, whilst not the main focus of the thesis, should nevertheless give a flavour of global links, issues and concerns and situate the rest of the discussion in met coursework results, a context. The proposed thesis shall focus upon the concept of ‘digital literacy’, using a Pragmatic method in an attempt to understand the educational landscape within which it resides in England and Wales. By comparing and contrasting research, governmental policy documents, the views of various groups within education and on the fringe, and what goes on write essay, in schools, a broad view of what literacy means in the 21st century should be obtained. These shall then be compared and contrasted both internally and with other countries, especially economic competitors to met coursework the UK as a whole. Achterhuis, H. (2001) Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn (Indiana University Press) Apple, M. (2003) ‘Is the New Technology part of the solution or part of the problem in help, education? (in A. Darder, M. Baltodano R.D. Torres, The Critical Pedagogy Reader; London) Barton, D. M. Hamilton (2000) ‘Literacy Practices’ (in Barton, D., Hamilton, M. Ivanic, R. (eds.), Situated Literacies: reading and writing in context, London) Beavis, C. (1998) ‘Computer games, culture and curriculum’ (in I. London Met Coursework! Snyder (ed.), Page to assistant business development cover Screen: taking literacy into the electronic era; London, 1998) Blacker, D. J. McKie (2003) ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (in N. Blake, et al. (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of results, Education; Oxford, 2003) Burnett, R. (2002) Technology, Learning and Visual Culture (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age, London) Burniske, R.W. L. Monke (2001) Breaking Down the Digital Walls: learning to teach in a post-modem world (New York) Carr, D. (2003) Making Sense of Education: an introduction to the philosophy and theory of education and teaching (London) Claxton, G. (2002) ‘Education for the Learning Age: A Sociocultural Approach to Learning to Learn’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in on the influence, the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Cromer, A. (1997) Connected Knowledge: Science, Philosophy, and met coursework results, Education (Oxford) Cuban, L. Great Expectations! (1986) Teachers and Machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920 (London) Delors, J., (1996a) Choices for education: the political factor, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France) Delors, J. (1996b) The Four Pillars of Education, in J. London! Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France, 1996) Demetriadis, S., et al. Business Letter! (2003) ‘ Cultures in negotiation’: teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools’ (Computers Education, 41, 2003) Dickens, C. (2007 ed.) Hard Times (London) DiSessa, A.A. (2000) Changing Minds: computers, learning, and literacy (London) Eraut, M. (1991) Education and the Information Society: a challenge for European policy (London) Friedman, T.L. (2005) The World Is Flat: the globalized world in the 21st century (London) Johnson, R.B.

A.J. Onwuegbezie (2004)’Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come’ (Educational Researcher, Vol. 33, No.7, 14-26) Kellner, D.M. (2002) ‘Technological Revolution, Multiple Literacies, and the Restructuring of Education’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Lemke, J.L. (2002) ‘Becoming the met coursework, Village: Education Across Lives’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Levin, B. J.A. Riffel (1997) Schools and the Changing World: struggling toward the future (London) Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (New York) McCain, T. (2005) Teaching For Tomorrow: teaching content and problem-solving skills (Thousand Oaks, California) Michigan State University (2004), VISION 2004 statement (http://www.msu.edu/unit/provost/Educated_Person.htm, accessed 3 October 2007 – cached at http://tinyurl.com/38f3am) Muller, J. (2000) Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and comparing and socialism, education policy (London) OECD (2001) Learning to Change: ICT in Schools Okan, Z. (2003) ‘Edutainment: is learning at risk?’ (British Journal of Educational Technology, 34:3) Petrina, S. Results! (2007) Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (New York) Postman, N. (1993) Technopoly: the surrender of culture to great expectations technology (London) Potter, V.G. (1996) Peirce’s Philosophical Perspectives (New York) Provenzo, E.F., et al. (1999) Computers, Curriculum, and london met coursework results, Cultural Change: an assistant, introduction for teachers (London) Reilly, B. (1996) ‘New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns’ (in C. London Results! Fisher, D.C. Dwyer K. Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: reflections on computing in manager business cover, classrooms (San Francisco) Rodriguez Illera, J.L. (2004) ‘Digital Literacies’ (Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9 (November 2004) Siemens, G. (2006) Knowing Knowledge (http://www.knowingknowledge.com, accessed 24 August 2007) Smith, R. P. Curtin (1998) ‘Children, computers and london met coursework results, life online: education in a cyber-world’ (in I. Snyder, Page to Screen, London) Snyder, I. (2002) ‘Communication, Imagination, Critique – Literacy Education for expectations money, the Electronic Age’ (in I. London Met Coursework! Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Stonier, T. C. Conlin (1985) The Three C’s: children, computers, communication (Chichester) Sutherland, R. InterActive project team, ‘Designs for Learning: ICT and knowledge in the classroom’ (Computers Education, 43, 2004) Tiffin, J. L. Rajasingham, (2003) The Global Virtual University (New York) Town, J.S. (2003) ‘Information Literacy: definition, measurement, impact’ (in A. Martin H. Rader (eds.), Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st century, London, 2003) UNESCO (2004) ‘The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies and Programmes (France) Wow Doug – looks pretty darn impressive to me. Also looks like a heck of a lot of work. Well done! How dare they fail your first submission – it was a masterpiece ;o) PS love the quotation in your new header – very amusing :oD. Thanks for essay, the praise, Jenny and Lisa! #128578; @Lisa: This is actually the one of which you kindly agreed to proof-read a draft.

Have you noticed that the quotation in the header changes when you refresh the page? :-p. I subscribe to George Siemens elearningspace and received an email today, with a link to your blog. It’s come at met coursework results, an opportune time, I’m considering concept papers for my ed.D. For Writers! as well (at Nova Southeastern Uni). For a course leading up to london results my concept paper, I wrote papers on social networking, globalisation and technological progress as well as trends in help, education. ON another note, where I teach ( an International School in Kuala Lumpur) is moving towards at 1:1 program. London Met Coursework Results! We’ve visted 3 different schools, where terms such as “21st century learners” and “21st century literacy skills” are mentioned, however not articulated. I loved your proposal, similar to the direction where I am heading. Hi Bron, glad you liked the proposal and you found it useful! #128578;

George Siemens has linked to this proposal, but for some reason it doesn’t seem to help have shown up with a trackback… :-s. Thought your proposal was great. Met Coursework Results! I’m starting my research for great expectations essay, my Ed.D in primary schools in the West of Scotland. My topic is very similar to yours, ‘The impact of life on met coursework results, literacy practices: Digital Literacy in primary schools’. I’ll send you my first paper soon. I’ll send you my first paper soon.

That would be great Jane – thanks! It’ll be interesting to compare and contrast not only primary/secondary issues, but those of the Scottish/English systems. #128578; I#039;m leading an initiative at my universtiy that aims to define and deliver Digital Fluency as a core graduate attribute. 6 months into good essay this work and people here are now getting really interested in london met coursework results, the concept and its relevance to 21st century learning. Let me know if you#039;d be interested in examples of title pages, this -happy to share what we#039;ve learnt so far. That sounds very interesting! With Jane at the Primary level, myself at the Secondary level and you at results, University level, we’ll have it all covered. Do get in touch via the manager development letter, contact form directly to let me know what you’re up to. #128512; quite impressive, indeed. would like to know what the evaluators thought to be the missing 37 % ? I sympathise on london, the failure thing.

Check out my post on the subject. I reckon this is a good topic, but potentially broad. There’s certainly a wealth of material on the blogosphere that you could use. There are quite a few analogies with functional literacy that can be drawn. First if all: your work looks very good. I don’t understand what your evaluators might want more… I’m working (and it will be very probable also part of my PhD..) on a project about the concept of “digital competence”. We are developing also tests and other assessments. Maybe it could be useful share our works…

1. Is DL the same at all age levels (e.g., high school graduate vs college graduate)? 2. Is DL the comparing and socialism, same for all professions? 3. Who is to define DL — you? Pretty subjective and not very research based. 4. Met Coursework! Put all research results in help, a table to see which one says what skill is needed. 5. London Met Coursework Results! Won’t your results be outdated almost by the time you’re finished? Thanks for the questions and feedback. My response: 1. That’s certainly something I’ll be looking at. My gut feeling is that they’d all be on the same spectrum, yes.:-) 2. Essays On The Media! I’d need some counter-examples to prevent me simply saying ‘yes’.

In the same way that ‘literacy’ ranges across domains, so ‘digital literacy’ does, I think. 3. I’ll be looking at how others have defined digital literacy and whether definitions of other terms come close to what I’m getting at. I’ll be looking for consensus, common sense and tentative suggestions, not dogmatic statements about what I believe – so I hope it will be research-based and moving towards some type of objectivity. :-p. 4. I’m not entirely sure what you mean by this. Could you elaborate? 5. Perhaps, but hopefully not! Also, I’m undertaking the london, Ed.D. for a variety of reasons. One of the strongest is for my development and so I interact with a wide range of write good essay, literature and london results, resources.

It’s as much about me grappling with issues as it is about contributing something original.:-) 4. Write! If you’re going to research what others say about DL and what skills are included in those definitions, then it makes sense to put that info into a table so that you can compare visually across columns/rows. I’m due to start my Ed.D next year. It’s really interesting and useful to read your proposal. At present I’m considering focusing on london met coursework, the relationship between the great expectations money, primary school and parents (stakeholders) in light of the Ed changes since 1988. Your proposal is impressive.Incidentally,I just passed my Ed.D proposal.I am studying at london met coursework, the university of Sheffield.I am focusing on boys and literacy.But I am curious:How can a non doctoral research supervisor manage the work of a doctoral student?

@Andre: Exactly! I haven’t been too impressed with the examples, lack of urgency in finding myself a new one, either… #128577;

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A Critical Analysis of Bella Swan. Soon, Bella arrives at met coursework results, school. The very first person to talk to expectations money, her is a girl named Jessica. London Met Coursework? At this point, nobody knows Bella; she's just the strange new girl from Phoenix. Jessica seems to welcome her with open arms, and acts very friendly toward the new girl. Jessica introduces Bella to essay comparing and socialism, other friends, such as Angela, and gives her a place to sit at lunchtime. Despite the fact that Jessica seems so open and welcoming and friendly, Bella thinks of her as shallow, whiny and met coursework results, annoying automatically. She stereotypes Jessica and labels her from the of title pages papers start, just because Jessica said seemed slightly wistful for the boy Bella takes a liking to after seeing his beauty from across the cafeteria.

Once Bella and Edward become official boyfriend and girlfriend, Bella ignores all of her friends completely. She doesn't speak to met coursework, them at all, and ignores their general existence. Examples Of Title For Research Papers? They don't matter; she has a super hot boyfriend now! Of course, in New Moon, Edward dumps her. London Results? For months, she continues to completely disregard her friends. When she finally wants to be friends with Jessica again, she is shocked to see that Jessica is for writers, reluctant. Of course, Jessica must be a terrible person for london being hesitant at becoming friends with someone who seems to ignore you most of the time! They go out to assistant business cover, the movies, and london met coursework results, Bella goes out and puts herself and Jessica both in danger of possible rapists. Now, Jessica could have run away. She could have easily abandoned Bella.

At this point, Jessica realized that Bella has been using her. Most girls would get angry and essay, storm off to leave their friend to whatever fate awaited them. However, Jessica stayed by london met coursework her side. This is truly loyal and even brave. Naturally, Jessica is angry with Bella for putting her in danger so selfishly. Write Good Essay? However, Bella is appalled!

How dare someone not let her use them! Isn't that what friends are for anyway? So she, once again, disregards Jessica and london results, labels her as a bad friend and as a girl who just wants to be more popular. This basically means that she is supposed to be the authors picture of essay comparing perfection. How many people tell Bella that she is so mature for her age and she is so beautiful and she is so selfless and london, she is so intelligent and she is just an write good amazing person in general? Of course, we know better, but this is in met coursework results SMeyer's point of view.

No, clumsiness is NOT a character flaw. I think I went over write good essay this already? What flaw did SMeyer purposely give to Bella? Loving Edward too much doesn't count, nor does clumsiness, nor does being too loyal or anything like that. I mean a REAL flaw. Examples of real personality flaws in real characters include. Implusive and disregard to the rules for Harry in Harry Potter. Shallow for Tally in london met coursework results Uglies.

Selfish for essay Lestat in The Vampire Chronicles. Thoughtless and selfish for met coursework results Ralph in Lord of the Flies. Essay Comparing And Socialism? Ungrateful for Coraline in Coraline. . and london, plenty more. Bella possesses no such flaw (on purpose, at least). Come on. SMeyer even said so herself; in fact, she's said it directly to her husbands face. If Edward or Jacob walked up to essay and socialism, the door, she would leave her husband in an instant. Boy, do I feel sorry for that man for having to put up with that woman. Take a look at Bella's physical description. Then take a look at a picture of SMeyer. Similar?

Maybe a bit too similar. We are told she gets top grades. We are told she loves reading, especially works that are supposed to seem sophisticated so that Bella seems intelligent. However, do we ever see any proof of her intelligence? Nope. She's supposed to be beautiful, because that just makes her more perfect, right? Then, she tries to london, be modest about it. She's supposed to write essay, be so selfless (though we know she's quite selfish). She's supposed to be absolutely perfect, to a point where it's fake.

She's not truly perfect; she's a Barbie doll. Yes. Absolutely yes. She gets the man of her dreams without even trying. She gets the met coursework perfect family without even trying. Assistant Business Development Cover? She is admired by all without even trying. Results? She becomes the most popular girl in school by the end of lunchtime without even trying. She becomes a vampire, which is exactly what she wants, without working for it at all. She doesn't have to struggle through her newborn phase; she's a natural! She also gets the best baby she can possibly imagine, when vampires can't even have babies!

Lucky her! She becomes the most graceful vampire ever! She becomes the most powerful vampire ever! And she doesn't have to lift a finger to get what she wants! Isn't that great? -Needs a man in her life CONSTANTLY. Write? -Needs a man to stand up for her ALL THE TIME. Results? -Happily cooks and cleans for her father who sits around all day watching football and pages papers, drinking. -Acts like a servant to met coursework, any male who asks it of her. -Edward always wins. Always. Bella doesn't mind though.

He's only looking out for her, right? Some twilight hater does not like my book where I am the inspiration for the main charactor and she mocked my sparkling prodigys go forth and slay her my minions. Nah im kidding about what was on the website but she just really bugs me you know. Honestly, I was a fan of Twilight until I began seeing its imperfections. And Bella's character really annoyed me, so thank you for posting this article and speaking the truth!

I mean, you pointed out all the flaws in her character. Seriously, though, thank you for for writers writing this article. You discuss Bella's motivations. Please keep in mind that Bella isn't real, she doesn't have her own motivations! Her motivations are whatever the met coursework author chooses them to be.

You say This makes me think that maybe Bella isn't moving away for her mother's sake; maybe she's moving to essays on the media, get away from her mother. That makes it sound as though she's a real person who could potentially be hiding her real reasons from the london met coursework reader. When Bella needs to use Jess for essay that girls night out, she isn't shocked when Jessica is reluctant! She knows before she asks her that it's going to be awkward. And she definitely never says that Jessica is a bad person because of her reluctance, I'm not sure where you got that from :( Again, I do not remember Bella ever mentioning that she doesn't talk to her friends because they are unworthy of her company. I was under the impression that she just isn't incredibly social, combined with a little bit of met coursework disinterest. But I certainly didn't think that she disliked them, or though of them as unworthy of for writers her time! Granted I haven't read Twilight for a while, but I certainy don't remember Bella thinking that Edward was the met coursework results only one good enough for her when she first saw him : Could you please quote that part?

I also don't remember her basing her opinion of him on his eyes. You mention that SM may have meant clumsiness as a flaw, but that it doesn't work as one. Assistant Manager Business Development? I assume the reason you're pointing this out is london met coursework results, because of write Bella's Mary Sue-ism (no flaws=Mary Sue) :) The problem is, Mary Sues are bad is an results opinion, not a fact, so it can't really be used as evidence for write essay why Bella is a bad character :)Personally, I couldn't care less whether or not she's a Mary Sue! I like her :D. Bella only fell in love with Edward because he was good looking, and Edward is so attracted to london, her. Scent and keeps going on about how he loves brunettes ( and examples for research papers, not strawberry blondes. - I used to care but now I don't XD) . I used to like twilight until I noticed all the flaws. Results? For a bit I was like a. Total fan girl but honestly people that live in a fantasy like this are quite sad I mean seriously its soooo fake. Completely unrealistic, imagine if you got married and had your first kid at 18?? Also Edward is pretty shallow. I used to expectations money essay, think he was such a deep and interesting character but its really just stereotype prince and its just SM's fantasy that she wanted for herself. Also Robert pattison is not nice he's really smug and anti-social but that's just my opinion.

However it's shared by Jack Whitehall if you don't like R-Patz search jack Whitehall live at the Apollo and its the least recent 1. Met Coursework Results? Also watch twilight sucks if u haven't seen it lol. Sign In or join Fanpop to add your comment. Critical Analysis of Bella Swan Related Links. Comparing? 2006-2017 Fanpop, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Results? A Member of Townsquare Entertainment News.

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Duty of care and medical negligence. Tel: +44 114 243 4343. Daniele Bryden, FRCA LLB (Hons) MML, Ian Storey, LLB (Hons); Duty of care and medical negligence, Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care Pain , Volume 11, Issue 4, 1 August 2011, Pages 124–127, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkr016. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. Negligence arising from medical acts may result in a civil action by the injured party (claimant) or a criminal prosecution by the state. Medical negligence is proved if all components of the three-part test are established on the balance of probabilities (civil suit) or beyond reasonable doubt (criminal prosecution). The three-part test establishes that the doctor owed a duty of care to the patient, the duty of care was breached, and as a direct result of the london results, breach the patient suffered harm. Successful civil actions result in and socialism monetary compensation to the injured party or dependents which may be paid by the employing trust or the doctor's defence organization. Successful criminal prosecutions may result in a custodial sentence for the doctor and an additional GMC fitness to practice hearing. Good record keeping and adherence to established practice guidelines are important as negligence cases may take many years to met coursework results, be resolved.

The Department of examples for research papers Health estimates that 10% of hospital inpatient admissions result in london results an adverse event, 1 but 2% of claims for medical negligence handled by assistant manager the NHS Litigation Authority result in met coursework results court action. 2 However, both the number of claims for negligence and the sums involved in settlement are increasing and so it is important that anaesthetists understand the essays on the influence, factors leading to london results, a possible civil claim for negligence and the potentially considerably more serious charge of criminal negligence, both of which can arise from failures to uphold a suitable standard of on the influence care. This article does not consider claims of negligence in london results relation to consent which has been considered in a separate article in the journal. The principle of ‘duty of care’ was established by Donoghue v Stevenson in 1932 wherein Lord Atkin identified that there was a general duty to take reasonable care to avoid forseeable injury to a ‘neighbour’. 3 In this case, a woman in Paisley drank ginger beer from essay a bottle until she found a decomposing snail at the bottom. As a result the woman became ill and a case was brought against the ginger beer manufacturers for compensation. Lord Atkin determined that the company producing the ginger beer had been negligent in failing to ensure the woman's safety during the production process, even though the london results, ginger beer was not bought by the woman but by expectations essay her friend.

It was established that a general duty of care was owed to a neighbour; a neighbour was defined as ‘someone who may be reasonably contemplated as closely and directly affected by an act’. In this case, it did not matter who had bought the ginger beer, since it was reasonable to london met coursework, consider that anyone who drank the beer would have suffered the capitalism and socialism, same consequences and could therefore be considered under the ‘neighbour’ principle. Where a duty of care is breached, liability for negligence may arise. London Met Coursework. Medical negligence is part of a branch of media influence law called tort (delict in Scotland) derived from the london met coursework, Latin verb ‘tortere’=to hurt. Essays Media. The idea of hurt is an important consideration in establishing negligence, as the majority of tortious claims for medical negligence that do not succeed fail because they cannot establish that harm has occurred as a direct result of an act or a failure to met coursework results, act. To determine negligence, a three-stage test must be satisfied. The procedure therefore relies on examples of title papers establishing fault on the part of the doctor, hospital, etc.

The person making the claim (the claimant) must establish on the balance of probabilities that negligence has occurred by the hospital or doctor (the defendant). London Met Coursework. Compensation is paid in order to return the claimant to the position they would theoretically have been if the harm had not occurred. A monetary value will attach not just to actual expenses incurred (to include a loss of earnings) but additionally to the loss of amenity experienced and the pain and suffering endured in consequence of the injury. There are also more philosophical objectives of promoting accountability and ensuring that those at fault are deterred from future acts of good carelessness by the need to pay compensation. This deterrent effect is somewhat reduced by a standard fee for professional indemnity for london met coursework NHS-employed doctors unless the doctor is engaged in independent practice. The Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) does include such a deterrent element, since the premiums payable by a Trust to help, indemnify its activities can be reduced by having appropriate measures in place to reduce the likelihood of london met coursework results claims using a three-level rating system that takes account of the robustness of safety and governance processes in operation. Great Essay. 4. A person is owed a duty of results care. A breach if that duty of care is established. As a direct result of that breach, legally recognized harm has been caused. The relationship between a doctor and a patient is manager, a special one.

Most anaesthetists work in a hospital environment and do not usually have patients directly admitted under their care. When a patient is admitted to hospital, a duty of care relationship is london results, created, which can be applied to any doctor coming into contact with the patient not just the admitting team. Comparing Capitalism. Hence, it has been argued by medical law academics that any patient we come across in london met coursework results our professional environment is owed a duty of care, not only by the doctors the help, patient comes into met coursework results contact with, but also by those who are employed by the Trust to deliver patient care. For example, a patient who has a cardiac arrest on for writers a hospital corridor is owed a duty of care by any doctor who happens to be passing, and provision of assistance in met coursework such circumstances would probably be expected and would not be classed as a ‘good Samaritan’ act, however this academic view has not currently been tested in a British court environment to our knowledge. This is established where a doctor's practice has failed to meet an appropriate standard.

The standard of the ‘reasonable man’ or the famous ‘man on the Clapham omnibus’ who is said to be an ordinary person placed in the same circumstances is usually applied for most tort cases. However, where there has been a potential breach of professional duty, this is reinterpreted as that of the standard of comparable professional practice. Bolam v Friern Hospital Trust is the most well-known case in relation to this professional standard. 5 It concerned a patient who sustained fractures during ECT treatment and who alleged that care under anaesthesia had been negligent in part because he had not been given muscle relaxation for the procedure, and write good essay had not been restrained or warned of the risks of fracture. It was concluded, however, that negligence could not be established, as evidence was provided that at the time it was not universal practice to administer muscle relaxation, as contrasting opinions existed as to the benefits of muscle relaxation balanced against the increased risks of the london met coursework, relaxant. Write Good. It was argued that if a doctor acted in accordance with a practice that was considered acceptable by a responsible body of london results doctors that was sufficient and the claimant must show that no reasonable doctor acting in the same circumstances would have acted in that way. The ‘Bolam standard’ (by which the alleged negligent practice is compared with that of a doctor's peers) is subject to criticism and heavily dependent on for writers expert evidence for either side which may be in conflict; however, this is the london results, same test as for other professional groups where negligence is under consideration (e.g. engineers). It has been argued that the presence of a body of opinion that supports a doctor's actions is in favour of the medical profession, handing responsibility for comparing and socialism determining negligence back on to those same professionals. Support from results eminent professionals for a course of action arguably makes it easier to examples for research, defend claims of a breach of duty.

The Bolam test is still frequently considered in cases of medical negligence, but it is not definitive, as subsequent cases have called in to doubt the idea that an acceptable standard of care is judged by doctors commenting on london practice standards and that it may be part of the role of the court. ‘The court must be vigilant to see whether the reasons given for putting a patient at risk are valid … or whether they stem from a residual adherence to out of date ideas’. 6 Since the case of Bolitho, where a child with intermittent croup was not intubated by a paediatric registrar and subsequently suffered hypoxic brain injury from a respiratory arrest, it is help for writers, possible for london results the court to decide that negligence has been proved even if a body of medical opinion suggests otherwise. 7 In Bolitho, it was accepted that failure by the paediatric registrar to attend to the child during an earlier episode of croup was negligent. Help For Writers. However, it was argued that even if the london, registrar had attended, it would not have been appropriate to intubate the child at that point, and that therefore the final subsequent respiratory arrest and hypoxic brain injury sustained by the child could not have been prevented by earlier action. The judge reasoned that the argument that a failure to help for writers, attend the child would not have made any difference to the eventual outcome was inconclusive and results asserted that on some occasions, differing bodies of write good essay medical opinion could be legitimately distinguished by the court. ‘It is not enough for a defendant to london results, call a number of doctors to say that what he had done or not done was in accord with accepted clinical practice. It is necessary for the judge to consider that evidence and pages for research papers [to] decide whether that clinical practice puts that patient unnecessarily at risk’. Bolitho, however, is london met coursework results, not universally applied and write good many judgements of negligence still rely on the principles of peer review outlined in Bolam, although the greater use of evidence-based medicine, and the extensive practice guidelines produced by bodies like NICE, now allows judges to have objective benchmarks of practice for london met coursework comparison. It is less easy for doctors to rely on providing a supporting body of opinion as a defence for an alleged breach of duty for practice that is contrary to recommendations and guidelines from external agencies.

There is, however, an essays media understanding that progress in medical knowledge takes some time to london, be disseminated and not every new change can be immediately put in to practice. In Crawford v Board of Governors of Charing Cross Hospital , a patient sustained a brachial plexus injury from being in one position for too long a time period. 8 An article describing such a complication had been published 6 months previously. However, the anaesthetist had not read this article and was not aware of its implications and so was found not to have breached their duty of great expectations money essay care to the patient. Moreover, errors of judgement do not automatically amount to breaches of duty. They only do so in circumstances where the doctor has not acted with a level of care that would be expected from a reasonably competent professional. For doctors in training, this is of particular relevance, as the standard is met coursework, that expected of the doctor in the same grade of that specialty or in that unit.

There is an assumption, established in Nettleship v Weston where a learner driver lost control of a car, that there should be a public expectation of safety, and that doctors in training should be acting to the standard of the grade they are operating in. 9 There are therefore no concessions for a lack of relevant experience, and a doctor in the first day of a new post is write good, expected to work to the same standard of public safety as one who is on the last day of the met coursework, post. Examples Of Title. The difference in performance of the two relates to the degree by which the new doctor may be expected to consult and seek assistance to compensate for their relative lack of london knowledge or skill and the degree to help, which they should expect to be supervised. We would argue that there is an expectation that supervisors allow trainees to do work only that they believe them to london results, be capable of doing. The onus therefore is as much on the supervising department/consultant to reassure themselves of the trainee's abilities to do the assistant manager cover letter, case or procedure as it does for the trainee to consult (e.g. by departmental/consultant reviews of log books on rotation changes, etc.).

Establishing causation can be difficult, as it must be demonstrated that ‘but for’ the london results, doctor's action/inaction harm would not have occurred. Anaesthetists rarely work alone and it can sometimes be difficult to establish where the harm occurred in relation to an episode of medical care (e.g. Essays On The Media. paralysis after aortic aneurysm repair may be caused by the surgery or the provision of epidural analgesia). Unsurprisingly, claims for medical negligence most frequently fail due to an inability to establish causation as there are often a variety of possible explanations for the outcome. However, if it can be shown that the breach materially contributed to the damage or it is more likely that the damage was due to negligence than another cause that is london met coursework results, usually sufficient. Sometimes, in the absence of any other reasonable explanation for a phenomenon, the principle of ‘res ipsa loquitur’ (literally ‘the thing speaks for itself’) applies (e.g. the finding of a retained swab in on the the abdomen at laparotomy can only met coursework, be assumed to be due to its negligent loss during a previous laparotomy).

Such a situation would apply to procedures performed on the wrong limb/side (e.g. brachial plexus block and if damage occurs from that, then causation is assumed to be established unless the defendant can show that there is another reasonable explanation). If negligence occurs as a result of carelessness, then where the carelessness has been so severe that it is manager business, judged to london met coursework results, be ‘gross’, the doctor may be subject to a charge of criminal negligence. Although the requirement to prove criminal negligence is a much higher one (i.e. beyond reasonable doubt, the sanctions are considerably greater and may include a custodial prison sentence for any doctor found guilty of such an offence). A doctor found guilty of criminal negligence is also likely to be subject to fitness to practice procedures by the General Medical Council. Prosecutions for criminal negligence are rare, but the number of occasions when doctors are investigated by the police for a potential linkage to a charge of examples papers manslaughter after a serious untoward event are increasing.

Conduct which goes beyond the level of civil negligence almost invariably involves the death of the patient but there are difficulties in establishing what actions constitute this. Extreme subjective recklessness such as indifference to london results, an obvious risk to the patient or objective evidence of incompetence or ignorance may all satisfy the help, requirement. It is also of concern that recent prosecutions have generally been of doctors in training, where it is london, perhaps easier to establish a sufficient degree of incompetence. Ultimately, the decision rests with a jury as to whether a doctor's action/inaction was so bad that it amounted to a crime. R v Adomako concerned an anaesthetist who had failed to notice his patient was disconnected from the ventilator whilst the patient was undergoing an eye operation. Great Money. The patient suffered a fatal cardiac arrest and the anaesthetist was convicted of manslaughter. It is not clear whether Dr Adomako was not in the theatre and had failed to make adequate arrangements to monitor the patient in his absence or had been present and grossly incompetent in met coursework delivering the anaesthetic and failing to notice the disconnection as the cause of the great expectations money, patient's deterioration. However, the House of Lords considered that either action was sufficient to uphold a conviction as consistent with a consideration that ‘the extent to which the defendant's conduct departed from the proper standard of care incumbent upon him, involving as it must have done a risk of death to the patient, was such that it should be judged criminal’.

10 It is sobering to consider that anaesthesia—a specialty associated with a significant risk of death from met coursework results inadequate actions—could meet such considerations of negligence in help for writers the way that other specialties may not. The civil procedure rules in England and met coursework results Wales allow for claims for medical negligence to be started within 3 years of the expectations, alleged negligence occurring or within 3 years of the victim becoming aware of london met coursework results possible negligence. Examples Of Title. This is of relevance to minors where the results, 3 years starts when the minor reaches the age of maturity (i.e. 18 years of age). Anaesthetists employed by the NHS and acting within the expectations, scope of their employment will be indemnified by the CNST. This covers only services provided in NHS employment and not ‘good Samaritan acts’, private practice, or medico-legal activity. Medical defence organizations will provide cover for these activities and also where appropriate for other independent practice activties (e.g. medical report writing). It is recognized that the deterrent effect on individual doctors of civil negligence claims is weak, although the process is stressful for the individuals involved and time consuming. In 2001, the results, National Audit Office identified that the assistant manager business letter, average clinical negligence case took 5? years from inception to conclusion and that 22% of outstanding cases related to events over 10 years previously. 11 Unsurprisingly the importance of comprehensive, contemporaneous anaesthetic records is paramount in being able to defend any claim. It is also noteworthy that in the Chief Medical Officer's 2003 consultation paper, ‘Making Amends’, many victims of iatrogenic injury desire explanation, apology, and evidence of learning from any mistakes as major outcomes and london results they are not content with mere financial compensation.

Medical negligence is a three-part test whereby a duty of professional care is examples pages papers, owed to a patient and as a consequence of a breach of that duty, the london, patient suffers harm. All parts of the help, test must be satisfied. Civil considerations of negligence require doctors to act to an appropriate standard usually but not exclusively judged by london met coursework the standard of for writers their peers, whereas for criminal negligence the met coursework results, standard of practice has to result in serious harm from actions that could be considered to be incompetent or grossly negligent. Due to the greater availability of practice guidelines to on the media influence, guide the courts, doctors should always consider the implications and justification for deviations from accepted practices should the london met coursework results, patient suffer harm, and great essay doctors in training should be aware that they are expected to london met coursework results, seek advice and assistance where they lack experience in for writers order to preserve public safety. Adequacy of note keeping to help defend any claims is vital. Online ISSN 2058-5357 Print ISSN 2058-5349 Copyright © 2017 The British Journal of Anaesthesia Ltd. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A.

I'm a recipient of an london met coursework IB Diploma, and assistant business cover I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the london results subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. Great Essay. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about met coursework all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the examples for research papers EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). Met Coursework Results. You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to expectations money essay, one at another school through the met coursework results Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below.

The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an pages papers abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of met coursework results contents, the assistant manager business 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Met Coursework Results. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic.

So, how do you pick when the expectations money essay options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about london met coursework results a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. Examples Pages. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. London Results. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about comparing and socialism my Extended Essay. London Met Coursework Results. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by manager cover letter figuring out london which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Examples Of Title Pages. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve?

Or do you enjoy English because you like to london, analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to essays influence, learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of results brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow.

This is a fine line. Help. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . Met Coursework. You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by for writers the Nazis successes and met coursework failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Business Development Letter. If you refer back to london, the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons.

I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of essay 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to london, be in for research papers the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to met coursework results, show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the capitalism only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there.

If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to results, be your advisor, I would start by examples of title for research creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).

For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and london I want to great, conduct an london met coursework experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to essay capitalism and socialism, Foreign Hybrid Cars. Results. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to manager letter, guide you in london met coursework writing your English EE.

EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Essays On The Influence. Consider all of london results your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork.

IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of write good essay feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and met coursework give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Pages For Research Papers. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity.

Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in met coursework results writing the essays on the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to london, three hours in write good essay total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. London Results. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and essay capitalism conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced).

An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is london results clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for great money essay, the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the london results bulk of the essay. It should be about help for writers 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). London Met Coursework. Your body can be split into multiple parts.

For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of assistant development letter your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an results experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the good essay data, discussing uncertainties, and london drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out great expectations a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on results, your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for essays influence, the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. London Met Coursework. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and essays on the influence when certain drafts are due. Results. Not all schools do.

Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is expectations my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on london met coursework, how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an essay outline of your EE and london met coursework results a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the help fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into results, 4000 articulate words the essay comparing capitalism and socialism first time.

Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to london met coursework, work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in business cover your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. Results. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Good Essay. Work on creating the london best possible final draft. November-February of essays on the influence Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to results, your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on capitalism, a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for london met coursework results, the subject-specific one).

The total mark is converted into a grade from write good A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the results typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of essays influence Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the london two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least).

So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Manager. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. London Results. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in expectations money essay either the met coursework extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to write good, get an london met coursework results A EE.

Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at manager business cover improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success.

She loves watching students succeed and met coursework results is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in expectations essay the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about met coursework results acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on essay capitalism and socialism, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

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