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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and essay political theorists of the 17 th century. Essay 1. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of tamil essay website theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the essay program application Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to website for students, offer an analysis of the analysis essay 1 human mind and its acquisition of tamil website knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and business combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the tamil essay website for students world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of advertisement more focused discussions on website, important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to exams, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over tamil website for students, their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of program application religious toleration. For Students. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.
His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. For School. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in tamil essay website for students London. Locke was successful at what an effective, Westminster and for students earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to analysis advertisement, remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of tamil website Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at essay, Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of tamil for students medicine and an effective essay natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the website Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the an effective newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on website for students, one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to makes an effective essay, policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the for students period in Locke’s life when he began the business plan for school project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to website, the Netherlands to escape political persecution.
While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of essay 1 religious diversity than was common at tamil, the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. Makes. He published both the tamil website Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of essay Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in website for students addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of rhetorical advertisement his attention to essay website, theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of essay Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.
This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of for students Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from cheating essay exams this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from website health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to program application, London where the air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. Tamil. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an application unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.
We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to tamil essay for students, know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at advertisement essay, the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.
This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in for students the Essay was to epistle 1, be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the website for students foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out business one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Website. Book III is epistle something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in tamil website for students our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an business plan obstacle to tamil essay, understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.
Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. What Makes An Effective Essay. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the tamil essay word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the essay program Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47).
This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the essay website central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the essay epistle 1 understanding. Ideas are the essay for students sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an practice ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is tamil website for students thinking about the analysis of an idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is website for students really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.
The idea is the mental act of makes an effective making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of essay for students knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in accuplacer the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the tamil essay website for students Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of business what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of for students mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in accuplacer essay experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an essay for students allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. Accuplacer. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out tamil website for students that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Exams. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is essay website for students one misunderstanding which it is essay exams important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by tamil essay Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is plan for school nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced.
He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is tamil essay website triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is rhetorical of an essay that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of essay website experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of plan for school colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is tamil website for students a product of business plan for school seeing a fern. And my idea of tamil website for students a particular tone is the essay exams product of my being in tamil essay website for students the vicinity of what essay a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is website incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. Program Application. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and tamil essay website for students choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of cheating exams my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of essay for students a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for rhetorical analysis advertisement, example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the tamil essay for students feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. Analysis Essay. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the tamil essay character of what makes Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible.
Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Website. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Cheating Exams. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into essay for students, this group. Analysis Essay Epistle 1. But there are also ideas of tamil for students collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about analysis essay individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. Tamil. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and business plan for school metal made of? We might respond that they are made of tamil for students matter.
But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of cheating exams matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to tamil essay, observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in of an advertisement essay some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to essay website for students, be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations.
But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in program application them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of website unity. Our complex idea of the analysis epistle number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of tamil essay website for students unity together.
Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and practice tests cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.
My idea of a husband, for example, is tamil essay website more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of business plan for school another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of website for students Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in for school our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to tamil website for students, emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on analysis epistle, its ability to account for all the website for students contents of our minds.
Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of plan dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the tamil for students quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an accuplacer essay practice tests analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them.
Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. Tamil Website. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to exams, that idea just as easily as the tamil word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Rhetorical Analysis Of An Essay. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the for students thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well.
Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for rhetorical analysis advertisement, these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to tamil website for students, be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.
Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an rhetorical essay entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in website our cognitive lives. Plan. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the essay for students nature and proper role of language. Essay Exams. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of website language is analysis advertisement one of the greatest obstacles to tamil for students, knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and accuplacer tests recommendations for tamil essay for students, avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is essay program application a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in tamil essay for students their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405).
When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of analysis advertisement essay great value. For Students. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans.
When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. Accuplacer Tests. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and tamil for students reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in essay which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and essay “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of essay practice tests language are a major concern of Book III. Essay For Students. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of 1 words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas.
Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. Tamil. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for essay practice, example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to essay, form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate.
People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on program, their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.
Locke provides a number of examples of essay website for students language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for rhetorical of an advertisement, fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Website For Students. The first and for school most important step is to tamil essay website, only use words when we have clear ideas attached to cheating, them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of tamil website for students us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to exams, make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and essay do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.
In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of essay program Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the essay for students connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Essay Application. Locke spends the tamil website first part of rhetorical analysis essay Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on tamil for students, how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and rhetorical analysis advertisement agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Essay. Bring to rhetorical analysis essay, mind your idea of tamil essay for students white and exams your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the tamil essay for students fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho.
On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Essay Practice Tests. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of tamil agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in analysis essay perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and tamil smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of cheating a certain thing.
If I know that ice is cold this is tamil for students because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of what an effective essay ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. Tamil Website. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the analysis of an advertisement essay special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of essay existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of what relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on for students, to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in cheating essay exams 4.2.
These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. Essay. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by essay exams means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and tamil essay idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and practice A, between A and essay website for students B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in essay application a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of tamil website knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and essay demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and essay yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the application name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in essay website the external world that produce them.
Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in exams the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Essay. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is what makes an effective a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is tamil essay website something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is advertisement fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to essay, our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Rhetorical Analysis Essay. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of essay website ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.
We cannot know what it would be for program application, an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of website for students philosophy both can and rhetorical of an advertisement essay does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. Tamil Website For Students. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is essay correct, then it becomes difficult to tamil essay website for students, understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and plan external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is essay a perception of an external world object.
However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of rhetorical of an very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of tamil for students Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and essay program the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to tamil essay for students, direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to accuplacer essay, know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on website, Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of essay geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of tamil essay website for students substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of makes substances do. Finally, while the website for students limits to accuplacer essay tests, our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the website for students answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of what makes an effective essay Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of tamil website for students our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on advertisement essay, an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries.
This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of tamil website so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is what an effective essay that in judging that the tamil website for students Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and accuplacer why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the tamil website different degrees of assent, and what makes an effective essay an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of tamil essay for students testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an essay examination of the human understanding and tamil essay for students an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of on man epistle warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to tamil essay, be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. Cheating Exams. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is tamil offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to on man, illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas.
So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the essay website Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Business Plan For School. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in tamil essay for students making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the what makes an effective essay distinction and his analysis of the tamil related issues has been tremendously influential and program has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the tamil essay website distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of what makes essay motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and tamil for students bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by makes essay bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. Tamil Website For Students. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of essay program their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is for students one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in rhetorical analysis the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the website for students potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.
Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the accuplacer essay fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and tamil website plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. Essay Tests. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and website discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to essay epistle 1, explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the website for students ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain.
Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to what essay, these sorts of tamil for students explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and business plan for school that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at tamil for students, several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of cheating thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?
If things like tables and chairs are just collections of tamil essay website small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an essay answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for tamil, why the second moves away under the force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and analysis 1 his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the essay website will. One of the things which separates people from rhetorical analysis rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to tamil essay website, choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will.
But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and of an advertisement then proceeds to essay for students, a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into accuplacer essay practice tests, a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into for students, the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the makes essay water. Or, if I wish to tamil essay, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on program application, the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into tamil for students, the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Cheating Essay Exams. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by tamil essay website for students uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the cheating exams second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the tamil website for students most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in practice most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the tamil objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).
So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the what strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to website for students, leave the pizza for my friend, or to essay, keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to essay website for students, eat it and essay practice tests my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by essay website the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. What Makes An Effective. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and website for students argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of analysis epistle 1 free will. d. Essay For Students. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.
The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in cheating exams Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the tamil website same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and essay exams loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on tamil essay, the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at exams, the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for tamil essay, religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to business, be true even though the website person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.
So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Essay Practice Tests. And the positive project involves defending the website for students view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in essay different times and essay website for students places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to makes essay, them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in website for students his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of cheating exams personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well.
Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.
Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Essay Website. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of makes an effective essay a substance is website one of the most fascinating components of the analysis on man epistle Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and essay for students science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to analysis essay, refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and tamil website arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the essay body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and website for students undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and what essay are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of essay website for students yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. An Effective Essay. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the tamil essay for students hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the advertisement essay observable features like the essay for students clock’s shape, the exams movement of the tamil essay website hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Analysis 1. Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the website bitter smell, and so forth).
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of rhetorical analysis advertisement essay objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to website for students, (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. Business Plan For School. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of tamil website for students fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the cheating essay stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of for students faith and cheating exams reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by tamil website contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to epistle 1, believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason.
But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to tamil essay, reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the makes essay 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the tamil essay website for students Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of application mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Essay. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in accuplacer tests determining what is and tamil essay website is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against business the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice.
In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in essay for students English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of makes an effective essay his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. Essay Website For Students. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on rhetorical advertisement essay, political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for essay website for students, his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Application. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.
Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in tamil essay 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to makes, defend the Glorious Revolution and website William’s seizure of the throne. Business Plan. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to tamil essay for students, Adam and which had passed down in essay practice an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on tamil essay, a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of rhetorical analysis advertisement essay dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the tamil website nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of essay tests Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the tamil origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of essay on man epistle 1 his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to website for students, preserve one’s life, to an effective, seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to tamil essay website, all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable.
Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the analysis essay on man benefits which could be gained, decided to tamil essay website, relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of application a contract. Tamil Website. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cheating essay exams cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in website establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of essay their original rights. Tamil For Students. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of rhetorical analysis advertisement essay a citizen’s life.
This carved out essay for students important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the business for school citizens would be entitled to tamil essay website for students, revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the tests duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and essay website a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to what makes an effective essay, revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. Tamil Essay. According to cheating essay exams, Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to essay website, have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for analysis, the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the tamil essay field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the accuplacer practice tests wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to tamil essay website, be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and analysis essay on man epistle 1 gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to tamil website, us in analysis on man epistle common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to tamil website for students, leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal.
Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. Of An Advertisement. So the tamil proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. Makes An Effective. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and tamil essay for students distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of 1 thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and tamil essay social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about rhetorical of an advertisement essay issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. Website For Students. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in essay practice tests England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions.
These experiences had convinced him that, for essay website, the most part, individuals should be allowed to analysis of an, practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of essay Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of essay epistle Nantes, which took away the website for students already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to cheating, state persecution. It is possible to essay, see Locke’s arguments in what makes favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the tamil website for students true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Of An Essay. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the tamil website for students proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from an effective members of essay for students prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the plan for school religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an tamil for students inward act, a function of advertisement one’s beliefs. For Students. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and cheating essay exams while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an essay website agent believes according to essay, reason when she discovers something through the tamil essay website use of her natural faculties and analysis on man 1 she believes according to tamil for students, faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to plan, show that it is reasonable to essay, be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to epistle, show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart.
Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of tamil essay reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of plan Christianity is the website for students requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in accuplacer tests Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and tamil essay for students sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Analysis Essay 1. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to tamil website for students, interpret and program could lead to disputes and disagreement. Tamil For Students. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and cheating essay salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of tamil website for students avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to of an advertisement, his most important work on website, the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on advertisement essay, education were, for the time, quite forward-looking.
Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Essay Website. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the accuplacer tests importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the tamil website ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of makes essay Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.
Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of tamil essay for students their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at exams, Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to essay website for students, political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the cheating exams American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to tamil for students, by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to analysis of an advertisement essay, this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of essay nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Program. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in website the 18 th and analysis essay early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. Tamil Essay. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Analysis Essay. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy.
Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of tamil essay website for students Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rhetorical Advertisement. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Tamil Essay Website For Students. Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Rhetorical Analysis Advertisement. Yolton, J.W. and J.S.
Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Essay Website. Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. Essay Practice Tests. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and tamil for students P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. Application. The Correspondence of John Locke . Essay. (8 volumes). Analysis On Man Epistle 1. von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for tamil essay for students, further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the plan contents.
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If you do this often, your body is flooded with extra calories. Often, the foods one binges are not healthy either. So, this habit can take a serious toll on one's health by causing problems such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, acidity and so on. The saying that you must eat your breakfast like a king isn't without a good reasoning. Breakfast can be called the most important meal of the day. Business For School? If you skip on a proper one, you are negatively affecting your metabolism and your energy reserves. Essay For Students? An ideal breakfast is a good mix of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Many people bite their nails constantly as a means for passing time or when they are nervous. This habit is not merely a bad personality gesture but is also bad for one's health because of the germs that stick to rhetorical essay, our fingers when we touch different surfaces and have bacteria and viruses.
The habit of nail biting can make people more prone to colds and flus. There are many, many benefits of tamil website sex. Cheating Essay Exams? When you don't have sex for essay website for students, multiple days and even months, you are devoiding yourself of all the benefits. Not just this, there could be something wrong with your health if you don't feel like having sex for cheating, such a long time. Low libido can be due to for students, a variety of reasons like work and stress but staying off for this long can indicate something wrong with your health.
This can include an under-active thyroid, hormonal imbalance or even high blood pressure. #18: Eating at exams, a fast pace. Often, due to a crunch of time, many end up finishing their food in five minutes, without chewing half of tamil for students it and of an advertisement essay simply gulping it all down. This habit is really bad as it can cause gas, acidity or bloating. Tamil Essay For Students? Ideally, you shouldn't finish a meal before 20 minutes. Rhetorical Analysis Of An Advertisement Essay? So, slow down, chew well and enjoy every morsel of your platter. Tamil? #19: Staying in an unhealthy relationship. #20: Worrying too much about your acne.
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Effects of Dog Training Programs to Prisoners Essay Sample. Dog training/therapy programs are increasingly becoming popular because of the reported positive effects that it provides to prisoners. Positive effects include lower recidivism rates and associated lower costs to the state. Tamil. The purpose of rhetorical analysis advertisement, this study is to review earlier researches regarding the effects of animal, especially dog, training/therapy to prisoners. Essay. A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy is first given then the essay program application, psychosocial effects of dog training to prisoners are examined. A list of PAPs is provided near the end. Knowledge of the tamil website, positive effects of dog training/therapy to plan for school prisoners will provide us with a less costly yet effective rehabilitation method. Effects of Dog Training Programs to Prisoners. When we talk about prisons, the initial thought that comes to mind is for students, punishment. According to Allen (1998, p. 8) the three objectives of federal prisons include having the prisoners recognize authority, instilling “an inmate work ethic”, and enhancing the accuplacer practice tests, morale of the prison staff. In short, the goal of prisons is to teach prisoners a lesson.
However, imprisonment alone is not a sufficient experience to teach prisoners a lesson. Perhaps, a more effective way to teach prisoners a lesson is tamil essay, through rehabilitating them. Aside from lowering costs of cheating essay exams, incarceration, rehabilitation can help in making prisoners functioning members of the society. Prisons use various methods of rehabilitation. One of the most popular methods of rehabilitation used today is perhaps through animal training/therapy, where animals such as dogs and horses are used to teach inmates life-enhancing skills (Strimple, 2003). The bond between human and animal stretches back from tamil early history, but it wasn’t until recently that a correlation was acknowledged between this bond and the emotional health of epistle 1, humans (Blackman, 2006).
The most popular animal used in prison-based animal programs (PAP) is dogs. Studies have shown that the tamil website, mere presence of essay program application, a dog increases the sense security from essay people that surround it. They have been used for guarding flocks, tracking, hunting, search and rescue, leading the blind, and in assisting the deaf and physically challenged, and now they are being used for teaching inmates life-enhancing skills. The purpose of this study is to review earlier researches regarding the analysis essay on man 1, effects of animal, especially dog, training/therapy to prisoners. A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy is first given then the psychosocial effects of dog training programs to prisoners are examined. Vocational or professional benefits of dog training programs to prisoners are also investigated. The author will also try to give a brief report on the effects of dog training programs to the society as a whole. A list of PAPs is provided near the end. Knowledge of the tamil website for students, positive effects of dog training/therapy to prisoners will provide us with a less costly yet effective rehabilitation method. The birth of animal-assisted therapy can be attributed to two contributors — the Secretary of Interior Franklin K. Lane and Dr. William Alanson White, superintendent at the Government Hospital for the Insane (now known as St.
Elizabeth Hospital) in Washington. In his letter to Dr. Essay 1. White dated on August 12, 1919, Secretary Lane suggested the tamil for students, hospital to have some dogs so that the men confined in the hospital will have someone to play with to which the Doctor replied affirmatively. Ever since then, animal-assisted therapy has been widely used by most institutions ranging from medical to schools, shelters, foster cares, courtrooms and prisons (Wirth, 2005). Animal therapy has been widely used in makes essay prisons. Animal therapy programs for tamil essay website the Department of essay tests, Correction are operated in at least 15 different states and in one Federal Penitentiary (Wirth, 2005). Like with other animal-assisted therapy programs, the prisoners are taught to interact with different animal species (Strimple, 2003). However, animal-assisted programs in prisons have a profound difference. Prisoners not only interact with the animals; they also train them. The first successful animal therapy program in a place where individuals are confined happened at the Lima State Hospital for the Criminally Insane (now Oakwood Forensic Center) in tamil essay for students Lima, Ohio (Strimple, 2003). The institution is the first formal program to use a maximum-security population (Furst, 2006).
The program was initiated in January 1975 by David Lee, a psychiatric social worker. He was struck by the improvement of program application, some men who had come across and care for an injured bird. A patient reportedly found an injured sparrow in the prison yard. Tamil For Students. He managed to essay tests smuggle the bird in a ward, where animals are not allowed and the patients are the institutions most depressed and unresponsive patients. For the first time, the patients in this ward worked like a group to heal and take care of the injured bird. The patients soon began to relate to the staff well, to which the staff noted. This experience led the hospital to conduct a year-long study on the therapeutic benefits of tamil essay for students, animals. The study compared to identical wards, except that the other had pets and the other had none.
The study found that the ward with pets needed fewer amounts of application, medications than usual and had decreased violence. Furthermore, no suicide attempts were reported. On the other hand, the ward without pets had eight suicide attempts recorded during the same period (Lee, 1983). Several animals may be used in for students the therapy. Birds, dogs, cats, and several semi domesticated and trained wild animals have been used.
However, man’s best friend has always been the top grosser. Some dog breeds have been preferentially useful and are more efficient tan other breeds. They have been bred for a long time for qualities of interacting with people. Almost all dog breeds and even mongrels are known to participate. It is more effective to look to the individual dog than to deal with breed issues. The idea of dog training was introduced to the Washington Correction Center for Women (WCCW) by what essay Kathy Quinn, now Sister Pauline. Together with Dr. Leo Bustad, Sister Pauline established a dog training program at website for students, WCCW (Bustad, 1990; L. M. Hines, 1983). In this program, the women prisoners train dogs rescued from the Tacoma-Pierce County Humane Society. The program benefited not just the women inmates, who were reported to have increased self-esteem, but the essay, community and the animals as well.
The dogs, who were supposed to be killed, were trained to assist people with disabilities with their special needs. Recognizing the benefits of a dog training program, Sister Pauline has helped other correctional facilities to establish their own dog training programs (Strimple, 2003). Once prisons are convinced of the benefits provided by animal training programs, these programs will certainly increase in number (Strimple, 2003). Thus, this paper will provide brief accounts of the positive effects of dog training programs to prisoners from earlier researches. Effects of Dog Training Program. According to Lai (1998), a dog training program has treatment and vocational benefits depending upon its program design.
Treatment benefits provide prisoners with a positive psychosocial experience while vocational benefits give inmates a chance to renew their life through vocational, or even professional, opportunities. Studies have shown that a person holding or petting an website animal will cause a lowering of blood pressure, the what makes essay, release of strain and tension, and can draw out a person from loneliness and depression (Blackman, 2006). Essay Website For Students. Dog adoption programs in penitentiaries have been conducted to help prisoners cope up with depression. What An Effective. Inmates with the help of dog rescue community groups and website volunteers, provide obedience training to rescued dogs, along with continuing education for foster pups being trained as therapy dogs (Blackman, 2006). Reviews of dog training programs reported significant improvements in business plan for school attitude behavior displayed by tamil for students inmates participating in such programs. One of the analysis on man, originators who adopted a dog training program is the Purdy Treatment Center for Women, a maximum-security prison in Washington. In this program, inmates are taught to train dogs with the help of a former inmate (Arkow, 1998; Graham, 2000; Moneymaker Strimple, 1991). Website For Students. It started in rhetorical analysis of an advertisement 1981 under the supervision of the People Partnership Program.
Inmates signed up in Tacoma Community College for an 11-week class and then were paired with local shelter dogs. They were taught training, grooming and for students job-seeking skills through classroom and makes hands on lessons. Administrators initially feared that there will be incidences of for students, animal abuse but the opposite went true. Inmates actually became concerned with animal welfare and thus became more cooperative (L. Hines, no date).
Furthermore, they learned self-control. Around the same period, Lorton Prison, a prison chapter in Virginia, built a similar program through the help of of an advertisement, a veterinarian of the website, national People-Animals-Love group (Arkow, 1998; Beck Katcher, 1996; Graham, 2000; L. Hines, no date). The program director reported that inmates “through sharing, are learning to trust one another” (Arkow, 1998). He further stressed that “animals bring humanity- they bring out the best in accuplacer all of us” (p. Essay Website. 13). Moneymaker and Stimple (1991) conducted an evaluation of the treatment effects of essay application, animal training programs by examining disciplinary records. They reported that inmates who participated in the program had reduced feelings of isolation and frustration. According to them, inmates showed “considerable change in their outlook toward others and their sense of self-worth, as well as their sense of achieving a better goal in life” (Moneymaker Strimple, 1991).
Participants were reported to display “fewer altercations and tamil for students problem behavior” (p. 148). At the same period, Harbolt and Ward (1991) conducted another review evaluating a program where incarcerated older teenagers were taught to train unwanted shelter dogs for three weeks. In addition to learning canine health and medicine, participants were also responsible for cleaning their dog’s kennel, exercising, socializing and essay grooming their dogs. The researchers found that teenagers became more compassionate and dedicated to their tasks. Essay Website. Furthermore, they learned how it feels to give and receive a positive reward in return (Harbolt Ward, 1991). Prisons outside US also reported positive treatment effects of dog training programs.
In 1994, Walsh and Mertin evaluated a dog training program in a prison in Australia by measuring the plan for school, reports of participants. After a six-month period, they found that participants had significant improvements in their self-esteem and levels of depression (Graham, 2000). Another program to bring partnership between prisoners and abandoned dogs is Project Pooch at McLaren Juvenile Correctional Facility in Woordburn, Oregon. Tamil Essay. The program was started by its principal, Joan Dalton, in 1993. Makes An Effective. It became a nonprofit organization in website for students 1999 and consequently hired a project manager (Strimple, 2003). Students are taught dog grooming and training as well as attending for cheating the health needs of the for students, animals.
Merriam-Arduini (2000) evaluated the program in her dissertation studying recidivism, reformation and behavioral changes made by the incarcerated youth brought about by studying dog training. Essay Program. She reported in her abstract, The findings indicate that there is zero recidivism of POOCH participants, that the program assists to tamil for students meet judicial orders and educational expectations with high percentages. Based on survey responses from the adults there appears to be a marked behavior improvement in essay application areas of website, respect for authority, social interaction and leadership. The youth provided descriptors of change and essay growth in areas of honesty, empathy, nurturing, social growth, understanding, confidence level and pride of essay website for students, accomplishment. Of An Advertisement Essay. (Merriam-Arduini, 2000) Several similar programs had been adapted in different penitentiaries. Essay For Students. These programs are based on mutual respect and dignity. This is a program where inmates in prisons are training dogs to assist the disabled. The dogs are then placed with someone who needs a specially trained dog to assist them.
Also in other prison programs they raise future assistance dogs and guide dogs for the blind for existing training schools, thus cutting back the time that a disabled person must wait for a dog to assist them. Administrators of makes an effective, dog training program at Colorado’s Canon City noted that inmates who participated in the program have reduced illegal drug use. Participants also showed significant improvements in self-confidence, patience, and respect for both people and animals. They also experienced less. Another dog training program is tamil website for students, where inmates are taking unwanted dogs from animal shelters, then groom and train them to be good citizens. They are then placed back into the community as “paroled pets”. This gives the dogs a second chance in makes life, exactly what the prisoners are wishing for in their own life. One of which is the tamil website for students, Prison Dog Project.
This is the realization of what the Prison Pet Partnership Program has provided over program, the years to the inmates who work with the dogs (Prison Dog Project, 2007). Tamil Essay Website For Students. It helps to bring a sense of calm in the institutional setting. The dogs are also a bridge between the practice, inmates and the guards as well as with a disabled person to people in the community. The prison dog programs help the inmates learn how to become “other” centered, thus giving something back to society. The inmates learn needed skills in tamil website order to help them get jobs when they are released. They also learn responsibility, patience, tolerance, as well as being good trainers with kindness and love (Prison Dog Project, 2007). Without these programs, inmates may succumb into solitude long enough for them to become aloft with the other prison mates. Essay Practice Tests. Aside from giving them a training in essay pet management, persistence and care may be cultivated and aide them into becoming a better person when they go back into the world out side. Having pets in essay prison may not only solve problems of boredom, it is a reflection of the government’s efforts to tamil for students give former law benders a second chance to what makes enjoy life. As a therapy, this program may lessen their longing for tamil essay website the outside world. Accuplacer Essay. It may even make their prison life enjoyable and less tiresome.
They may even forget the tamil, years that pass by. Arkow (1998) explains that inmates feel a sense of security when they are with the dogs they trained. As Furst (2006) stresses “The companionship that develops is also a source of security in an adversarial environment”. Furthermore, the prisoners experience interaction with a living being that gives no interest in their past mistakes (Furst, 2006). Inmates whose lives lack the analysis essay epistle, sense of for students, touch and belongingness feel a sense of unconditional love from animals that are able to “stimulate a kind of love and caring that is analysis essay 1, not poisoned or inhibited by prisoners” (Beck Katcher, 1996). Arkow (1998) explains that the mere presence of a dog can be therapeutic. For others it is the sense that the activity is in someway useful to someone else – for example doing physical therapy by grooming the dog is something the essay, dog enjoys so the person feels good about making the effort. Some individual attribute the benefit to makes an effective essay the fact that the new scheme has invariably broken the routines. Several explanations have been formulated to go beyond the reasons of the benefits from pet therapy.
For others it is deeply meaningful, they may talk about the visit for days afterward. Some people have withdrawn from human interaction, but will talk to the pet. The pet may bridge two different peoples to communicate, or bring up pleasant memories. Tamil Essay Website For Students. In many cases the benefits offered by visiting pets are the same as those offered by Animal Assisted Therapy, the difference being that the there is no prescribed course of analysis of an essay, treatment and no recording of the effects on tamil the individual. Dog training programs to do not just provide benefits to the psychological well-being of the prisoners but to their employability as well. Lai (1998) stresses that dog training programs help inmates learn to set and achieve their goals. Inmates learn to be responsible and dedicated to the tasks assigned to them as well as respect for both people and animals.
The Prison Pet Partnership Program gives inmate trainers the opportunity to learn valuable pet industry-related vocational skills to use in business finding employment when they resume their lives outside of prison. In addition to training, boarding and grooming dogs, inmates also gain clerical skills by working in our office. Tamil Essay For Students. They receive monetary stipends for their work; others are in an apprenticeship program. The dogs spend a good deal of time with their trainers within the prison community. This allows other inmates to benefit from the presence of the dogs even though they are not directly involved with the program (Pauline, 2007). The Coleman Federal Complex, a minimum-security work camp for women in accuplacer practice Coleman, Florida, has built a dog training program through the help of Donna Bucella, the US attorney in Tampa, Florida, and Julie Aichroth, director of website, Southeastern Guide Dogs, Inc. The inmates provide advanced training to dogs on assisting individuals with impaired vision (Brink, 2005).
Through this program, the inmates learn how to cheating exams be veterinary assistants providing them with a vocational benefit that they can pursue once they are released. In fact, once the inmates are released, they can attend a two-year vocational course on tamil essay website for students animal training and eventually earn a certificate as veterinary technician (Strimple, 2003). The Animal in the Military Helping Individuals (AIMHI) program was established in 1994. In this program, the US army inmates at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and Fort Knox, Kentucky trained dogs that would assist physically challenged people. Aside from training dogs to analysis essay on man epistle assist the physically challenged, inmates were also taught animal husbandry and tamil website human and animal behavior. Strimple (2003) stresses that “this program provides vocational training and helps the men in program application their transition back to website for students civilian life”.
In fact, in accuplacer tests this program, 50 men already received certificates of training. This vocational opportunity stems from the fact that prisoners are taught information about animal caring and handling. Tamil For Students. They are taught not just to simply take care for the animals. Analysis Epistle. They also study their grooming, health and tamil website diet. There are programs that provide certification in one or more areas of animal care (Lai, 1998). Others, because of plan for school, their participation in the program, receive contacts from shelter or volunteer agency and veterinarians that hire participants and request for their release. All these programs provide job opportunities to prisoners who can renew their life once they are released. Effects to essay for students the Community as a Whole. Dog training programs do not just benefit the prisoners alone.
They also benefit the community as a whole. Dogs that would have otherwise been euthanized were trained to do tasks that are beneficial to what an effective essay people. Moreover, most dog training programs are designed such that inmates train dogs to assist people with disabilities. The dog training program established by Sister Pauline at WCCW not just benefited the inmates who participated in the program. The dogs were trained as helpers to people with special needs thus benefiting the community of disabled as well. One particular example is Sue Miller, a woman convicted of murder. Sue successfully trained two dogs Glory and website for students Sheba. Glory was assigned to essay help a young man with birth defects confined to a wheelchair named Burt. Glory was able to help Burt carry books, negotiate sidewalk curbs and tamil for students elevators and pick up dropped objects (Strimple, 2003).
Sheba, on the other hand, was assigned to a 14-year old girl named Angie who suffered from severe epileptic seizures. Business For School. Through Sue’s training, Sheba was able to recognize an impending attack. Consequently, the mere presence of Sheba brought a sense of security to essay Angie which eventually led to a decrease in the number of seizures Angie experienced. Dog training programs also appears to be a cost-saving way of rehabilitating inmates. Robert Kent, superintendent of the Sanger B. Powers Correctional Center in accuplacer practice Oneida, Wisconsin reported that since they started their dog training program in 1997, 68 inmates who participated in tamil essay website for students the program were already released and none has returned to prison.
This results to what makes an effective reduced incarceration costs. Susan Bass, director of the AIMHI program, also relates the lower costs of dog training programs. Aside from the essay website for students, benefit of essay, providing vocational training to men, the program provides a lower cost for tamil essay website for students the state. Bass relates that costs are low because their only expenses are the professional staff salaries, dog food, and supplies (Strimple, 2003). In the civilian world, the essay, expense of training may cost from $10,000 to $12,000 but in the military expenses averages $4,000 only. Although there is little research regarding the cost-saving benefits of website for students, dog training programs, testimonials from different programs assert that dog training programs is an analysis 1 effective cost-saving way to rehabilitate prisoners. Current Prison-based Dog Training Programs. Dog training programs is increasingly becoming popular in prisons recently. Despite the opposition of some who believed that prisons are for punishments only, others overcame this belief and helped establish several prison-based dog training programs.
Aside from the website, ones previously mentioned, there are many other facilities that already adopted this program. Pilot Dogs, Inc., of makes essay, Ohio (PDIO) in Columbus, Ohio, is one of the website, significant dog training programs developed (Strimple, 2003). PDIO had its first dog training program in 1992 at the Ohio Reformatory for Women in Marysville, Ohio. Now, PDIO has established its program in 7 prisons in Ohio and application 1 in West Virginia. The Downeast Correctional Facility, a medium-security prison in Maine, has already established its own successful dog training program.
In this program, after one year of training, the dogs receive initial tests. The dogs that pass then move on to training as service dogs with the National Education for Assistance Dog Services (NEADS). Website. It is reported that more than half of the 53 dogs in the graduating class of what an effective, NEADS were trained by inmates (Gold, 2006). Another program of this type is run by the Puppies Behind Bars program. It was founded in New York by Gloria Gilbert Stoga in 1997 (Harkrader, Burke, Owen, 2004). Stoga proved took five rejected puppies from and gave them to inmates to be trained. The success of the tamil website for students, dog training of analysis, inmates gave birth to the Puppies Behind Bars program. The program has already trained dogs 87 percent of which moved on essay to a more rigorous training. Today, after recognizing the what an effective, benefits provided by dog training programs, many have already followed suit. It is tamil website, predicted that dog training programs will become more popular once its effects to the prisoners and for school community as a whole has been established. Dog training programs is increasingly becoming popular recently.
This is due to reports regarding its positive effects. Dog training programs prove to be helpful especially to prisoners. Inmates who participated in dog training programs feel that they live better lives because they sense that they are now of service to the society from website which they once took. They feel a sense of unconditional love from the animals they train who have no interest with their past mistakes. Studies have also shown that dog training, and rhetorical of an advertisement animal training in general, brings about significant improvements in the behavior of the participants.
Aside from these psychosocial effects, these programs also provide job opportunities to participants because of the knowledge they learn. The human and animal community benefit as well. The animals who would have been otherwise killed served a better purpose. Tamil For Students. These animals were helpful to what makes people especially those who are physically challenged. This helpfulness to the community as a whole provides inmates with a feeling that they can now serve their community and thus atone for their past mistakes. Since there is little research regarding this study, it is for students, highly recommended that such a research should be undertaken in order to convince the epistle, public that dog training programs is beneficial. Arkow, P. (1998). Pet therapy: A study and resource guide for the use of tamil essay for students, companion animals in selected therapies (8th ed.). Stratford, NJ: Author. Beck, A., Katcher, A. (1996).
Between pets and people: The importance of animal companionship . West Lafayette, IN: Pudrue University Press. Blackman, D. (2006). Visiting Pets and essay tests Animal Assisted Therapy [Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from tamil essay website for students http://www.dogplay.com/Activities/Therapy/therapy.html. Brink, G. Analysis On Man Epistle. (2005). Time to tamil train. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www.sptimes.com/news/022501/news_pf/State/Time_to_train.shtml. Bustad, L. K. (1990).
Prison programs involving animals. In L. K. Bustad (Ed.), Compassion, our last great hope . Renton, WA: Delta Society. Furst, G. (2006). Prison-based animal programs: A national survey. The Prison Journal, 86 (4), 407-430. Gold, D. Accuplacer Tests. (2006). Wagging tails cool prison tempers: Maine inmates find calm in training dogs . Boston Globe . Graham, B. (2000). Creature comfort: Animals that heal . Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Harbolt, T., Ward, T. (1991).
Taming incarcerated youth with shelter dogs for a second chance. Society Animals, 9 (2), 177-182. Harkrader, T., Burke, T. W., Owen, S. S. (2004). Pound puppies: The rehabilitative uses of dogs in correctional facilities. Corrections Today Magazine, 66 (2). Hines, L. (no date).
Overview of essay for students, animals in correctional facilities. In Delta Society (Ed.), Animals in institutions (pp. 111-112). Renton, WA: Delta Society. Hines, L. M. On Man 1. (1983). Pets in prison: A new partnership. California Veterinarian, 5 , 7-11. Lai, J. (1998). Pet facilitated therapy in correctional institutions: Correctional Services of Canada by Office of the Deputy Commissioner for Women. Lee, D. For Students. R. (1983). Pet therapy: Helping patients through troubled times.
California Veterinarian, 5 , 24-25. Merriam-Arduini, S. (2000). Evaluation of an experimental program designed to have a positive effect on adjudicated violent, incarcerated male juveniles age 12-25 in the state of Oregon. Pepperdine University. Moneymaker, J., Strimple, E. (1991). Makes. Animals and inmates: A sharing companionship behind bars. Journal of tamil essay website for students, Offender Rehabilitation, 16 , 133-152. Pauline, S. (2007). Washington State Correctional Center For Women Prison Pet Partnership Program.
[Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 15, 2007 from http://members.tripod.com/ Prison Dog Project. (2007). Pathways to Hope [Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www.pathwaystohope.org/prison.htm. Strimple, E. O. (2003). A history of prison inmate-animal interaction programs. The American Behavioral Scientist, 47 (1), 70-78. Wirth, C. (2005).
Animal-Assisted Therapy. Practice Tests. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from http://www.gglrc.org/articles/aatherapy.shtml. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Effects of Dog Training Programs to Prisoners. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and essay website for students quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Effects of Dog Training Programs to program Prisoners.
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