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How to Write a College Level Essay: 13 Steps (with Pictures)
biogrophy resume 1964 M.A. in Photojournalism, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1992 Honorary Degree, Doctorate of essay level, Fine Arts, University of Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Essay? 1994 Honorary Degree, Doctorate of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2001 Honorary Degree, Doctorate of college essay write, Fine Arts, Center for Creative Studies, Detroit, Michigan. 2004 Honorary Degree, Doctorate of Arts, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois. Papers? 2004 Honorary Degree, Doctorate of Fine Arts, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio. 1975 U.S.I.A.
Grant to lecture and exhibit in Yugoslavia. College Essay? 1977 National Endowment for the Arts. 1977 New York State Council for the Arts: CAPS Grant. 1978 Commissioned Artist with the Bell System Photography Project. Papers Online? 1980 National Endowment for the Arts. 1990 National Endowment for the Arts. College Level? 1994 John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship. Problems? 1997 Erna and write, Victor Hasselblad Foundation Grant to essay outline continue to make pictures for the American book exhibition project. 2014 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grant for Tiny film programming.
1976-77 Ward 81, Gallery Forum, Stradpack, Graz, Austria. 1977 Ward 81, Santa Barbara Museum of college essay write, Art, California. 1977 Port Washington Library, Port Washington, New York. 1978 Ward 81, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. Us Marines Essay? 1978 Boise Gallery of essay level write, Art, Idaho. 1978 Photography Gallery, Yarra, Australia.
1979 Ward 81, Museum of of teenagers, Art, University of college level, Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Step By Step Problem Math? 1979-80 Ward 81, Bars, Gallery Nagel, Berlin, Germany. 1981 Falkland Road, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. 1981 Falkland Road, Olympus Gallery, London, England. 1982 Falkland Road, Mary Porter, Seson Art Gallery, University of California, Santa Cruz, California. Write? 1982 Falkland Road, California Museum of essay, Photography, Riverside, California. 1982 Ward 81, Bars, Drew University, New Jersey. 1983 Gallery of essay level, Fine Arts, Daytona Beach Community College, Daytona Beach, Florida. William Outline? 1983 Mother Teresa and Calcutta, Friends of Photography, Carmel, California. 1985 Mother Teresa and Calcutta, Allen Street Gallery, Dallas, Texas.
1986 Mother Teresa and Calcutta, Northlight Gallery, Tempe, Arizona. College Essay Write? 1987 Mother Teresa and good words to use essays, Calcutta, Faculty Club Gallery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1987 Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs, University of Oklahoma, Museum of essay level write, Art, Norman, Oklahoma. Shakespeare Essay Outline? 1988 Portraits, Photography Gallery, Santa Monica College, Santa Monica, California. College Essay? 1988 America, Pasadena Art Center, Pasadena, California. 1988 America, Brooks Art Institute, Santa Barbara, California. 1989 Portraits, Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Alabama.
1991 Portraits, California Museum of Photography, Riverside, California. 1991 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. Online? 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, International Center for Photography, New York, New York. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Robert Koch Gallery, San Francisco, California. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Fahey Klein Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Robert Klein Gallery, Boston, Massachusetts. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago, Illinois. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Bentler Morgan Gallery, Houston, Texas. 1992 Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, A Gallery for level write, Fine Photography, New Orleans, Louisiana. 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York.
1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Museum of Photographic Art, San Diego, California. Student Papers Online? 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, Virginia. 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Instituto de Estudios Norteamericanos, Barcelona, Spain. 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, Illinois. 1992 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years and Indian Circus, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Museum of college essay, Photographic Arts, San Diego, California. Good In Academic? 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Oliver Art Center, Oakland, California. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Royal Society of level write, Photography, Bath, England. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Bath, England; The Reykjavik Municipal Art Museum, Iceland. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Massachusetts.
1993 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs, Parco Exposure Gallery, Tokyo, Japan. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Honolulu, Hawaii. 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Ogilvy and Mather, New York, New York. William Shakespeare Essay Outline? 1993 Mary Ellen Mark: America, Agatha Gaillard, Paris, France. 1994 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, National Museum of Photography, Bradford, England, 1994 National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C.
1995 Mary Ellen Mark: Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, Ogilvy and Mather, New York, New York. 1995 Mary Ellen Mark: Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, The Country Bazaar Gallery, Montauk, New York. 1996 The Master€™s Series: Mary Ellen Mark, School of level write, Visual Arts, New York, New York. 1996 Mary Ellen Mark: Thirty Years, Arthur Ross Gallery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Problems Essay? 1996 The Master's Series: Mary Ellen Mark, A Gallery of Fine Photography, New Orleans. 1996 The Master's Series: Mary Ellen Mark, Chromatics, Nashville, Tennessee. 1996 Mary Ellen Mark: Indian Circus: Platinum Prints, The Cleveland Museum of essay level, Art, Ohio.
1997 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, The Museum of Art, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 1998 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Milan, Italy. 1998 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, El Centro de la Imagen, Mexico City, Mexico. 1998 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Centro Fotografico Alvarez Bravo, Oaxaca, Mexico. 1999 Tribute to Fellini, International Photomeeting, Republic of student online, San Marino. Level? 2000 Strange Moments, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, New York. 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (review) 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Boras Museum of Art, Boras, Sweden. 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Fort Wayne Museum of Art, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Arbetets Museum, Norrkoping, Sweden.
2000 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Fahey Klein Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs, Weinstein Gallery, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2000 Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, Laumont Gallery, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire. 2000-2001 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Kulturhuset, Stockholm, Sweden. 2001 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Landskrona Museum, Landskrona, Sweden. Essay? 2001 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, International Center of Photography, New York, NY. 2001 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, The National Museum of Photography, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2001 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Minnesota Museum of American Art, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
2002 Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs, Leica Gallery, Prague Castle, Prague, Czech Republic. 2002 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, The National Museum of Photography, Horten, Norway. 2002 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Reykjavik Museum of Photography, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2002 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Bilden Hus, Sundsvall, Sweden. College Essay? 2002 Mary Ellen Mark Photographs, Fait Cause, Paris, France. 2002-2003 Mary Ellen Mark: American Odyssey, Orebro Konsthall, Orebro, Sweden. 2003 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Photoforum PasquArt, Bienne, Switzerland. Online? 2003 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Hasselblad Center, Goteborg, Sweden. College Essay Level? 2003 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, Virginia. 2003 Twins, Marianne Boesky Gallery/Kennedy Boesky Photographs, New York, New York.
2003 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey Twins, Carla Sozzani Gallery, Milan, Italy. Essays? 2004 Twins, Stadsgalleriet Halmstad, Sweden. 2004 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, EFTI, Madrid, Spain. 2004 Twins, Galleri F15, Moss, Norway. College Write? 2004 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Center Circolo Fotografico Tina Modotti, Bolzano, Italy.
2004 American Odyssey Twins, Fotobienniale, Moscow. Solving? 2004 American Odyssey Twins, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester, England. Essay Level? 2004 Twins, The Hague Museum of Photography, The Hague, Netherlands. Student Papers Online? 2004 Twins Falkland Road, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois. Essay Write? 2005 Falkland Road, Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, New York. Problems Of Teenagers Essay? 2005 Falkland Road, Yancey Richardson Gallery, New York, New York.
2006 Falkland Road and Twins, Fahey Klein Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 2006 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey Twins, Salo Art Museum, Salo, Finland. 2006-2007 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey Twins, Perspektivet Museum, Tromso, Norway. College Essay? 2007 Extrardinary Child, National Museum of Iceland, Reyjkjavik, Iceland. 2007 Twins, Fahey Klein Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 2007 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Fotogalleriet, Kristiansand, Norway. By Step Solving Math? 2007 Ward 81, Stephen Bulger Gallery, Toronto, Canada. Essay Level? 2007 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Palazzo Guinigi, Lucca, Italy.
2007-2008 Mary Ellen Mark American Odyssey, Fotogalleriet Format, Malmo, Sweden. 2007-2008 Ward 81 Note Cards Printing Notes, John McWhinnie @ Glenn Horowitz, New York, New York. Us Marines? 2008 Prom, Festival of the Photograph, Charlottesville, Virginia. 2008 Twins, Terhune Gallery, Owens Community College, Toledo, Ohio. 2008 Prom, Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 2008 Extraordinary Child, Nordiska Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. Essay Level Write? 2008 Seen Behind the problems of teenagers essay, Scene, Fahey Klein Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 2008-2009 Seen Behind the Scene, Staley-Wise Gallery, New York, New York. Essay? 2009 Indian Circus, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, New York. Student Online? 2009 Extraordinary Child, Duke University Center for Documentary Studies, Durham, North Carolina. 2010 Disquieting Images, La Triennale di Milano, Milan, Italy.
2010-2012 Seen Behind the level write, Scene, Fnac Spain, various locations. 2011 The Portrait as Document, SEE+ Art Space/Gallery, Beijing, China. Solving Math? 2011 Twins, Galleri Magnus Aklundh, Malmo, Sweden. 2011 Falkland Road, Indian Circus, and Ward 81, Blue Sky Gallery/Oregon Center for the Photographic Arts, Portland, Oregon. 2012 Prom, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2012-2013 Prom, Janet Borden, Inc., New York, New York.
2013 Seen Behind the essay write, Scene, Weinstein Gallery, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2013 Leica: My First Camera, Leica Store, Los Angeles, California. 2013-2014 Mary Ellen Mark, Galerie Anne de Villepoix, Paris, France. Student? 2013-2014 Celebrities, La Fabrica, Madrid, Spain. 2014 Leica: My First Camera, Leica Store, Washington, DC. 2014 Man and Beast, Wittliff Collections, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. 2014 Mary Ellen Mark, Stills Gallery, Sydney, Australia. Write? 2014 Frames of America, National Library of Latvia, Riga, Latvia. 2016 Attitude, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, NY.
2015 Tiny: Streetwise Revisited, Norton Museum of problems essay, Art, West Palm Beach, FL. 2016 Tiny: Streetwise Revisited, The Seattle Public Library, Seattle, WA. 2017 Tiny: Streetwise Revisited, Suzanne H. Arnold Art Gallery at Lebanon Valley College, Annville, PA. 1973 Photokina, Cologne. 1973 I.P.O.S.A., Traveling Exhibition. College? 1975 Women of Photography: A Historical Survey, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California.
1975 Women Photographers, Neikrug Gallery, New York, New York. 1975 U.S.I.A., European Traveling Exhibitions. 1975 Exhibit with Ralph Gibson, Photopia Gallery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1976 Women of Photography, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, New York. 1977 Eight American Female Photographers, Iran-America Society Cultural Center, Tehran, Iran. Papers Online? 1977 Exhibit with Burk Uzzle, M.I.T. Creative Photography Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1979 American Images, International Center of Photography, New York, New York.
1979 Portraits and college level write, Permanent Collection, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France. 1980 Likely Stories, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. Solving? 1980 American Images: New Work by Twenty Contemporary Photographers, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. Level Write? 1981 Portraits, Klaus Honnef-Lichtbildniffe, Rheinschef Landes Museum, Bonn, Germany. 1981 Love is Blind, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. Narrative Argument? 1981 Photography as Art, Joyce Strauss, Denver, Colorado. 1981 Points of level, View, University of problems of teenagers, Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
1981 Color As Form, History of Color Photography, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 1982 Color As Form, History of Color Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. 1982 The Photography Gallery, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. College Essay Write? 1982 Floods of Light; Flash Photography 1851-1981, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. 1982 American Photography Today, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado. 1982 The Permanent Collection: A Selection of us marines essay, American Images, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1983 Eaton Shoen Gallery, San Francisco, California. College? 1983 Phototypes: The Development of of teenagers essay, Photography in New York, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York.
1985 Bars, Barbican Art Gallery, London, England. 1985 Mother Teresa, Munich Stradt Museum, Munich, Germany. 1985 Portraits, Castle Gallery, New Rochelle, New York. 1985 Mother Teresa, Hillwood Art Gallery, Greenvale, New York. Level? 1985 Faces, United Nations 40th Anniversary Photography Exhibit, Berkeley, California.
1985 NYC X 5, Bars, Eaton Shoen Gallery, San Francisco, California. William Shakespeare Essay Outline? 1986 Miami Beach, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1986 Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Contemporary Arts Forum, California. 1986 Miami Beach, Bass Museum of Art, Miami Beach, Florida. Level Write? 1986 Miami Beach, Portland Museum of Art, Portland, Maine.
1986 Miami Beach, Menacham Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, American Friends of on education, Beth Hatefutsoth/World Zionist Organization, Miami Beach, Florida. 1986 50 Years of Modern Color Photography, Photokina, Cologne, Germany. 1986 Mother Teresa, Catskill Center of Photography, Woodstock, New York. 1986 Public/Private, The Museum of level write, Contemporary Photography, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois. 1986 I'm Not Crazy, I Just Lost My Glasses, New Works Gallery, University of william shakespeare outline, Illinois, Chicago, Illinois. 1986 The World: Conflict Caring, The Catskill Center for Photography, Woodstock, New York. 1986 Out of the Darkroom/Art of the Darkroom, Euphrate Gallery, Cupertino, California. 1986 Commitment to Vision, Oregon Gallery, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
1986 Palo Alto Cultural Center, Palo Alto, California. 1987 Photographers Who Make Films, The Catskill Center for Photography, Woodstock, New York. 1987 Inside Out: Ward 81, Gallery II at de Saisset Museum, Santa Clara, California. Level? 1987 1974, Light Gallery, New York, New York. Student Online? 1987 Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition: Part II, Friends of Photography, Carmel, California.
1987 American Dreams, Centro Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain. 1987 University of Colorado: Group Show, Boulder, Colorado. 1987 Ansel Adams and college level, Friends, Scotsdale Center For The Arts, Scottsdale, Arizona. 1988 Legacy of Light, De Cordova and Dana Museum, Lincoln, Massachusetts. 1988 Selected Works, Castelli Graphics, New York, New York. Student? 1988 Homeless In America, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. College Essay? 1988 Homeless In America, New York City Public Library, New York, New York. 1988 China, Recontres D'Arles, Arles, France.
1988 The Instant Likeness, Polaroid Portraits, The National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C. Online? 1988 Paris Opera, Association Pour Le Rayonnement De L'Opera De Paris, France. College Essay Level? 1989 New Portraiture, Clarence Kennedy Gallery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Narrative Essay On Education? 1989 Das Portrait in der Zeitgenossischen Photographie, Frankfurter Kunstverein, Frankfurt, Germany. College Essay Write? 1989 Das Portrait in der Zeitgenossischen Photographie, Kulturcentrum, Mainz, Germany. 1989 In Our Time: The World As Seen By Magnum Photographers, International Center of narrative argument essay on education, Photography, New York, New York. 1991 Imaging Illness, Albert Schweitzer Center, Great Barrington, Washington.
1991 Pictures of Peace, F.I.T. Resource Center, New York, New York. Level? 1992 Our Town, Aperture, New York, New York. Us Marines? 1993 Oklahoma Arts Institue, Quartz Mountain Lodge, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. College Write? 1993 University of good to use essays, Colorado: All Hallow's Eve, Boulder, Colorado. 1993 University of New Hampshire: Ward 81, Durham, New Hampshire.
1993 College of New Rochelle, Castle Gallery: Angels, An Endangered Species, New Rochelle, New York. 1993 Wings of Change, Directors' Guild of level, American, Los Angeles, California. 1994 Olgivy Mather, New York, New York. 1994 Visa Pour L'Image/Perpignan, Perpignan, France. 1994 Festival International de la Photo de Mode, Paris, France.
1994 Talking Pictures Traveling Exhibition ( New York City, San Francisco, Washington DC, Atlanta, Milwaukee, LA, Minneapolis, Nashville, Tucson, Baton Rouge) 1994 Magic of Play, Giorgio Beverly Hills, California. 1994 . Shakespeare Essay Outline? it's how you play the essay, game., Exit Art, New York, New York. Step By Step? 1995 A Century Apart: Images of Struggle Spirit, Jacob Riis Five Contemporary Photographers, City Museum of New York, New York, NY. 1995 PDA Exhibit, Las Vegas, Nevada. Write? 1995 Magic Moments - 40 Years of Leica M, Galerie Photo, Paris, France. 1995 Insight: Women's Photographs from the Collection, - George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. 1995 We Look and student online, See, Images of college essay level write, Childhood in Contemporary American Photography, University Art Museum, Berkeley, California.
1995 Magic of Play, Grand Central Station, New York, New York. 1995 Animal Attractions, Humane Society, New York, New York. 1995 100th Anniversary of Conde Nast Traveler, Danzinger Gallery, New York , New York. Narrative On Education? 1996 Beyond the Looking Glass, Contemporary Women Photographers, David Adamson Gallery, Washington, D.C. 1996 A History of essay level write, Women Photographers, Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio.
1996 Family Matters, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, Washington. 1996 Howard Finster, Fay Gold Gallery, Atlanta, Georgia. 1996 Clinique's Future Beauty Houk Friedman Gallery, New York, New York. 1996 60th Anniversary of Life Magazine, The Newseum, New York, New York. 1997 Prostitution, Paul Kopeikin Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 1997 The Portrait/The Nude II, Fahey/Klein, Los Angeles, California.
1997 Objectif Corps, Musee des beaux-arts de Montreal, Montreal, Canada. 1997 India: A Celebration of student, Independence, 1947-1997, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi, New Delhi, India. 1997 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai, Mumbai, India. 1997 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. College Write? 1997 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia. 1997 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana.
1997 Hope Photographs, MTA Arts for Transit Lightbox Project, on student papers online, display at Times Square Station, New York, New York. 1997 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, The Saint Louis Art Museum St. Louis, Missouri. 1998 Before the Lens: Images of the Imagemakers, New Hampshire Institute of art, Manchester, New Hampshire. 1998, Before the level, Lens, Images of the us marines, Imagemakers, Boston University Art Gallery, Boston, Massachusetts.
1998 A Summer Wedding, Leica Gallery, New York, New York. 1998 Under/Exposed, Underground stations throughout Stockholm, Sweden. 1998 Pictures of Texas Monthly, 25 Years Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, Austin, Texas. 1998 The Underwhelming Tide, North Dakota Museum of Art, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Victoria Memorial Museum, Calcutta, India.
1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Lalit Kala Akademi, Chennai, India. Level Write? 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Royal Festival Hall, London, England. 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Palazzo Reale - Arengario Milan, Italy. 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Knoxville Museum of Art, Knoxville, Tennessee. 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia. Essay? 1998 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1998 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, The Museum of college essay, Fine Arts, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 1998 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the good to use, 20th Century, The Mead Museum of college level, Art, Amherst, Massachusetts. Narrative Argument Essay On Education? 1998 The Coincidence of the Arts, (Mario Testino, David Levinthal, and college essay level, Francisco Toledo) Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, France. 1998 Holding Patterns: Selections from the Photography Collection of Arthur J. Goodwin , San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose, California.
1998-1999 Circus, Paul Kopeikin Gallery, Los Angeles, California. Student? 1999 Before the level, Lens: Images of the narrative on education, Imagemakers, Queens Museum of Art, Queens, New York. 1999 Independent Visions: Women Photographers from the Collection, California Museum of college level write, Photography, Riverside, California. Us Marines Essay? 1999 India: A Celebration of college write, Independence, 1947-1997,The Montreal Museum of essay, Fine Arts, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1999 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997, Chicago Cultureal Center, Chicago, Illinois. 1999 All Dressed In White: Bridal Traditions, Castle Gallery, New Rochelle, New York. 1999 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, The George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. Essay Write? 1999 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, The Brauer Museum at narrative argument on education Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana. Essay? 1999 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, The Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, Kansas. 1999 Defining Eye: Women Photographers of the 20th Century, UCLA Hammer Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California. Problems Of Teenagers? 1999 Masterminds of Mode: International Fashion Festival in college level, Japan, Mitsukoshi Gallery at Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi, Japan.
1999 The Way Home: Ending Homelessness in America, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. 2000 Masterminds of step, Mode: International Fashion Festival in Japan, Mitsubishi-Jishi Atrium, Japan. 2000 Masterminds of Mode: International Fashion Festival in Japan, Kobe Fashion Museum, Japan. Write? 2000 Keepers of the Wisdom, United Nations, New York, New York. 2000 Personae: Portraits from the william, Collection, The Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois. 2000 India: A Celebration of Independence, 1947-1997 (selected images), the Consulate General of India, New York, New York. 2000 Picturing the Modern Amazon, The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, New York. Level Write? 2000 In Black and White: Photography, Stefan Stux Gallery, New York, New York. Narrative On Education? 2000 Looking Into the Collection: Faith, Center for Creative Photography, Tucson, Arizona. 2001 Red Hot Art, Red Gallery, Savannah College of Art and Design, Savannah, Georgia.
2001 Two Women, Weinstein Gallery, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Essay? 2001 In Response to Place, The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Good To Use Essays? 2002 In Response to college write Place, Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, Utah. 2002 In Response to Place, The Houston Museum of Science, Houston, Texas. 2002 In Response to student Place, Bellevue Art Museum, Seattle, Washington. 2002 In Response to Place, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia. 2002 50th Anniversary, Aperture's Burden Gallery, New York, New York. College Essay? 2002 New York: Capital of Photography, Jewish Museum, New York, New York. 2002 New York: Capital of Photography, The Madison Art Center, Madison, Wisconsin. 2003 New York: Capital of Photography, Musee de L 'Elysee, Lausanne, Switzerland. 2003 New York: Capital of Photography, Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
2003 In Response to Place, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois. 2003 In Response to essay Place, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana. 2003 Game Face, Union Station, Kansas City, Missouri. 2003 Game Face, Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois. Level Write? 2004 1970s Color Photography, Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, New York.
2004 In Response to Place, Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, Illinois. 2004 In Response to Place, Cincinnati Museum Center, Cincinatti, Ohio. 2004 In Response to student papers Place, Gibbes Museum of college essay level, Art, Charleston, South Carolina. 2004 Game Face, Arvada Center for good words essays, the Arts, Arvada, Colorado. 2004 Game Face, World Financial Center, New York, New York.
2004 Game Face, Fisher Gallery at USC, Los Angeles, California. 2004 Game Face, Jacksonville Museum of Modern Art, Jacksonville, Florida. 2005 In Response to Place, The Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan. 2005 In Response to college level Place, The Gallery at in academic Windsor, Vero Beach, Florida. Essay Write? 2005 In Response to Place, Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts. William Essay? 2005 In Response to essay Place, Blue Star Contemporary Art Center, San Antonio, Texas. 2005 In Response to narrative essay on education Place, Academy Art Museum, Easton, Maryland.
2006 In Response to Place, The Bruce Museum, Greenwich, Connecticut. 2006 New York, New York, Grimaldi Forum, Monaco. 2007 New York, House of college write, World Cultures, Berlin, Germany. 2007 Women by Women: Artworks from the narrative essay, Permanent Collection Gallery, California Museum of Photography, Riverside, California. 2007 Prized Images: The Knight Purchase Award for Photographic Media 1991-2006, Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio.
2007-2008 New York, Queens Museum of Art, Queens, New York. Level Write? 2008 Vanity Fair Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, London, England. 2008-2009 Vanity Fair Portraits, Los Angeles Count Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California. 2008 Role Models, National Museum of Women in by step, the Arts, Washington, DC. 2008-2009 Leica + Hasselblad: A Selection of level write, Classic Cameras from teh David Whitmire Hearst Jr.
Foundation Collection, California Museum of us marines essay, Photography, Riverside, California. College Essay Write? 2009 Character Project, various locations. 2009 American the essay, Beautiful, Staley Wise Gallery, New York, New York. 2009 Sacred Sight: Photographs in India, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, New York. College Level Write? 2009 An Autobiography of the good in academic, San Francisco Bay Area, SF Camerawork, San Francisco, California. College Essay Level Write? 2009-2010 Sacred Sights, The Empty Quarter, Dubai, UAE. 2010 CINEMA, Polka Gallery, Paris, France. 2010 Engaged Observers: Documentary Photography since the step by step problem solving, Sixties, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California. 2010-2011 eye contact: a potpourri of portraiture from the permanent collection, California Museum of Photography, Riverside, California. Essay Write? 2010-2011 60 from the 60s: Selections from the George Eastman House, 1285 Avenue of the Americas Gallery, New York, New York. Good Words To Use In Academic Essays? 2010-2011 Vanity Fair 100 a±os, Galeria Ivory Press, Madrid, Spain 2011 Under the Big Top, The University of Vermont's Fleming Museum of college, Art, Burlington, Vermont.
2011 Beauty in the 21st Century, part 2: MEN, Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany. Narrative Essay On Education? 2011 XV Years of Mary Ellen Mark's Workshop in Oaxaca, Manuel Alvaraz Bravo Center, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2011 POLAROID [IM]POSSIBLE - The WestLicht collection, WestLicht Gallery, Vienna, Austria. Essay Level Write? 2011 21 and Under, Holden Luntz Gallery, Palm Beach, FL. 2011-2012 group exhibition at The Margulies Collection at by step math the Warehouse, Miami, Florida. 2011 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Eglise Sainte Anne, Les Rencontres d'Arles, France. College Essay Level Write? 2012 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Foam Photography Museum, Amsterdam.
2012 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Palau Robert, Barcelona, Spain. 2012 Portrayal/Betrayal, Santa Barbara Museum of student, Art, Santa Barbara, California. 2012 35mm: Photographs from the Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2012 Women, Staley-Wise Gallery, New York, New York. 2012-2013 60 from the 60s, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. College Essay Level Write? 2013 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Centro de Extension, Universidad Catolica de Chile. 2013 I, You, We, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York. 2013 Family Portrait, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Problems? 2013 The Gender Show, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. 2013 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Fotofestival Lodz, Lodz, Poland. 2013 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, MOCA Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida.
2013 Beat Generation/Allen Ginsberg, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France. 2014 Convergences: Selected Photographs from the college essay, Permanent Collection, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California. 2014 Striking Resemblance: The Changing Art of words to use in academic essays, Portraiture, Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Essay Level? 2014 The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 2015 Coney Island: Visions of an step math, American Dreamland, 1861-2008, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut.
2016 IM LICHT DER SCHEINWERFER, Leica Gallery Wetzlar, Germany. 2017 IM LICHT DER SCHEINWERFER, Leica Gallery Salzburg, Austria. College Level? 2017 Like a Horse, Fotografiska, Stockholm, Sweden. Australian National Gallery. William Shakespeare? American Museum of the Moving Image. Essay Level Write? Baltimore Museum of step, Art. Boca Raton Museum of Art.
California Museum of Photography. College Level? Cantor Center at Stanford University. California State University Library, Long Beach. Center for Creative Photography. Student Papers Online? Centre Georges Pompidou. Centro Fotografico Alvarez Bravo , Oaxaca. The Chrysler Museum of Art. Write? Cleveland Museum of Art. Corcoran Gallery of Art. Detroit Institute of shakespeare outline, Arts. Essay Level Write? El Centro de la Imagen, Mexico City.
Elvehjem Museum of student online, Art. George Arents, Jr. Collection at the New York Public Library. College Write? George Eastman House. The Hague Museum of problems of teenagers essay, Photography. College Essay Write? Hallmark Photographic Collection. The Hasselblad Foundation. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center. Us Marines? Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University. Honolulu Academy of essay write, Art. William Shakespeare Essay Outline? Hope Photographs Collection for essay level write, Cameraworks.
International Center of Photography. On Education? Iris B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at essay Stanford. J. Paul Getty Museum. The Library of Congress. Step Solving Math? Los Angeles County Museum of college, Art. Us Marines? The Marguilies Collection. Mead Art Museum at Amherst College. Minneapolis Institute of college, Arts. Problems Of Teenagers Essay? The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.
The Museum of Contemporary Photography, Chicago. Museum of Photographic Arts in San Diego. Museum Ludwig, Cologne. National Gallery of Australia. College Essay? National Millennium Survey, College of us marines, Santa Fe. The National Museum of college essay level, Iceland. National Portrait Gallery.
Philadelphia Museum of us marines essay, Art. College Essay? Portland Museum of Art, Portland, Maine. Student Papers Online? Saint Louis Art Museum. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Santa Barbara Museum of Art. Seattle Art Museum. Southeast Museum of Photography. Level? Sweet Briar College.
Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography. The Toledo Museum of Art. University of us marines, Colorado. University of college, New Mexico Art Museum. University of Oklahoma Museum of words essays, Art. College? University of william shakespeare, Oregon.
The University of Pennsylvania Art Collection. College Essay Level Write? Vincent Van Gogh Foundation. The Wittliff Collections. Whitney Museum of us marines essay, American Art. Yale University Art Gallery. 1980 Page One Award, for Excellence in Journalism, The Newspaper Guild of New York, Children of essay level write, Desire, New York Times Magazine. 1981 First Place Feature Picture Story, University of Missouri, Mother Teresa in Calcutta, Life Magazine. 1981 First Prize, Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award, Mother Teresa in Calcutta, Life Magazine.
1982 Leica Medal of Excellence, Falkland Road 1983 Canon Photo Essayist Award, Streets of the Lost, Life Magazine. 1983 Honorable Mention - Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award, Streets of the Lost, Life Magazine. 1984 First Place Magazine Published Picture Story, University of Missouri, Streets of the Lost, Life Magazine. Narrative Argument Essay? 1984 First Prize, Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award, Camp Good Times, Life Magazine. 1986 The Phillipe Halsman Award for Photojournalism, ASMP.
1986 World Press Photo, 2nd Prize News Features Series. 1987 Photographer of the Year Award, The Friends of Photography. 1988 Art Directors Club 67th Annual Exhibition Distinctive Merit Award. College? 1988 Creative Arts Awards Citation For Photography, Brandeis University. 1988 World Press Award, for words to use in academic, Outstanding Body of Work Throughout the college level write, Years. 1988 George W. Polk Award, Photojournalism. 1988 Distinguished Photographer's Award, Women In Photography. 1989 Art Directors Club Award.
1989 The World Hunger Media Awards, Best Photojournalism, Children of step by step problem, Poverty, Life Magazine. 1990 Pictures of the college essay level write, Year Award for Magazine Portrait/Personality, The Face of Rural Poverty, Fortune Magazine. 1992 Victor Hasselblad Cover Award. 1992 The Society of Publication Designers, Award of online, Distinctive Merit, Pretty Babies, Buzz Magazine. College? 1992 The Society of Publication Designers, Award of Distinctive Merit, The Prince of Wildwood, Rolling Stone. Us Marines? 1992 Society of Newspaper Design, Award of Excellence, Magazine Cover and Photojournalism Feature, The New York Times Magazine. 1993 Communication Arts Photography Annual, Award of Excellence, Editorial Category.
1993 Communication Arts Photography Annual, Award of college essay level write, Excellence, Editorial Series Category. 1993 Front Page Award, The Newswomen€™s Club of us marines essay, New York, Cree Indians for college essay level write, Conde Nast Traveler, November 10, 1993. Words To Use In Academic Essays? 1993 American Photography Competition, Certificate of college level, Excellence, The Good Boy, Los Angeles Times Magazine. Words Essays? 1993 American Photography Competition, Certificate of Excellence, Rodeo Texas USA series, Texas Monthly. 1993 American Photography Competition, Certificate of college essay level, Excellence, The Devil Rupert, Idaho, Los Angeles Times Magazine. 1993 Golden Light Awards Photographic Book of the Year, Indian Circus 1994 The Professional Photographer of the Year Award, Photographic Manufacturers Distributors Assoc. 1994 Hearst Magazine and New York Women in Communications, Inc.€™s Matrix Award for Film/ Photography. 1994 The Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Photographie€™s Dr. Narrative Argument Essay On Education? Erich Salomon Preis Award.
1994 American Photography Competition, Certificate of Excellence, After the Deluge, Vogue Magazine. College? 1994 American Photography Competition, Certificate of Excellence, Boy George, US Magazine. 1995 Heros of the shakespeare outline, West, Premiere Magazine American Photography 11. College Essay Level Write? 1995 American Photography Competition, Certificate of Excellence, Back In the argument on education, Saddle Again series, Premiere Magazine. 1995 American Photography Competition, Certificate of Excellence, The Abortionist, GQ Magazine. 1995 Pictures of the Year, 3rd Place Magazine Division, The Sins of Fathers Freelance/Life Magazine. 1995 Pictures of the Year, 1st Place Magazine Division, Napping Freelance/Life Magazine. 1996 United States Department of State, Certificate of Appreciation in generously supporting the Art in college essay level, Embassies Program. 1996 Picture of the Year, 1st place in magazine division for issue reporting Damm Family; 3rd place in solving, magazine division for college essay level write, picture essay.
1996 Master Series Award, School of words, Visual Arts. 1997 Inf inity Award, International Center of college essay, Photography. Narrative Essay On Education? 1997 The Society of Publication Designers, Merit Award for college, Design Feature Story, El Circo, Texas Monthly, November. William Outline? 1998 Communication Arts Photography Annual, Award of Excellence, Editorial Catagory. Level Write? 1998 The Art Directors Club Merit Award, Happy Doomsday 1998 The Art Directors Club Silver Award, El Circo 1998 The Society of problems of teenagers essay, Publication Designers, Gold Medal Award for Design Entire Issue, Battle of the Generations, Fast Company, September issue. 1999 Communication Arts Photography Annual, Award of level write, Excellence, Editorial Category. 1999 Leadership Award, International Photographic Council.
1999 Photographic Administrators Incorporated, Award for argument, Excellence in Photojournalism. 2000 Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, The Merrill Panitt Citizenship Award. 2001 International Center of Photography, Infinity Awards, Cornell Capa Award. 2003 Lucie Award for college, Documentary Photography. 2004 World Press Photo Awards, First Prize in the Arts (Twins series) 2006 Visionary Woman Wards, Moor College of Art. Problem Math? 2006 Photographic Center Northwest, Photo Vision Award. Level? 2011 Redpoll Trophy: Best Photographer Award, Dali International Photography Exhibition, Dali, China. 2012 Art Directors Club Hall of Fame inductee. Argument Essay? 2013 Creative Spirit Award, University of college essay level write, Pennsylvania. Essay On Education? 2014 Lifetime Achievement in Photography Award, George Eastman House. Level Write? 2014 Outstanding Contribution to of teenagers essay Photography Award, World Photography Organization.
1975 Apeiron Photography Workshop. Essay Level? 1975 Contemporary Trends in us marines, Photography Lecture Series, Temple University, Philadelphia, Philadelphia. 1975 U.S.I.A. Photography Workshop, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. 1976 A.S.M.P. Lecture on write, Photography, Los Angeles. 1976 Clarence White Jr. Lectureship, Ohio University. Us Marines? 1976 Photography Workshop, Arles, France.
1976 Lecture Series, Brooks Institute, Santa Barbara, California. 1977 Lecture Series, Aperture 77, Durham, California. 1977 Lecture Series, Women's Interart Center, New York. 1977 Lecture Series, Bard College, New York. 1977 Lecture Series, The New School, New York, New York. 1977 Lecture Series, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1977 Lecture Series, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. College Essay Write? 1977 Lecture Series, School of Visual Arts, New York. 1978 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1978 Lecture Series, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1978 Ansel Adams Workshop, Carmel, California.
1978 Apeiron Photography Workshop. 1978 Essex Photography Workshop. Narrative Argument Essay On Education? 1979 Photography Workshop, Arles, France. 1981 Lecture Series, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. 1981 Lecture Series, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.
1982 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1982 Lecture Program, Bennington College, Bennington, Vermont. 1983 Lecture Series, National Endowment for college write, the Arts, Corcoran Art School, Washington, D.C. 1983 Ansel Adams Workshop, Carmel, California. 1983 Morocco Summer Program, School of Visual Arts, New York, New York. 1983 Film in the Cities Workshop, St. Us Marines Essay? Paul, Minnesota. 1984 Lecture Series, Columbia College, Chicago. 1984 Photography Workshop, C.W.
Post, Greenvale, New York. 1984 Lecture Series, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California. 1984 Ansel Adams Workshop, Carmel California. 1984 Photography Workshop, International Center of college, Photography, New York, New York. 1985 Photography Workshop, Arles, France. 1985 Photography Workshop, International Center of good words essays, Photography, New York, New York.
1985 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1985 Ansel Adams Workshop, Carmel, California. Essay Write? 1985 Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, New York. Narrative Argument? 1985 Reedy Memorial Lectures, Rochester, New York, 1985 Reedy Memorial Lecture, Art Center, Pasadena, California. 1986 Lecture Series, Daytona Beach Community College, Florida.
1986 Photography Workshop, Friends of Photography, Carmel, California. Write? 1986 Lecture Series, San Francisco Camerawork, California. 1986 Lecture Series, Port Washington Library, New York. Of Teenagers Essay? 1986 Photography Workshop, Anderson Ranch Art Center, Aspen, Colorado. 1986 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1986 Lecture Series, Portland Museum of Art, Maine. 1987 Lecture Series, International Center of Photography, New York, New York.
1987 Photography Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1987 Photography Workshop, Friends of Photography, India. Write? 1987 Photography Workshop, University of Oklahoma Enrichment Program, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 1987 Photography Workshop, Anderson Ranch Arts Center, Aspen, Colorado. 1988 Graduate Course in Documentary Photography, School of Visual Arts, New York, New York. 1988 Lecture, The Museum of Fine Art, Houston, Texas.
1988 Photography Workshop, Houston Foto Festival, Houston, Texas. Narrative Essay? 1988 Photographic Workshop, Palm Beach, Florida. College? 1988 Photographic Workshop and Lecture, University of Alabama. 1988 Photographic Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1988 Photographic Workshop, Arles, France. 1988 Faculty, Master of Fine Arts Degree Program, School of Visual Arts, New York, New York. 1988 Reedy Memorial Lecture, Brooks Institute, Pasadena Art Center. Argument Essay? 1988 Reedy Memorial Lecture, Academy of college essay, Art, San Francisco, California. 1989 Palm Beach Photographic Workshop, Boca Raton, Florida.
1989 Lecture, Photographic Resource Center, Boston, University, Boston. 1989 Photography Workshop, New York University, New York. 1989 Lecture, Stanford Conference of Design, Stanford, California. Problems Of Teenagers? 1989 Lecture, Steamboat Springs Photography Conference, Colorado. 1989 Lecture, Birmingham Museum of essay, Art, Birmingham, Alabama. Words To Use Essays? 1989 Lecture, Honored Photographer at Maine Photography Congress.
1989 Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. Essay Level? 1989 Eddie Adams Workshop, New York, New York. 1989 Lecture, Amon Carter Museum, Ft. Good To Use In Academic? Worth, Texas. 1989 Lecture and Workshop, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. College Write? 1990 Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1991 Photographic Workshop, International Center for essay on education, Photography, New York, New York.
1991 Photographic Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 1991 Lecture, Film in level write, the Cities, St. On Education? Paul, Minnesota. College Level? 1991 Photographic Workshop, Sweden. 1992 Photographic Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 1992 Photographic Workshop, International Center for Photography, New York, New York. 1992 Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. Narrative Essay On Education? 1992 Lecture, Chrysler Museum, Norfolk Virginia. College Essay? 1992 Chicago Print Fair, Chicago, Illinois.
1992 Lecture, George Eastman House, Rochester New York. William Essay? 1992 Lecture, Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, California. 1992 Lecture, University of Arkansas Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas. 1993 Photographic Workshop, International Center for Photography, New York, New York. Level Write? 1993 Lecture, Advertising and Design Club of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 1993 Lecture, Osaka Art University, Tokyo, Japan. 1993 Lecture, Reykjavik Municipal Art Museum, Iceland. 1993 Lecture, Seattle Arts Museum, Seattle, Washington DC. 1993 Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1993 Lecture, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio.
1993 Lecture, The University of New Hampshire, New Hampshire. Essay Outline? 1994 Lecture, Advertising Photographers of New York, New York, New York. Essay? 1994 Photographic Workshop, International Center for Photography, New York, New York. 1994 Photographic Workshop, Goteborgs Universitet, Sweden. 1994 Lecture, Les Rencontres D'Arles, France. 1994 Lecture, ASMP, New Jersey. 1994 Lecture Photographic Workshop, East Texas Photographic Society, Plano, Texas. 1995 Lecture, Annenberg School of student online, Communications, University of level, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1995 Lecture, University of the narrative essay, Arts, College of Art Design, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1995 Photographic Workshop, International Center of college level write, Photography, New York, New York. 1995 Photographic Workshop, Rockport Maine. 1995 Lecture, Black Book, New York, New York. Narrative? 1995 Lecture, VISCOM, Jacob Javitz Center, New York, New York. 1995 Lecture, University of Memphis, Tennessee. 1996 Lecture, University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communications, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1996 Photographic Workshop, Rockport Maine. Essay? 1996 Lecture, Fatamorgana, Denmark. Narrative Argument On Education? 1996 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico - Winter.
1996 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico - Summer. 1996 Lecture, VISCOM, Jacob Javitz Center, New York, New York. 1996 Photographic Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1997 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico, Winter. 1997 Photographic Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1997 The Center for Photography at Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. 1997 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico - Summer.
1997 Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. Essay Write? 1997 Lecture, Santa Barbara Musuem of Art, California. 1997 Lecture, Photo Plus, Jacob Javitz Center, New York, New York for Canon and ICP. 1998 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico, Winter. 1998 The Columbus Soceity for Communicating Arts, Columbus, Ohio.
1998 Lecture, Institutt for Journalistikk, Fredrikstad, Norway. Essay? 1998 Lecture, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia. 1998 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico, Summer. 1998 Photographic Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York, New York. 1998 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1998 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico, Summer.
1998 Amherst College, Mead Art Museum, Amherst, Massachusetts. 1998 Lecture/Workshop, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana. Essay Write? 1998 Lecture, Advertising Photographers of America, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Good To Use In Academic Essays? 1998 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico€“Winter. 1999 Lecture, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. 1999 Lecture, A.S.M.P., Boston, Massachusetts. 1999 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico-Spring. 1999 Lecture, UCLA Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, California. 1999 International Photomeeting, Republic of San Marino. 1999 Lecture, Oneida County Volunteer Firemens Association/Kirkland Art Center, Clinton, New York.
1999 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. 1999 Annenberg School for Communication Workshop, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1999 The Center for Photography at Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. Level Write? 1999 Lecture, Brauer Museum at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana. 1999 Lecture, Fashion Institute of good in academic essays, Technology, New York, NY.
1999 Lecture, CYMK Lecture Series, New York, New York. 1999 Lecture, Salon.com Brilliant Careers Event, San Francisco, California. 1999 Lecture Workshop, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. College? 1999 Lecture, The National Arts Club, New York, New York. 2000 Lecture, Photo L.A., Santa Monica, California. 2000 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico-Winter. 2000 Lecture, UCSF Conference Center, San Francisco, California. 2000 Lecture, Santa Barbara Museum of essay, Art, Santa Barbara, California. Essay Write? 2000 Lecture, Art Center Colege of us marines essay, Design, Pasadena, California. College Essay Write? 2000 Lecture, Northern Short Course/NPPPA, Buffalo, New York. Words In Academic? 2000 Lecture, National Geographic Society/ASMP: Capital Region, Washington, DC.
2000 International Center of college essay level write, Photography Workshop. 2000 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico-Summer. 2000 Maine Photographic Workshop, Rockport, Maine. Narrative Argument? 2000 Annenberg School for Communication Workshop, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2000 The Center for Photography at write Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. 2000 Lecture, Hunt Photographic Show, Boston, Massachusetts. 2000 Lecture, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire. 2000 Lecture, Arbetets Museum, Norrkoping, Sweden. 2000 Lecture, Kulturhuset, Stockholm, Sweden. 2001 Lecture, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky.
2001 Maine Photographic Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico-Winter. 2001 International Center of Photography Workshop, New York, New York. 2001 DoubleTake Lecture and Master Class. 2002 Getty Center, Los Angeles, California. 2002 Lecture, Center for Creative Studies, Detroit, Michigan.
2003 Lecture, Weber Stat University, Ogden, Utah. 2003 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2003 Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. Student? 2003 Ross Institute School Workshop, East Hampton, New York. 2003 Cincinnati Country Day School Workshop, Cincinnati, Ohio. 2003 Sweet Briar College Lecture, Sweet Briar, Virginia. 2003 Lecture, UCLA Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, California. 2004 Museum of level write, Fine Arts Lecture, Boston, Massachusetts. Student? 2004 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. Essay Write? 2004 Museum of Contemporary Photography Lecture, Chicago, Illinois.
2004 Manchester City Galleries Lecture, Manchester, England. 2004 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. Step Problem Math? 2004 Lecture, Independent Curators International, New York, New York. 2004 Lecture, High Museum, Atlanta, Georgia. 2005 Whyte Museum Lecture, Banff, Canada. Essay? 2005 Lecture, Rochester Institute of Photography, Rochester, New York. 2005 Lecture, Manchester Craftsmen's Guild, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2005 Reykjavik Museum of Photography, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2005 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2006 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2006 Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. 2006 Lecture, Hudson Valley Community College, Troy, New York. 2006 Photographic Center Northwest Lecture, Seattle, Washington. 2006 Hallmark Institute of Photography, Turner Falls, Massachusetts. 2006 Salo Art Museum Lecture, Salo, Finland. 2006 Vancouver Photographic Workshops, Vancouver, Canada. 2007 Photographic Center Northwest Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico.
2007 Lecture, Hallmark Institute of problem solving math, Photography, Turner Falls, Massachusetts. Essay Level Write? 2007 EFTI Workshop, Madrid, Spain. 2007 Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. Good Words? 2007 Lecture, Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio. 2007 Lecture, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
2008 Lecture, Lewis Clark College, Portland, Oregon. 2008 International Center of Photography Workshop, New York, New York. 2008 Oaxaca Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. College Essay Level Write? 2008 Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. 2008 Lecture, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
2008 Lecture, The Academic Society of essay outline, Lund/Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 2008 Lecture, Festival of the college level write, Photograph, Charlottesville, Virginia. 2008 Lecture, Herbert F. Johnson Museum, Ithaca, New York. 2008 Lecture, Hallmark Institute of narrative essay, Photography, Turner Falls, Massachusetts. 2008 Lecture, Owens Community College, Toledo, Ohio. College Essay? 2008 Lecture, Nordiska Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.
2008 Lecture, Philadelphia Free Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2009 Lecture, Annenberg Lecture Series, Palm Springs Art Museum, Palm Springs, California. 2009 Puerto Rican Day Parade Workshop, New York, New York. 2009 Julia Dean Photo Workshops, Venice, California. 2009 Lecture, Austin Center of Photography, Austin, Texas. 2009 Oaxaca Workshops, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2009 Halloween Workshop, New York, New York. Papers? 2009 Center for Photography at college level write Woodstock Workshop, Woodstock, New York. 2009 Master Critique Workshops, International Center for us marines, Photography, New York, New York. 2009 Lecture, San Francisco Film Festival, San Francisco, California.
2009 Lecture, Sony World Photography Awards, Cannes, France. 2010 Puerto Rican Day Parade Workshop, New York, New York. Level? 2010 Lecture, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, New York 2010 Master Critique Workshops, International Center for Photography, New York, New York. 2010 Oaxaca Workshops, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2010 Lecture, Richland College, Dallas, Texas 2010 NewSpace Center for Photography Worksohp, Portland, Oregon. 2010 Lecture, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island 2010 Halloween Workshop, New York, New York. 2010 Lecture, Fashion Institute of Technology, New York, New York. 2011 Oaxaca Workshops, Oaxaca, Mexico.
2011 Lecture, Malmo University, Malmo, Sweden. 2011 Lecture, Reed College, Portland, Oregon. 2011 Julia Dean Workshop, Los Angeles, California. 2011 International Center for Photography Workshop, New York, New York. 2011 Fotografiska Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden. Us Marines Essay? 2011 Festival of the Photograph/LOOK3 Workshop, Charlottesville, Virginia. 2012 Lecture, Nordic Light Photography Festival, Kristinsund, Norway. 2012 Oaxaca workshops, Oaxaca, Mexico.
2012 International Center for Photography Workshops, New York, New York. 2012 Photo Xpeditions Workshop, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2012 Lecture, Bursa Foto Festival, Bursa, Turkey. 2012 Lecture, Fundacion Mexican de Cine and Artes, Saltillo, Mexico. 2012 Lecture, Philadelphia Photo Arts Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. College Level? 2012 Panel discussion, Spotlights, International Center of Photography, New York, New York.
2013 Lecture, Lowe Museum of Art, Miami, Florida. 2013 Lecture, Instituto de Arte e Cultura do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil. Papers? 2013 Workshop, Marinho, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Level? 2013 Lecture, Leica Gallery, Los Angeles, California. 2013 Workshops, Oaxaca, Mexico. Student Online? 2013 Workshop, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2013 Workshop, Center for Photography at Woodstock, Woodstock, New York. 2013 ASMP, Boston, Massachusetts. 2013 Workshop, Mary Ellen Mark Halloween Workshop, New York, New York. 2013 Lecture, ASMP/Smithsonian, Washington, DC.
2013 Lecture, Penny Stamps Lecture Series, University of Michigan, Michigan. 2013 Workshop, Photo Espana, Madrid, Spain. Write? 2014 Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. 2014 Workshop, Leica Store, Miami, Florida. 2014 Lecture, Gerbner Lecture Series, University of problems essay, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 2014 Workshop, New York City. 2014 Workshop, International Center of essay level write, Photography, New York City. 2014 Workshop, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2014 Workshop, Center for Photography at Woodstock, Woodstock, New York. 2014 Halloween Workshop, New York City. Essay? 2015 Lecture, Columbia University, School of the Arts, New York City.
2015 Workshop, Oaxaca, Mexico. College Essay Level Write? 2015 Workshop, International Center of Photography, New York City. 2015 Palm Springs Photographic Workshops, Palm Springs, CA. Streetwise, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, Aperture, 1992. Indian Circus, Chronicle Publishers, 1993, Japan Independent Communications Corporation, 1993. William Essay Outline? Mary Ellen Mark Portraits, Motta Fotografia, November 1995, Smithsonian International Press, 1997, Nathan, Paris, France, September 1997. Prom , Getty Publishing, Los Angeles, United States, 2012. Man and Beast , University of Texas Press, Austin, United States, 2014. Mary Ellen Mark on the Portrait and the Moment , Aperture, New York, 2015. Tiny: Streetwise Revisited , Aperture, New York, 2015. Vision and Expression, Horizon Press with the write, George Eastman house, Rochester, New York,1969.
Photographing Children, Time-Life Books, 1971. British Journal of Photography Annual, 1972. William Shakespeare? The Photojournalist: Two Women Explore the Modern World and the Emotions of Individuals, Mark and Leibovitz, Thomas Y. College Essay Level? Crowell, 1974. Between Friends/Entre Amis, the National Film Board of Canada, 1976. To Use In Academic Essays? A Vision Shared, St. Martin€™s Press, Inc., 1976. Photography Year 1977 , Time-Life Books, 1977.
Olympus Elements, The Yellowhammer Company, London, 1977. American Images: New Work by college essay level, Contemporary Photographers, McGraw Hill, 1979. Notes On the Making of Apocalypse Now , Proscenium Publishers Inc., 1979. A Day in the Life of essay, Australia, Collins Publishers, 1981. College Essay Write? The Best of Photojournalism 9 , National Press Photographers Association, 1984. Online? One Moment of the level, World, Communication Engineering Lab., Ltd., 1984. Spirit of Sport, Group Project, A Polaroid Book, New York Graphic Society, 1985. Essay? Vivre En Maillot De Bain, (Miami Beach), Federation Francaise Du Pret A Porter Feminin, 1986.
Day in the Life of college essay, America, Collins Publishers, 1986. Chi Troppo e Chi Niente. , Micrart€™s Ecizioni SpA, 1986. China the Long March, Intercontinental Publishing Corporation, 1986. Day in the Life of Russia, Collins Publishers, 1987. Day in the Life of Spain, Collins Publishers, 1987.
American Photography 3 , Booth-Clibborn, 1987. Light Years , The Friends of Photography, 1987. A Day in the Life of the Soviet Union, Collins Publishers, 1987. Homeless In America, Acropolis Books 1988. A Day in student papers online, the Life of essay level, California, Collins Publishers, 1988. The 67th Art Directors Annual, ADC Publications Inc., 1988. Life Classic Photographs, New York Graphic Society, Little, Brown, and essay, Company 1988. College Level Write? American Photography 4 , Abbeville Press, 1988. Day In The Life of China, Collins Publishers, 1989. Rolling Stone, The Photographs, Simon Schuster, 1989.
54 Master Photographers of 1960-1979 , Photographic Society of william essay outline, Japan, 1989. Das Waren Die Achtziger Jahre, Stern Buch, 1989. Photographer€™s Dialogue , Social Issues Resources Series, Inc., 1989. Essay Level Write? The Jews in America, Collins Publishers, 1989. American Photography Five, Booth-Clibborn, 1989. A Day in good to use in academic, the Life of Italy, Collins Publishers, 1990. The Photo Essay, Photographers at college level Work, A Smithsonian Series, 1990. Graphis Photo 90, Graphis Press Corp., 1990.
Children in Photography: 150 Years, Firefly Books, Ltd., 1990. 75 Years of Leica Photography , The Leica Camera Group, 1990. Criticizing Photographs , Mayfield Publishing Company, 1990. TID , Henrik Saxgren/Fotogruppen 2. Step Problem Math? maj og Forlaget Amanda, 1990. American Photography 6, Edward Booth-Clibborn, 1990. The Power to Heal, Prentice Hall Press, 1990. Eyewitness, Time Inc.
Magazine Company, 1990. We, the essay write, Children, Key Porter Books, 1990. Day in the Life of problems of teenagers essay, Ireland , Collins Publishers, 1991. The Circle of college essay level, Life, Cohen Publishers, 1991. The Meaning of Life, Little, Brown, 1991. 10,000 Eyes: Professional Photography Division, Eastman Kodak Company and words in academic, Thomasson-Grant, 1991. Shooting Stars , Stewart Tabori Chang, 1992. Level? Baby, Baby, Sweet Baby , Pomegranate Artbooks, 1992. The World of the Theatre 2nd Ed. , Wm.
C. Brown Publishers, 1992. Words To Use In Academic? The Evolving Therapist , The Guilford Press, 1992. Transitory Gardens , Yale University Press, 1993. Turnaround: A Memoir , Villard Books, 1993. The Illustrated Woody Allen Reader , Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1993. Halloween , Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993.
Photographers For Friends In Deed , Sotheby€™s, 1993. Les Annees 1970, Foundation Select, 1993. Photographers International, Photographers International, 1993. History of Women Photographers , Abbeville Press, 1994. Passage to Vietnam , Against All Odds, 1994. King of the Hill , Fusosha Entertainment, 1994. Kissing: Photographs Essays on the Wonderfull Act of Kissing , H2O Company Ltc.,1994. Black and White New York , Thomasson-Grant, Inc., 1994. Talking Pictures , Chronicle Books, 1994. Out in America, Viking Studio Books, 1994. Blind Spot, Blind Spot Photography Inc., 1994.
World Press Photo This Critical Mirror, World Press Photo, 1995. Animal Attractions , Humane Society of write, New York Abrams, 1995. Photography Speaks II , Chrysler Museum Inc., 1995. Rolling Stone Images of Rock and Roll , Little Brown, 1995. American Photography 11, Amilus, Inc., 1995. All Smiles, Chronicle Book, 1995.
Santa Speaks , Collins Publisher, San Francsico,1995. Visionaire: Seven Deadly Sins , Visionaire Publishing, 1995. Fashion, Photography of the good in academic essays, Nineties , Scalo, 1996. Christmas Around the World , Collins Publishers, 1996. College Essay Write? The Philippines, A Journey Through The Archipelago , Archipelago Press , 1996. The Shadow Man , Random House, Inc. Step Problem Solving Math? New York, 1996.
Criticizing Photographs , Mayfield Publishing Company, 1996. RollingStone Film Reader , Pocket Books, 1996. Marlon Brando: Portraits and college essay level write, Filmstills 1946-1995 , Schirmer/Mosel, 1996. Communication Arts: Photography Annual 37, Coyne Blanchard, Inc. Good Essays? 1996. The Imaginary Girlfriend, Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 1996.
The Story of Mothers and Daughters , Collins Publishers, New York, 1997. Hasselblad: The Camera System 50 Years 1948-1998 , Victor Hasselblad AB., 1997. Communication Arts, Coyne Blanchard, Inc. 1997. College? Faces of the Twentieth Century , Abbeville Press, 1998. Car Culture, Gibbs Smith Publishing, Layton, Utah, 1998. Evergreen Review Reader, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1998. Under the Whelming Tide: The 1997 Flood of the Red River of the student, North, North Dakota Museum of Art, Grand Fork, North Dakota, 1998.
The Bond Between Women, Riverhead Books, New York, 1998. The Century, Doubleday Publishers, New York, 1998. Essay Level Write? Outrageous: The Photographs, Rolling Stone Press Book, New York 1998. Rolling Stone: The €˜70s, Rolling Stone Press Book, New York 1998. The Ernst Haas Memorial Collection , The Portland Museum of Art, Maine, 1998. Portfolio: The Image Of Man 50 Years of to use essays, Stern, The Best Pictures, Stern, Germany 1998. Hope Photographs , Thames and essay, Hudson, 1998. Sleep:Bedtime Reader , Universe Publishing, 1998.
Photography€™s Multiple Roles, The Museum Of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College Chicago, Chicago 1998. Photo Annual 1998 , Graphics Inc Publishing, New York 1998. 5th International Month Of Photography Athens, September 17- October 18, 1998 , Hellenic Center For Photography, Athens, 1998. Communication Arts: Photography Annual 39, Coyne Blanchard, Inc. Us Marines? 1998. College Level? The Pictures of Texas Monthly 25 Years, Stewart, Tabori, Chang, 1998. The Century for Young People, Random House, inc., 1999. Narrative Argument On Education? Green Mountains Review, Green Mountains Review, 1999. People Who Shaped the college essay level write, Century , Time Life Inc., 1999. Step Solving? Biography: Maya Angelou, Lerner Publication Company, 1999.
Picturing the Modern Amazon, New Museum Books, 1999. The Way Home: Ending Homelessness in America , Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1999. College Essay Level? American Photography: A Century of Images, Chronicle Books, 1999. Essay? Women Photographers at college essay write National Geographic , National Geographic Society, Washington, DC 2000. Masterminds of words in academic, Mode, H2O Company Ltd., 2000. The 100 Greatest Entertainers , Entertainment Weekly, New York, NY 2000. The Bond Between Women , Riverhead Books, New York, NY, 1998. The Dog , Ruth Silverman, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 2000. College Level? Vanity Fair€™s Hollywood, Viking Studio, 2000. Leica World: Magic Moments 2 , Leica, Germany, 2000.
Witness in Our Time , Smithsonian, Washington, DC 2000. Student Online? Abnormal Psychology Textbook , The Open University of Israel, 2000. Entertainment Weekly Yearbook 2000, Entertainment Weekly, 2000. In Response to Place , The Nature Conservancy, 2001. Essay? Moulin Rouge, Allen Unwin, 2001.
Zie Je, Ik Hou Van Je , Davidsfonds/Literair, 2001. Frauen Sehen Frauen, Schirmer/Mosel, 2001. Images From the World Between: The Circus in narrative argument essay on education, 20th Century American Art, The Mitt Press, 2001. College? Brotherhood, American Express Publishing Corporation, 2001. American Photography 18 , Amilus Inc., 2002.
Photographs: The LOOC Foundation and words in academic, Well Being Auction Catalogue , The LOOC Foundation, 2002. Photography Pastforward , Aperture, 2002. Aperture 168: 50th Anniversary , Aperture, 2002. New York: Capital of Photography , Yale University Press in college level, association with The Jewish Museum, New York, NY, 2002. The Conversations , Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Handbook Of Photography 5th Ed ., Delmar, 2002. Photographers, Writers, and of teenagers, the American Scene , Arena Editions, 2002. Communication Arts: Photography Annual 43, Coyne Blanchard, Inc. College Essay Level Write? 2002. In Academic? Faces of Photography, Edition Stemmle, 2002. College Essay Level? Pandemic Facing AIDS, Umbrage Editions, 2003.
I n Focus, National Geographic Society, 2005. Of Teenagers? The Book of write, Photography , National Geographic Society, 2006. The Theatre of the us marines essay, Face: Portrait Photography Since 1900 , Phaidon, 2007. Photowisdom , PQ Blackwell, 2009. College Level? The New York Times Magazine Photographs, Apeture, 2011. Good Words In Academic? American Photo , The Secret of Their Success, July/August 1995. American Photo , Fall€™s Must See Shows, Sept/October 1996. Write? American Photo, The 100 Most Important People in Photography 1998, May/June 1998. American Photo, Mary Ellen Mark: This Renowned Photographer Loves the Human Animal, Sept/Oct 1998. American Photo On Campus , Passion and Compassion, March 1999. Art News , Souvenirs of a Career, Summer 2000.
British Vogue , September 1993. Us Marines Essay? Bomb Magazine, Mary Ellen Mark, Summer 1989. Camera Arts Magazine, Off Camera , On Film, March 1983. Camera Darkroom , Mary Ellen Mark : The CD Interview, October 1993. Essay? City NY , An American Odyssey, Summer 2000. Essay? Communication Arts, Mary Ellen Mark, March/April 1997. Connoisseur, Photojournalism's High Mark, September 1991.
Daily News , A life in focus, (review of American Odyssey book), January 2, 2000. Essay Level Write? Darkroom Photography, Street Shooter: An Interview with Mary Ellen Mark, Entertainment Weekly , Books: The Week, (review of American Odyssey book), January 21, 2000. Esquire, Lives From Off Center, September 1991. Flatiron News, Mary Ellen Mark: Photo Form The Edge, May 1995. Forum Hasselblad, Mary Ellen Mark, Issue 1, 2000. Essay? Freundin , Die Welt der Helden und Looser, May 2000.
The Intelligencer (Doylestown), Slices of life from an old-fashioned photographer, (review of American Odyssey exhibition), May 21, 2000. Liberation, Mary Ellen Mark, si loin de la mode,April 1995. The Los Angeles Times Review , The Indian Circus Comes To Town, Sunday, December 22, 1991. The Los Angeles Times , An Overview of Life's Underbelly Saturday, December 12, 1992. College Essay Level Write? Mirabella, What Makes Women Fearless: The Mirabella 100, June 1994.
New York Woman , Mary Ellen Mark: Shoots From The Heart, Jan/Feb 1987. The New Yorker, Photography, September 2, 1991. The New York Times, 25 Years of Being There (With Camera), September 6, 1991. The New York Times, Images That Won€™t Let Go of the Eye,October 18, 1996. Student Papers Online? The New York Times Magazine, The Unflinching Eye, Cover story about essay write, Mary Ellen Mark, July 12, 1987. The New York Times Book Review , A Lot Like Us, (review of American Odyssey book), April 30, 2000. Time Magazine , American Beauty, Review of Mary Ellen Mark: Photographs exhibition, May 29, 2000. National Public Radio , All Things Considered with Jacki Lyden, January 11, 1998.
Petersen's Photographic , Mary Ellen Mark: Career Profile, August 2000. Philadelphia Magazine , Revelations By Mary Ellen Mark, (review of American Odyssey book/exhibition) May 2000. Photo District News, The Masters Turn to Digital Imaging, August 1998. By Step? Photo District News , The 20 Most Influential Photographers, May 2000. Rolling Stone, Human Landscapes, Twenty Five Years of Photography with Mary Ellen Mark, October 3, 1991. College Write? Saturday Night, The Look of in academic, Love, February 10, 2001 (photo by college, Grant Delin) Soho Style , Local Color: Mary Ellen Mark, Spring 2000. Us Marines? Vanity Fair (Fanfair section), American Anthem, (review of American Odyssey book/exhibition), May 2000. Vibe, The Hit Factory, September, 2000. Village Voice , Make It Simple, Wed, May 26,1993. Working Woman, Image Is Everything, February 1999.
The Amazing Plastic Lady , Documentary, National Geographic Explorer Series, 1993, Producer.
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How to Write a College Level Essay: 13 Steps (with Pictures)
maryknoll essay 2012 We are a US Catholic society of priests and brothers dedicated to missionary work overseas in write 22 countries. Additionally, we animate Catholics in the US to follow their own baptismal call to share God’s compassion with the poor, the sick, those most in need. an overseas missionary? (Fr.
Tom O’Brien, Fr. Ray Finch, Fr. Problems Of Teenagers! Joe Everson, Fr. Russ Feldmeier) The Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers is overseen by college essay, our General Council , led by Superior General Fr. Ray Finch. (Co-founders Fr. Price and Fr.
Walsh) Father Gerard Hammond has received the highest honor bestowed by the Knights of Columbus for his service to the sick in North Korea. Read more. The 2017 contest is open to students in grades 6–8 (Division I) and shakespeare grades 9–12 (Division II). Recognizing Violence and Promoting Peace. In a world where violence is all around us—in the essay level write, news, schools, communities, entertainment, etc.—Pope Francis calls us “to take a clear stand for creative and essay active nonviolence and against all forms of violence.” We are asking students to cite examples of violence and tell what actions they are taking or could take to promote peace . Entries should be 500–750 words Mailed essays must be accompanied by a completed Contest Cover Sheet (PDF) First-place essays will appear in the May/June 2018 issue of MARYKNOLL magazine Winning essays in each Division will be chosen by college essay level, Feb.
15, 2018. Entries received for william essay our 2016 “Caring for Our Common Home” Essay Contest were judged by a panel of college essay, more than 50 Maryknoll missioners, all of online, whom were elated to read the essays that conveyed thousands of examples of people caring for the earth. The 2016 contest received 7,261 entries from students who competed in two divisions (grades 6 to 8 and grades 9 to 12) for nearly $3,000 in college level write cash prizes: $1,000 for each of the two first-place finalists $300 for each of the two second-place finalists $150 for third place. “The earth cries out to problems of teenagers essay, us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by our irresponsible use and abuse of the essay level, goods with which God has endowed her.” Pope Francis calls on ALL human beings to respect nature and stop exploiting our common home!
We asked students to us marines essay, explain the importance of heeding the pope’s call and to provide at least two examples of students, or others, engaged in college essay level activities that respect the earth . “Every year, it is a delight to read the of teenagers, essays submitted to the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest,” said Father Emile Dumas, M.M. “This year was no exception. The essays are a good way to connect with the young folks. They renew my hope in the future of the college essay write, Catholic Church in the U.S. and words to use throughout the world. I pray for all the college essay write, students and teachers who participated in narrative argument essay on education the essay contest. College Essay Level! May God continue to generously bless them!
May they bring to our global village the peace, hope, joy and justice our global village needs.” Grace Smith, an eighth-grader at Ursuline Academy in Wilmington, Delaware , wins the $1,000 Bishop Francis X. Ford Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who was in essay outline the first group of Maryknoll missioners to China and died in a prison there in 1952. Below is her winning essay… Respecting Earth, Through Myself and My Government. Taking care of our common home is an idea that, for our world today, is no longer an issue of tomorrow but an issue of today. It is such an important idea because humans are the college level, reason the environment is in a decline in the first place, so it is our responsibility to fix what we started. Pope Francis thinks that taking care of our common home should be a corporal work of mercy; Mother Teresa wanted us to good to use essays, stop wasting precious environmental goods.
So how, exactly, are we supposed to help the environment? If one wants to stop contributing to the bad activities that will lead to earth becoming a gray wasteland, simple steps can be done to do so. College Essay Write! I personally try to use less power at words to use in academic essays school and at home, and I write letters to my state politicians to essay level, ask them to vote “yes” on bills in congress that cut environmental strain. Using less energy and urging politicians to make Delaware more eco-friendly are simple ways that I treat the environment better and respect Earth, our common home. Decreasing the amount of good words essays, energy that I use and level encouraging my friends and family to student papers, do the same is a way that I can directly affect the amount of fossil fuels burned for energy. College Write! Wherever we go, my friends and I turn off unused lights and only use the amount of water that is necessary. These are particularly easy ways to help the good words to use in academic, environment because they take no time out of the day, require little to no effort, and are easy habits to get into and spread to other people. Whenever citizens feel that an issue their local politicians are voting on college essay level, pertains to them personally, they can mail a letter to us marines essay, the politicians to ask them to consider their circumstances and why they want the college level write, politicians to vote a certain way. An issue that pertains to me personally is conservation of the earth. While singular people who use less energy are contributing to a greener world, if companies continue to essay, pump out write dangerous chemicals into the air and water, nothing can be done to stop the environment’s decline.
So whenever an environmental vote comes up, I mail a letter to my local representatives to remind them that voting to put checks on big manufacturing businesses is one of the most important things for preserving the earth and its resources. Even though I can’t vote yet, I can still make a difference in government through my politicians. Everyone who is able must put in us marines an effort to save our earth, before it is too late. College Essay! With every voice and outlet available, citizens of every country need to work against the earth’s deterioration. If we all work together, as a whole world, we can make the student online, earth beautiful, green and essay level write safe for all the generations after us. Student Online! We have to be aware of the life or death situation of pollution and other ecological burdens; we have to be aware that our lives are dependent on write, the earth’s life, and essay if we destroy the college write, earth, we destroy ourselves.
Pope Francis understands this better than any other pope before him. He knows that God wants us to protect the beautiful world he gave us. God wants us to essay, protect our common home, with every way we can. Ellie Kooney, an eighth-grader at college essay write St. Us Marines Essay! Gerard School in Lansing, Michigan, wins the second-place prize of college, $300 in Division I of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is shakespeare essay outline, her winning essay… “The earth cries out to us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by our irresponsible use and college essay level write abuse of the goods with which God has endowed her,” Pope Francis says. The world 65 million years ago was very different than our earth today. There were no roads.
No giant buildings that tower over narrative on education, our cemented land. No polluted waters that we now have to drink from. Write! No humans, no problem it seemed. There used to be many amazing creatures on this earth. Problems Of Teenagers Essay! Out of the many African elephants that once lived, only 415,000 still live in college essay write the wild. Numerous bees now are on the endangered species list.
Because of our selfish needs, many poor animals are now gone or are close to extinction. What will you do to stop this? What will you do to good words to use in academic essays, make the earth whole again? Well, there are some people out essay level there trying to make the world good again. My family and I are one of those dedicated to making the good to use, world a better place.
In our lives, we work to preserve the earth. Ever since we installed a solar panel in our backyard, we have saved approximately $1,000 a year in utility costs. Essay Level! Installing solar panels is a great way to use the sun as a renewable energy source instead of using fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. Shakespeare Outline! My mom teaches an college level elective at my school about the environment and how to be careful with our natural resources. She is teaching young students to help take better care of the earth so that it is a cleaner, healthier place to by step solving, live. My family and I recycle and compost our waste. This helps the earth by making it so there are fewer landfills, and composting our waste is like feeding the earth in a good way.
We buy and college essay grow organic fruits and vegetables locally. This way we reduce using fossil fuels and pesticides. My mom and problem solving dad also drive hybrid-energy cars, which reduces the use of fossil fuels and oil. College Essay Level Write! At our house, we own 15 acres where we grow native plants to encourage butterflies and wildlife to flourish. Our lighting is LED, which is long lasting and doesn’t produce a lot of heat. These bulbs last 10 to 15 times longer than traditional filament light bulbs. We heat our house with a renewable resource of wood in narrative argument essay our wood-burning stove. All of these examples show that my family and I are trying to tend to the earth and the pope’s call. When we tend to the pope’s call, we are saving the earth. God created this beautiful home and it would be disrespectful to treat it in college such a harmful way.
He calls you all to step up and essay be good stewards for generations to come. Recycling, composting, and using LED lights are simple ways to help protect the earth. I implore you all to try, try and make the world a better place and listen to the pope’s call. We all want to enjoy our life on earth and should preserve our world for many years to come. Be kind to our earth, because it is an amazing gift and we need to save it before it is all gone. Tobin Doherty, an eighth-grader at Our Lady of Good Counsel Catholic School in essay write Vienna, Virginia, wins the third-place award of $150 in Division I of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is his winning essay… The pope is calling us to action, not just Catholics like you and me, but rather all the in academic essays, people who have come to college, know and essay love this planet. He is suggesting that instead of draining the write, earth of all its fruits for our own selfish needs, we join together to combat this ecological crisis.
The pope is papers, God’s messenger and he is imploring us to be respectful to the earth, our common home. While this is college essay, a religious message, it is equally scientific. We need to change what we value in society and how we consume. Essay Outline! Global warming and water pollution are just two of the many ecological dilemmas caused by us. As we have learned in college essay write science, for every action there is a reaction. Our “greedy” consumption has caused ecological damage beyond belief. Scientists agree that there is student, climatic warming that has adversely affected everyone, but has been particularly harsh on those who live in poverty.
Here, in the United States, we have the highest standard of living in college essay the world. We enjoy the fruits of us marines, technology; however, in Africa, technology has only college essay level, brought harm. The fossil fuels we are burning to create energy are creating harmful gases that we are releasing into online the atmosphere. These gases are depleting the ozone and essay write letting more direct sunlight in. Student Papers Online! We need to be happy with what we have, and stop wanting more. We need to stop excessively consuming. Pollution comes in many different forms, but one that is destroying so many lives today is only getting worse. Water pollution is harming the lives of so many. About 358 million people lack clean water in Africa alone. Mining, industrial processes, deforestation and agriculture are all leading contributors to water pollution all over college essay level, the world, but especially in Africa, where again the less fortunate are affected more greatly than we can imagine.
We have exploited all the problems essay, resources of other countries to use to essay write, our advantage, and left them with pollution. We need to stop thinking about ourselves and start thinking of others. Us Marines Essay! I know it can be easy to college essay level, just sit at argument on education home and pretend that everything is OK, but it’s not. The more I read the pope’s encyclical, the more I feel overwhelmed, but as God’s people, we need to believe and have faith that together we can make a difference. Change starts with one small step. It did not take the pope’s encyclical to inform me that the world had global environmental issues, but what the pope’s encyclical did show me was that I could do something about those issues. College Essay! The pope is calling you and me to action.
Mother Teresa once said, “We cannot do great things on earth, only small things with great love.” I have worked hard to raise money for those less fortunate. But the pope gave clear direction to my charitable mission. My confirmation group decided that clean water in william shakespeare essay Africa was one of the greatest needs in the world. We decided to raise money for a charity called Wine to Water. They help build wells and secure clean water sources for those who are living in poverty in college level Africa. Continuing to raise money for us marines charities such as Wine to Water is a small but meaningful way to answer the pope’s call to help those living in college essay poverty and now, pollution. Every time I drink a glass of water, I am reminded of the great need to student online, help others who do not enjoy this amazing privilege. The pope’s writings gave new meaning to the word “consumption.” To me, this word now means greed and self-indulgence at another person’s great expense. Essay Level Write! As one of a family of seven children, I have learned to recycle everything from clothes to furniture to cars.
My family drives a hybrid, we consume organic products, we heat with wood, and we have learned to get by with less. I believe that this frugal way of life is one small way that I am in step with the pope’s call to action. We can’t sit in darkness anymore pretending that someone else is essay, going to make the world a better place. We need to do something now, no matter how small. Essay Level! We need to change the way we live, the things we want, and the things we deem important. We must be cognizant that our gain is us marines essay, likely someone else’s great loss. I want to leave this world a better place than when I arrived.
Meenu Johnkutty, a 12th-grader at essay write Kennedy Catholic High School in Somers, New York, wins the william essay, $1,000 Bishop Patrick J. Byrne Award, named for the missioner who died on college essay, a forced march in Korea in 1950. Below is her winning essay… I am running on the back trails of the small city of Somers, New York, crushing decaying vibrant orange, red and essay yellow leaves underneath my feet. The streams alongside the trail gurgle as small fish scurry away at the sound of my feet pounding on the dirt. Essay Level Write! The air is crisp and fresh, and narrative argument on education I am in awe of college essay write, this remarkable splendor, the work of an intelligent Creator. But, the scene changes rapidly as I board the train that will bring me back home. The train cuts through paths made in the woods, where soda cans and good words to use cigarette boxes are carelessly strewn on the tracks and essay level write the streams are tinted brown with waste and us marines carry plastic bottles instead of live fish.
My eyes, which were once overwhelmed by college level, the beauty of a New York autumn, are now saddened at our failed responsibility as a human race to take care of our spinning blue and green planet. Though many might not realize it, our world is slowly slipping away from our fingers. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, since the us marines, Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels have increased by 30 percent, methane concentrations have doubled, and nitrous oxide levels have gone up 15 percent. When greenhouse gases accumulate in extraordinary levels, the amount of heat trapped in our atmosphere increases as well. This warming of the planet, termed global warming, has disastrous effects, ranging from the melting of polar ice caps to the extinction of essay level write, many wildlife species. Of Teenagers! Our responsibility for this global issue, as well as our duty to college, fix it, is good words in academic, immense. Thus, the need to college essay write, heed Pope Francis’ call to “protect our common home” must not be taken lightly, or we run the risk of losing our planet forever. Our only us marines, solution to this pressing issue is collective global action. Anaerobic digestion (biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in college the absence of oxygen) is one solution that has been gaining popularity all over the world. Essay! Personally, I became passionate about global warming as a freshman in high school when I researched and wrote a winning essay about the benefits of implementing biodigesters in rural communities.
During a visit to my parents’ village in India, I was shocked to see mounds of trash burning on the sides of the dirt roads. However, if biodigesters were used in these communities, this burning trash could be used to produce biogas. The benefits of biogas are extraordinary, ranging from essay home heating to developing rural communities. Anaerobic digestion has already coined many successes in China and western European countries. Us Marines Essay! Even in level write the United States, the students at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh piloted an anaerobic digestion program that produced enough biogas to power up to 10 percent of the 13,500-student institution!
Thus, with the implementation of anaerobic digestion, our landfills, rife with biodegradable material, can be siphoned into biogas production that can power many appliances in essay the future. Along with supporting a future run with renewable energy sources like the college essay, sun, water and wind, we must also protest projects within the United States that threaten our future as a clean energy superpower. The Dakota Access Pipeline is one such project that threatens this future. William Shakespeare Outline! This pipeline would transport over 470,000 barrels of crude oil from college essay write Canada to the United States, thus delaying the transition from to use in academic fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy. Protesters have been protesting this pipeline since October 2014. Thus, the time to switch to alternative forms of energy, which will stop our dependence on a finite fossil fuel supply, is now. We must protest and join in the fight against greedy corporations that do not weigh environmental risks as heavily. As a teenager passionate about global warming and climate change, I want to see a future where my generation and future generations will not have to pay for the damage caused by greed and self-driven interests. What good is a world that has profited from big oil companies when the very world we are standing on will no longer be the planet earth that we know, the mother earth that has held us and nourished us. College Essay Level Write! What will we say to our grandchildren who will look into our eyes and ask, “Why didn’t you stop this?” By heeding the pope’s call and taking action within our communities, we can and must slow down climate change before it is too late.
Katie Hess, a 12-grader at by step problem solving math Bethlehem Catholic High School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, wins the second-place award of $300 in Division II of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay… Before I have time to essay level write, prepare myself, there’s a hand clasped around my throat that causes my breathing to shift into shallow, heaving gasps as my airway constricts. My heart pounds against my rib cage with every labored breath, while my thoughts are overloaded by us marines essay, one message: survive. Essay! Time slows down and I am forced to fight off my attacker with every ounce of good words to use in academic essays, strength in my body, except there is no attacker. I am alone. This is college essay level write, what it is problem math, like for the 6 million people who suffer from essay level panic attacks every day. They can happen anywhere, for no reason, and without any warning.
There is no cure. Some people find relief by spending hours of their day in shakespeare essay a therapist’s office or taking dangerous medications. However, I find relief by simply going for a walk outside. College Essay Level! Nature has always been cathartic for me. When I experience these sudden attacks that no one else can understand, I find the peace of essay, our Lord’s presence by surrounding myself in His creation. Write! Perhaps the greatest joy in narrative argument my life has stemmed from walks through my community’s nature trail. The 10-mile trail is surrounded by college essay write, a forest and lined by a river that is home to many families of wildlife. In my opinion, it is as beautiful as what I imagine the Garden of Eden would look like.
Along the dusty pathway stands my favorite discovery thus far, a statue of St. Step Solving Math! Francis of Assisi. It is essay level write, located beside the bench on which I have found the perfect place for offering my anxieties to us marines essay, God. In his encyclical Laudato Si’, Pope Francis describes St. Level! Francis by writing, “His response to the world around him was so much more than intellectual appreciation, for to narrative on education, him each and every creature was a sister united to him by bonds of affection.
That is why he felt called to care for all that exists.” After I pray with St. Essay Write! Francis, I am filled with his desire to care for God’s creation. I realize it is crucial to solving math, care for creation because I am a living part of essay write, it. Online! God designed me in His image and likeness just as He designed every part of the trail, from the smallest flower to the tallest tree. If the trail were to become polluted and blackened by man’s carelessness, I would not be able to experience the peace that has calmed my anxiety for four years now. I have made a conscious effort to reduce my material waste in order to preserve nature and keep the write, trail clean.
This involves my family making the transition from buying bottled water to using reusable water bottles. Since I have become involved with recycling in my school’s Eco Club, I have encouraged the narrative argument essay on education, families in my parish to recycle plastic water bottles and college essay level write newspapers. I now make a conscious effort to turn off lights and open the windows in the daytime to conserve energy. Fresh air and natural sunlight are free resources that we neglect every day due to our reliance on artificial light and air-conditioning. I find consolation in the pope’s encyclical when he writes, “We must not think that these efforts are not going to change the us marines, world. They benefit society, often unbeknown to us, for level write they call forth a goodness that inevitably tends to spread. Words To Use In Academic Essays! They can enable us to live more fully and to college essay level, feel that life on earth is worthwhile.” Too often, it is easy to dismiss the idea that efforts as small as turning off the lights will have any impact on the world. We are naive to think such. According to the National Energy Saving Trust, turning off one unneeded light could remove up to 376 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions a year.
I am renewed with a sense of self-worth as I do my part to answer Pope Francis’ call. I realize that I have the ability to create a significant and personal impact on our planet. My anxiety does not limit nor define me; rather, it has filled me with the by step solving, desire to strive for a cleaner earth so that other people may find the same consolation I feel because of nature. I would have never imagined there being a useful purpose to level write, my suffering, yet here I am, striving to make a difference because of it. Joseph D’Agostino, a ninth-grader at student St. Thomas Academy in Mendota Heights, Minnesota, wins the essay write, third-place award of $150 in good to use essays Division II of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is his winning essay… Humanity is college level write, beginning to take a heavy toll on our planet Earth. Especially in the last two decades, we have taken for essay granted this God-given gift, assuming the write, earth will always repair the us marines essay, damages caused by human beings, no matter how large the destruction. A biblical verse that puts this situation into perspective is from college write Genesis 2:15: “The Lord God took the man and argument put him in essay level write the Garden of Eden to work it and keep it.” God did not give this world to humanity so that we could squander and plunder its riches, but rather to care for it, be good stewards of argument on education, this gift. Since the write, beginning of time, God has told humanity to care for his creation.
This applies even more today than it did in the time of Adam and Eve. This is shakespeare essay, not a message only for the United States but a message for the entire world. When Pope Francis elevated the issue of environmental conservation, he broadened the issue from a debate between first world countries to all nations on essay level, this planet. The challenge for outline my generation, as with all preceding generations, is to tackle the issues presented to college, us, and therefore it is the sacred obligation of william shakespeare essay, my generation to preserve and protect our environment for future generations and out of respect for our God who created it for level us. In last year’s earth science class, I had the opportunity to look at the data linking the increase in greenhouse gases to global climate change. After learning how the data pointed to a cause-and-effect, I decided that there must be something I could do to break this cycle, if only for my little corner of the earth. That following weekend, I researched how to make a composting station and garden and proceeded to my local lumberyard to gather the necessary materials.
I built the composting station to take food products that my family would usually throw in essay the trash, such as cornhusks or eggshells, and repurposed them to college, make my own soil. This reduced the amount of waste my family was sending off to our area landfill. My garden consisted of a variety of vegetable plants that served two important uses. First, the homegrown vegetables contributed a healthy option for daily family meals. Second, and perhaps most important, these plants filter out the excess amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and convert it into oxygen. Less carbon dioxide, the main source of greenhouse gases, reduces the impact on argument, the ozone and consequently the change in climate.
Of course, the oxygen generated by the plants sustains all human and animal life. It has been a rewarding experience knowing that I am making a difference in preserving Mother Earth and something I plan to write, do for us marines essay many years to come. Although much of college level, my work was completed outside the classroom, I never would have been able to do this without the wisdom and encouragement of my science teacher. Not only did he provide evidence of how humanity is negatively impacting our climate; he also gave my class the opportunity to do something about it. Every year, our science teacher allocates a significant portion of his yearly budget to purchase large quantities of soil and seeds. He encourages students to plant seeds at school, and once germinated, to take the online, new plantings home to continue their growth into level mature fruit-bearing plants. This lesson on climate change was very inspirational to our class in a way I have not seen before in other classes. I intend to assist our science teacher to maintain and even expand this program at my school.
My science teacher has planted the seed of conservancy in many students, so that we may grow in the observance of problems of teenagers, God’s magnificent creation. Much like a mustard seed, my actions are infinitesimal compared to college essay level write, the amount of pollution happening every day, but, like any good sower, I hope that my little efforts will grow and us marines spread bigger than I can even image and create a prosperous future for generations to come. Pope Francis declared a Jubilee Year of Mercy from college essay write Dec. 8, 2015 to Nov. 20, 2016, in which he’s asked all Catholics to focus on following the example of God, who, Jesus says, does not judge us harshly but offers us love and forgiveness. We asked students grades 6-12 to share real-life inspirational stories about mercy , and convey the lessons learned about the need for step math mercy worldwide. Entries received for our 2015 “Mission of Mercy” Essay Contest were judged a panel of more than 50 Maryknoll missioners, all of college write, whom were elated to read the personal stories of people helping others.
According to Marge Gaughan, Maryknoll magazine managing editor, students passionately wrote about extraordinary mercy moments that ranged from stories that touched their hearts to experiences that changed their lives. The 2015 contest received close to 6,500 entries from students who competed in two divisions (grades 6 to 8 and grades 9 to 12) for nearly $3,000 in cash prizes: $1,000 for each of the two first-place finalists $300 for good words in academic essays each of the two second-place finalists $150 for third place. “Unfortunately, only three essays in each division could be selected as winners,” said Maryknoll Sister Mary Ellen Manz, who coordinated the judging. Essay Write! “But we were so inspired by step by step, all the students who shared their experiences and ideas that we congratulate each one as well as their teachers who encouraged them to write.” 2014 Winners Seen by Pope Francis Sent a Letter from the Vatican. The six winners of the 2014 Maryknoll Magazine Essay Contest were seen by Pope Francis. The theme of the 2014 contest asked students to describe how young people are following the Pope’s personal message for them — “ Have courage. Go forward. Make noise. ” Grace Wilson, an eighth-grader at Saint James Elementary School in Red Bank, New Jersey, wins the $1,000 Bishop Francis X. Ford Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who was in the first group of Maryknoll missioners to college essay level write, China and essay died in a prison there in 1952. Below is her winning essay… Mercy is compassion or forgiveness shown toward someone or something. Acts of Mercy are performed as actions seeking forgiveness or charity and are identified with Christianity and most specifically, the Roman Catholic Church.
Common Acts of Mercy include burying the dead, visiting the college essay, imprisoned or sick, clothing the naked and sheltering the student papers, homeless. There are many Acts of Mercy, but one more personal one inspired me more than any other act. My sister, Ryan, fed starving orphans in Thailand this past summer. She was there on a medical internship when she was scheduled to visit an orphanage in a poverty-stricken part of the country. Essay Level! Upon arriving, she saw that the orphanage where over 100 children were living was made of bamboo and floating on a lake. She learned that the orphanage and argument on education families whose homes float on that lake are too poor to pay land taxes so they live in floating homes. Sadly, the lake is prone to flooding, where people can die in the rising waters.
When Ryan saw the children so severely undernourished, she was deeply disheartened. Yet, even though they were hungry, they were still very glad to see Ryan. She played with the children and saw some of college level write, them didn’t get to eat that day due to the lack of food supplies. As she was departing, she felt awful leaving the children with no food to eat. Even though she would be late to get back to work at her internship, Ryan was determined to do something for these children. She went to the nearest market and purchased a 30-pound bag of rice. She drove all the papers, way back to the orphanage with the rice. The children were crying with joy and dancing around her and the bag of rice.
Ryan told me that she cried tears of joy for being able to help the children but also tears of sadness for she knew they needed more. I listened to my sister’s experience firsthand and she painted a picture of the write, village, the orphanage, the children, the poverty and their hunger. I am so proud of her and, after hearing her story, I know that I am capable of doing the same. This act of mercy has inspired me more than any other because I was able to connect with my sister and her words. I think that when an Act of Mercy is carried out by someone close to you, it affects you greatly. Listening to my sister speak about her experience moved me to essay, take action.
This Act of Mercy has inspired me to work at college essay an organization, Someone Special Needs You, where people provide socialization for autistic and handicapped teenagers and student online adults. We play games, do crafts and eat meals together. Perhaps it is not as merciful as my sister feeding the hungry, but I believe I am making a difference. When I spend time with my “buddies” at Someone Special Needs You, they make me look at the world differently. For example, my buddy Daniel asked me if I was happy. I thought: What a powerful question that no one has ever asked me before! He smiled when I responded that I was happy. The truth is, I was happy to be spending time with him.
I was touched that he asked how I was feeling and because he was genuinely excited that I was happy. What a special friend I made! I can only hope that I make him smile as much as he makes me smile! I have made it my goal, my Act of Mercy, to spread happiness with my special friends. Mercy is an act that shows empathy and college essay charity to others. By Step Math! I have heard about many Acts of Mercy, but the one that has encouraged me the most is level write, my sister’s act of feeding poor orphans. It has inspired me to volunteer with Someone Special Needs You.
Today, I feel like my buddies do more for me than I do for them. Specifically, I feel God’s love in Daniel’s smile. I feel God in my heart when Daniel and I laugh together. I feel like I have received so much more than I have given at Someone Special Needs You because my heart is essay on education, full. Perhaps that is the essay level write, secret to william shakespeare, performing Acts of Mercy. Perhaps we grow closer to God because we are able to do for essay write others and essay on education our hearts become nourished. Essay Write! Perhaps we who perform Acts of Mercy are the true beneficiaries, not the shakespeare, poor, hungry or naked. Julia Osborne, a seventh-grader at Saint John Fisher School in Rancho Palos Verdes, California, wins the second-place prize of $300 in Division I of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay…
Mercy: The Kindest Act of college, Selfless Love. Mercy, the kindest act of selfless love that someone can bestow upon another, is one of our greatest missions as Catholics. We are called by God to help those in need or to help those going through tough times. It is our vocation to spread love throughout the us marines, world. Essay Level! Jesus teaches us that it doesn’t take much to show mercy. Even if we don’t have much to give, we are committed to helping one another. I witnessed firsthand a true act of mercy when my mother was suffering with breast cancer.
During this very tough time for my family and me, our school families and friends showed true compassion by argument essay, supporting us with many prayers and daily meals, for college essay which we are eternally grateful. From this, I learned that true compassion and any random act of kindness, no matter how large or small, can change a person’s life. In January 2013, my family’s lives changed forever. My mom was diagnosed with stage 2/3 breast cancer and faced a long journey of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Prior to her surgery in March, Monsignor Sork, our pastor at St. John Fisher, performed an Anointing of the step by step solving, Sick for her. It was very emotional, but it brought great comfort to her the day of her surgery. She says, “I was so calm before surgery.
It felt like God was embracing me and protecting me. Even the doctors couldn’t believe how calm I was!” While she was recovering from surgery and preparing to start the second phase of her treatment, chemotherapy, the school families and our friends prepared meals for us daily. Level! Each day a different family showed their mercy by essay, taking time out of their busy schedules to make sure that my family was well cared for and nourished with a meal. At the same time, the school children (kindergarten through eighth grade) showed their sympathy by creating a prayer chain from colored paper and expressed their love and support for my family and me through their prayers. College Essay Write! It filled our living room with bright colors and happiness for my mom to enjoy while she sat in her favorite chair recovering from each cancer treatment. Luckily, she survived this tough journey. As a result, our family learned many life lessons of mercy, true compassion, gratitude and us marines thankfulness through the extraordinary acts of kindness from ordinary people. I was only 10 years old when my life changed forever. At first, I was confused, sad and very worried that I would lose my mom.
At the same time, I had to be strong to help my mom fight her illness. Essay Level Write! When she lost her hair, I held her hand as she sobbed. William Shakespeare! When she felt sick, I brought her sparkling water. When she felt ugly, I would tell her she was beautiful. When she felt depressed, I would sit with her after school trying to level, brighten her day with the smallest act of problems of teenagers essay, love I could give. Level Write! I didn’t realize until this essay that I was showing mercy towards my mom. I love my mom. I would do anything for her. When our friends brought food, they stayed for a while and problems of teenagers talked about the essay write, day to help ease our minds. Even to this day we will be thankful for those who showed us mercy and kindness when they could have been at home focusing on their own families. The life lessons we all learned from this journey are that showing mercy and performing random acts of kindness not only makes you feel good, but it also has a huge impact on the recipient’s life.
I will continue to live my life loving and supporting anyone who needs a comforting and problems of teenagers compassionate friend, just as others have done for my family and me. “I never knew how many lives I touched until I received so much kindness in return.” Although this journey has changed our lives, it has only college, strengthened the love we have for each other. Codi Dicharry, an solving math eighth-grader at St. Level! Peter Chanel Interparochial School in of teenagers essay Paulina, Louisiana, wins the third-place prize of college essay level, $150 for Division I of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay… This story is step math, about a 17-year-old boy named Alan, who went to college essay, a basketball championship that was being held downtown in the sports arena.
After the game, in the parking lot, he walked 10 feet to his car and was randomly shot and killed by an inner-city gang member. Alan’s father, Keith, and mother, Donna, could not understand why their son was killed. Even though they tried to problems of teenagers, spend their days and college essay level write nights trying to raise their other kids and going to work, they were having trouble with accepting what happened. They were filled with anger and consumed with the ongoing investigation into by step problem the killing. After the closing arguments in the murder case, it took the college essay level write, jury only student papers, five hours to come back with a guilty verdict. The gang member who killed their son was sentenced to life in prison. College! Five years later they received a letter stating the shooter was up for a parole hearing. This letter brought back all the pain and problems of teenagers essay feelings they thought were gone.
It was then that the father, Keith, realized how miserable they had been since Alan’s death. Alan’s father decided to write, go to the hearing to see the shooter again. The parole proceedings were brief and parole was denied. Alan’s father was struck by how quickly it happened and by the tears of the shooter’s father. Words In Academic! For the first time, he realized that there were victims on both ends of the gun. He walked over to the shooter’s father and college essay write shook his hand.
At that moment, his anger was replaced by mercy and step solving math a feeling of peace swept over him. Over the next few years, the two men formed an alliance to essay write, help gang members stop the violence and find their place in papers online the world. They went from college essay level school to papers, school in the inner city with their story, hoping to make a difference and a better understanding of life for the gang members. College Essay Level Write! I have learned that only through mercy and forgiveness can you truly be at peace with yourself when something has happened that hurts you. When people hurt me and my feelings, I try to understand why they did or said it. I pray for them to be made aware of us marines, what they do and how it affects people, so they can become better Christians. Not everyone is raised with compassion and thinking about the other person’s feelings. In our world today, not too many people worry about doing the right thing. If more people were merciful and forgiving, maybe we wouldn’t have as much trouble and pain in our world. Our Catholic religion tries to teach us to forgive and be merciful to others in our world.
We have many different people and ways of doing things. If we do good to one person, it makes a difference. If everyone was nice to one person a day, it would be a change for college essay level the better. Anna Brest, an 11th-grader at Cary High School in Cary, North Carolina, wins the outline, $1,000 Bishop Patrick J. Byrne Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who died on a forced march in Korea in 1950. Below is her winning essay… I was born in a small town in Russia. My mother was 19 years old, unmarried and had some intellectual disabilities. College Essay! She gave me up for adoption.
This was the beginning of my journey toward learning the depth, the power and the joy of narrative argument on education, God’s mercy. My adoptive mother found me in an orphanage half a world away and brought me home when I was 13 months old. She brought me into college write a loving and supportive network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and friends who have made me as much a part of the family as they who share DNA. I have enjoyed a blessed life as part of this family. Despite that, I harbored anger toward my birth mother and toward God. I felt resentment: How could my mother carry me for nine months and then just give me up, her own flesh and blood? I felt guilt: It must have been my fault that she gave me up.
Did I cry too much, was I not cute enough? I felt helpless: I was just a baby; I couldn’t control any of those things. Step Problem Math! Also, this huge decision had been made that affected my entire life, and I’d had no say in it. I felt loss: I yearned to know my mother. College Level Write! I had seen her face. Words To Use In Academic Essays! The image was somewhere in my brain, if only I could find it. I wanted to tell her that I was OK and that I had a good life. Then I went back to anger, but this time toward God: Why did He make me go through this?
Why did He not care about me? Why did neither He nor my birth mother care about me? At Mass one Sunday, the priest spoke about how God is always looking over essay level, us, and how He cares about everyone unconditionally. I started thinking about us marines essay, that. I decided it was time to college essay, really talk to my mom about my adoption. My whole perspective changed after that conversation. During that conversation, my mother taught me mercy as Pope Francis spoke about—going beyond the formality, really understanding and not judging. Us Marines! She helped me see how unprepared and scared and alone my birth mother must have been. She made me realize that my being given up for essay level write adoption was not a selfish act; it was the most selfless act she could have made; it was a sacrifice that could only have been made out of absolute love for me.
My perspective toward God changed as well. Good To Use In Academic! My mother and I had often spoken about how perfect we were for each other and how amazing it was that we had found each other. Now I started realizing the full extent of God’s elaborate plan. I saw His mercy toward my birth mother: He gave her an option to do what was best for her child, and He stood by college level write, her and gave her the strength to make that decision and carry it out. I saw His mercy toward my adoptive mother, a single woman who yearned for a child. He blessed her with me, and with the supportive family she already had who helped her through the adoption process and who love me as if I were their own. I saw His mercy toward me; He had been watching out for me after all.
He made me part of the essay outline, family I was meant to be a part of, even if there was a detour on the road to get there. Realizing the extent of God’s mercy changed me. Gratitude replaced anger. Faith replaced doubt. Forgiveness replaced guilt. Understanding replaced judgment.
My faith is strong. I recently received the essay, sacrament of confirmation. I chose William, the patron saint of adopted children, as my saint. With William at my side, I am sure to remember my lesson in mercy, as well as selflessness, strength and love. We live in a fast-paced society where we encounter many people every day. It is problems, easy to judge, to not take the time to level write, understand.
It is essay, easy to harbor anger or hatred, rather than take the time and effort to forgive. It is easy to be so overwhelmed that we look out only for ourselves, and don’t take the college level, time to think of others. The experience of shakespeare outline, God’s mercy changed all of that for me, and it will do the same for others. If only college essay level, everyone could have the essay on education, same experience, what a harmonious and joyous world we would live in. Adriana Collins, a 12th-grader at Huntingtown High School in Huntingtown, Maryland, wins the second-place prize of $300 for write Division II of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is problems of teenagers, her winning essay… Three raps on college essay level write, the door of an old musty trailer.
“Social Services. Open up!” a voice yelled from the outside. Two great big poisonous snakes hissed in their glass enclosures at the noise. A woman with bloodshot and angry eyes stood up from the couch to the right of my bed. Us Marines Essay! The putrid smell of college essay write, alcohol and smoke enveloped her entire being. Student Papers Online! She stumbled to the door wearing nothing but a stained white T-shirt, her brown hair a mess as she massaged her throbbing forehead.
It had been another late night for my mom. Write! The door released a rusty screech as she opened it to allow two people, a uniformed man and a gentle-eyed woman, to enter in. Papers Online! The officer handed my mother a sheet of paper that she signed while silent tears went streaming down her face. My older sister was standing in the center of the trailer, mouth agape and clutching a familiar stuffed purple dinosaur while the college level write, angry bruises she had endured at the hands of our father lay invisible under her pink T-shirt and urine-swollen diaper. Seeing our mom crying, she immediately tried to cheer her up “Don’t cry, don’t cry, Mommy,” she insisted.
Shaking with fear, I stayed in us marines my own little corner. I dared not make a sound. Soon, I was coaxed out of my haven by the woman who carried me and my sister out the rusty door of the college essay, trailer to the world outside. She told us that if Mommy and student online Daddy cleaned up their lives, we would be brought back to live with them again, but they never did. And so we left everything we knew and essay write entered into the foster care system. Eventually, our birth parents realized they were incapable of taking care of us due to their obsession with drugs, alcohol and sex, or perhaps they gave up trying.
We were surrendered to the state and put up for adoption. There is a saying that says, “There is a light at the end of the tunnel,” and I firmly believe that my sister’s and my light came in by step problem solving math the form of an incomplete family of four: one mother, one father and two brothers. We were welcomed into their family almost immediately. My sister and I were the college, two who made this family complete. In their company we were shown love, compassion and mercy for the first time. Good Words To Use In Academic Essays! Because of them, I learned how to college essay, smile and laugh. They taught me how to break down the walls I built to shut out the outline, pain and abuse I endured at the hands of my birth parents. They taught me how to love again. Through my experience as a child, I have learned the importance of granting mercy to those in need.
No matter how dark a situation seems, or how eternal it appears to be, there is and always will be a light at the end of the tunnel. As I have grown to college, this stage in my life, there have been many situations where I have seen people in desperate situations, some were homeless and starving, some were abused and student papers depressed. Write! Because of my past and the grace and mercy my adoptive parents have showed me, I know how much one gentle merciful action can affect a multitude of lives for the better. Because of by step solving, my past, I reach out to animals and college essay level write people in need so that their future may also be changed. Student Papers Online! Although life will never be void of suffering, I know that even the smallest acts of mercy can change the world for the better. Will you show mercy to someone in need today? Caitlin Simpson a 12th-grader at Robinson High School in Robinson, Texas, wins the third-place prize of $150 for Division II of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is college level, her winning essay… He was a troubled boy, and he was a boy who was always in trouble. Good Words To Use! Even if he wasn’t looking for college essay level it, trouble came knocking on his door.
That is how my dad met him, and that is why my dad was his teacher. Javier was labeled “emotionally disturbed” by the special education department at the elementary. This “confidential” label was nothing of the sort in our small town. It seemed everyone knew he was different. His label was not necessary to problems of teenagers essay, set him apart. People had already done that. Dads and moms didn’t want him at their houses, kids didn’t want him at parties, and none of the local coaches wanted him on their teams. He was already without friends, without an college essay outlet and without hope. Math! He was alone. By junior high, he was in and out of essay write, Alternative Education Placement, and he spent more time suspended from school than in it. If it were up to student papers, Javier, he never would have made it to high school.
He would stop school and work on college level write, a hot roof or remodel houses. He thought, “No one to student papers online, fight with, no one to trouble and no one to pretend to college essay, care.” He knew it wouldn’t be long after high school that he would be in jail. Step! “So why not speed up the process?” he thought. Thank God he was forced to go. The first day of his freshman year was like all the others. His peers hurled jeers at him, and his teachers avoided eye contact. Javier was used to it, and he played into it. His acid tongue matched his temper, which was quite useful in retaliation. This life seemed inevitable, but then, a new class began.
Javier said, “I remember the time, the room number, and the exact desk I sat in. I walked into the room, looked into your dad’s eyes, and saw something different. It scared me. It wasn’t fear, regret or disdain, but rather kindness and respect. I didn’t recognize it, but it shook me. I didn’t know what to do, so I did what I did best: I popped off to him, looked him right in the eye and said, ‘Don’t you know who I am?’ Your dad said, ‘I have no idea who you are, but I am Mr.
Simpson, and it is a pleasure to know you!’ This was the first time anyone didn’t already know who I was!” Actually, my dad had heard of Javier. Teachers made it a point to “warn” him. He had received emails, papers and notes about Javier, but he had no idea who he really was. To my dad, he was a child of God who deserved the essay level write, respect and admiration of a fellow brother in to use Christ. He treated him as such from the moment he met him to the moment he graduated. Javier’s life began to change. It was a slow process, but it was progress. At first, he didn’t really participate in class, but he didn’t keep anyone from learning. This was a small step in college level the eyes of my dad, but a huge step in the eyes of his classmates.
Then, he started actually answering questions. Good Words In Academic! Next, he would do class work and turn it in. This new attitude spilled over into other classes. Towards the college essay write, end of the problems of teenagers essay, year, the boy that everyone had known turned into a boy people wanted to know. Javier even began to want to know not just his new self, but what made this new self! Javier eventually left his behavior classes. He left them for bigger and better things, and moved into honors classes. Most importantly, he found Christ! After four years, he graduated with honors and level write with God! From then on, my father would use his story to share the william, positive things that mercy and level write kindness can build.
It made me realize that I am here to help others realize the power, love and mercy God pours out upon His people. I can testify now that mercy works! It not only works, but it is shakespeare outline, contagious. When Javier graduated from high school in college essay level write 2005, my dad hoped he might see him again, but didn’t plan on it. Our family grew significantly, but the salary of a schoolteacher remained pretty constant. We never went without, but we sure didn’t have much extra. God always provided. One thing was certain: we needed a bigger house! My parents searched, but came up empty, and eventually were ready to give up. Enter God’s grace! We got a knock on the door one evening.
Mom answered, and immediately her face lit up! She quickly called Dad to the door to see who it was. It was Javier! He said, “Sir, I don’t know if you remember this, but I once told you that I was going to build you a new house one day. I have my very own company now, and am ready to build you a house—if you’ll let me. Problems Of Teenagers! Since the day I met you, I considered you family because of the kindness and mercy you showed me.
Because of that, I will not accept a penny over what it costs me to build it.” Mom and Dad both looked at him with tears in their eyes, and this time he looked back with nothing but gratitude and kindness! God’s mercy is indeed boundless. Be agents of God’s mercy, channels through which God can water the essay level write, earth, protect all creation and make justice and student papers peace flourish. Every Christian is challenged, here and now, to be actively engaged in evangelization; indeed, anyone who has truly experienced God’s saving love does not need much time or lengthy training to go out and proclaim that love. and general expenses.
The Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers (Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, Inc.) is a tax exempt non-profit organization incorporated in essay write the State of New York. Tax ID # 13-1740144.
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NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. NUC7i5BNH with latest bios 0046 running Windows 10 Professional fully patched with Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver device in either of the front USB ports . College Level Write! Consumer IR Device enabled in the bios, also wake on step problem math, IR checked for both S3 and S4/S5 states in the bios: 1. Power toggle button on Harmony 200 remote puts NUC to sleep. 2. Hitting power toggle button again repeatedly shortly after putting the NUC to sleep wakes the NUC again. 3. College Write! Waiting any length of time after putting the NUC to sleep then pressing the by step problem solving, power toggle button repeatedly fails to wake the NUC again.
Mouse or keyboard can always wake the NUC from level sleep after any length of time. The same USB eHome Infrared Transceiver device and harmony 200 combination is used successfully to of teenagers sleep and wake both a NUC D54250WYK and NUC NUC6I5SYH. 1. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from essay write S3 not working properly. raymondjpg : Thank you very much for joining the Intel® NUC communities. Since the problems essay, latest BIOS is already installed on the NUC, in order to try to fix this problem what we can try to college re-install the chipset, management engine and IR drivers: Please let me now the results of step problem solving math trying the steps above. Any further questions, please let me know.
(0) (0) . 2. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thank you for the response. I re-installed the drivers in the order that you listed, however there has been no change to the behaviour. The NUC will still not wake from sleep after any length of time putting it to college write sleep with the narrative argument on education, remote. (0) (0) . 3. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from college S3 not working properly.
raymondjpg: Thank you very much for letting us know that information. At this point we will do further research on this subject. As soon as I get a possible resolution for this problem I will post all the details on this thread. Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 4. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. (0) (0) . 5. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg: You are welcome.
I just received an update on the research we are doing, could you please remove the driver from the USB IR receiver and try our build-in driver? And then, please verify that you see the student papers online, driver installed on device manager: Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 6. Essay! Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thank you for problems of teenagers, the response. The driver that you are asking me to install is the same driver third in the list that you asked me to install in the second post in this thread. This time I tried uninstalling the ITE package both from uninstall or change a program in essay level, control panel and the ITECIR driver in device manager.
I also uninstalled the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver that always appear in device manager when scanning for hardware changes. I am not certain but take it that there are two instances because one is for the inbuilt transceiver and the other for the RC6 USB transceiver that I use with my Harmony remote. On reinstalling the ITE package I am then presented with the ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in device manager. I then noted what was in in device manager for william shakespeare, an installation of Windows 7 in a NUC6i5SYH. The exact same combination of USB Consumer IR transceiver and Harmony remote as in college level, the NUC7i5BNH successfully wake the NUC6i5SYH from sleep every time without fail.
However in words to use in academic, the case of the NUC6i5SYH I see ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) and two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in college essay level, device manager. I tried installing the driver ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) in william shakespeare outline, the NUC7i5BNH using the Have Disk option, and college level write, ended up with an entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) along with an entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in shakespeare essay, device manager. I then tried uninstalling the college essay, entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) along with the student, driver, but on rebooting the entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) had reappeared. The NUC7i5BNH then started misbehaving, wouldn't boot properly to Windows and essay, eventually fell back to Advanced Startup Options where I was able to reinstall a working backup image of Windows 10, Thus I am back where I started with with the ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in device manager.
Might this mean that the issue of words in academic essays not being able to college essay level write wake from sleep in the NUC7i5BNH is related more to online inadequacies with the college essay write, bios than the ITE drivers? (0) (0) . 7. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg : Thank you very much for sharing those details. In order to provide the most accurate response to your inquiry, we will continue with our research, and as soon as I get any results, I will post them on this thread. Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 8. Outline! Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. If the Consumer IR is disabled under devices in the bios then the ITECIR driver does not appear in college level write, device manager, and there is only one instance of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. The USB Consumer IR transceiver still works in all respects except for resume from step by step problem solving math sleep. This reinforces my conclusion that the resume from sleep issue is not related to the ITE drivers.
(0) (0) . 9. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. I am not from Intel but I have past experience with various NUC and college essay write, IR; I will get your specific NUC model tomorrow but don't plan to use it with IR. I am curious why you seem to be complicating things by student installing an essay additional USB IR transceiver device into us marines, USB, rather than just using the essay write, one built-in to the NUC. The drivers that Intel presumably discuss with you are for the built-in IR. The built-in IR should work RC6 remote, as long as you are aware of various potential settings.
When you have the multiple transceivers installed, I would wonder how they would be expected to good to use in academic know that a toggle is college write meant for one rather than both, etc. If you have one device/driver (the built-in Intel), the BIOS settings would definitely be required for papers, power on from the power off state such as S5. That is a setting which Intel seemed to create with an early NUC which I never liked myself (so I was glad when they allowed disabling it). Level Write! Settings for waking from sleep such as S3 might appear in narrative, BIOS but be sure to also consider any settings about that in the device driver (such as Properties-Power-allow this device to wake), because device driver is normally what seems likely to control that. I don't think this applies to you but If the IR isn't working at all in college essay write, Windows (but you have the driver installed), then you may need to investigate a registry setting depending on what ID the remote control is set to - this situation was common with some Xbox remote in step problem solving, past messages here. And again I don't think this applies to you but if you get unexpected power changes in a NUC, that was sometimes happening from use of unrelated IR remote in same room such as certain TV models or maybe even the essay level write, pause button of MS remotes. The main point of by step problem math my message was all of that background in essay write, case it helps troubleshooting.
It is certainly hard for shakespeare essay outline, me to guess how things would operate in your situation with two IR receivers. But perhaps your particular situation is that you are depending on your USB IR receiver (rather than the built-in), and the USB ports are in write, some setting which is disabling their power during sleep, and therefore there is no way for student papers online, your external USB IR receiver to be seeing the essay, attempted resume request. You and Intel engineers may not have reached that conclusion because of mistaken assumptions about internal vs external IR receivers. (0) (0) . 10. By Step Solving Math! Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for your interest. 1. The reason I am using an additional USB IR transceiver device is twofold. The first is college write that the us marines essay, NUC is in an Akasa fanless case and access to the the inbuilt IE transceiver is restricted by the case; and the second is that the NUC sits behind the top of a TV so that a USB IR transceiver device which sits out from the essay level, case is better situated to student receive IR signals reflected off the ceiling. 2. I have now disabled the inbuilt IR device in the bios. There is now no risk of any confusion with multiple transceivers installed. 3. With the inbuilt IR device disabled, the USB IR transceiver device still functions perfectly in every respect except for wake from college level write sleep.
4. Before I disabled the inbuilt IR device, the USB IR transceiver device was also functioning perfectly in papers, every way except for wake from sleep. 5. In a Skylake NUC with both inbuilt and college level, USB IR transceiver devices installed, there is no confusion between devices, and problems of teenagers, the USB IR transceiver device also functions perfectly in every way including wake from college essay level sleep . 6. I had speculated that the shakespeare outline, USB IR transceiver device might be suffering from USB ports having powered down during sleep, but in another thread on this forum. If that is the case then the issue is still with the college essay level write, bios, not with the ITE driver. I agree that Intel might not have come to this conclusion yet. Us Marines! I have heard nothing from them about this issue for more than two weeks now.
(0) (0) . 11. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for the clarification. My NUC7i5BNH arrived today but the case was bent above the heat sink fin hole so I am waiting on exchange. Another thread says that any settings about USB power are for modes deeper than sleep rather than affecting sleep. If possible you should still try to find any device for your IR/remote and check Properties-Power Management to college make sure they seem reasonable.
By reasonable I mean that if there is an actual device it should be allowed to essay wake the computer, and the interface should probably not be allowed to college level write be turned off to save power. If you have an optical mouse (not mechanical) maybe try plugging it into that USB port and see if moving the mouse wakes from sleep. On some of my PC that doesn't work (because the william shakespeare essay, mouse does not have enough power) but clicking the button on the mouse works (because it does not require such power). College Level! If moving USB optical mouse does not wake from sleep, I doubt the external IR could wake from sleep (until proper setting is found to supply power to USB during sleep and/or for USB devices to allow wake from sleep). BIOS USB settings may affect various devices. Essay On Education! BIOS IR settings and ITE driver presumably affect only the built-in ITE device, and when those are specifically mentioned in the conversation I would suggest responding with clarification that you gave (using external USB IR because of blockage to internal IR sensor). (0) (0) . 12. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. 1. Power settings for essay write, the USB infrared transceiver are set to allow this device to wake the computer. 2. Power settings for the HID entry for Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver are unchecked for turn off device to save power.
3. Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to wake the computer can immediately wake the computer with left mouse click. I interpret that to problems essay mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in the bios. 4. Next time Intel responds I will aim to clarify that I am focusing on the USB infrared transceiver, and what my USB device power settings are. (0) (0) . 13. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly.
Raymond said: Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to college essay wake the computer can immediately wake the computer with left mouse click. I interpret that to mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in narrative argument on education, the bios. I mentioned optical mouse because I think it requires more power for essay level write, the optical portion (including detection of movement) which might not be supplied over essay USB during sleep. I mentioned mouse click as something which doesn't need as much power. My point was that although mouse click might always wake from write sleep (regardless of power over USB), it would be interesting to find out if optical mouse movement on that same USB port wakes computer from sleep (or not). If movement does not wake, then there may be same underlying problem as USB IR wake (except if they have different Properties-Power settings for papers, those devices). If so, I keep thinking about college essay level write some power-related USB setting in the BIOS (not to be confused with IR settings in the BIOS). All my NUCs are using Bluetooth kb/mouse so I cannot easily look through my Visual BIOS setting screens (and they would not be exact same as yours since mine are currently older models).
Hopefully you haven't selected Deep S4/S5 (I'll have to double-check that sometime on my machine which fails to problem math wake on optical mouse movement). (0) (0) . 14. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from essay S3 not working properly. OK I should have added that mouse movement does not wake the william essay, computer, only mouse click. I have selected CIR wake from S4/S5 as well as from S3, and I am sure that I have tried disabling wake from essay S4/S5 with the same result - CIR will not wake PC from S3.
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analize essay How to essay level, develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an solving math, analytic essay requires that you make some sort of college essay level, argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in essay a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about college level write a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in shakespeare essay question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. College Essay? It is a claim that must be supported by by step problem specific evidence from the essay write text.
Thesis statement: At least once during the course of argument on education, writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and college essay write, explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of argument essay, your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of essay, comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by william outline her experience than she lets on.
One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of write, literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about good words essays x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and level, show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). Papers Online? In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing?
What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is college level write inconsistent with itself or is in problems of teenagers essay some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading.
Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of level, meaning, what would those sections be?
How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Student Online? Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. College Essay Level? This means that you must quote and us marines, interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in write writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said.
Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Problems Essay? Is the college way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and narrative argument on education, enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an college level write, autobiography, a narrative (as in us marines essay Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters.
Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. College Level? Always go through at narrative argument on education least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the college essay level process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). Words To Use In Academic? If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in level half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of narrative, your paper.) Employ quotation often.
One quotation per college essay write argumentative paragraph is essay usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. Essay Write? This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the us marines claim you're making about it).
Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. Write? How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the student papers online text? Remember to college write, write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is william shakespeare essay outline going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the essay level author him or herself has said. Good Words To Use In Academic? Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. Essay Write? to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an essay, integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and level write, gives the reader a sense that you’re building an essay, argument.
To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the essay level last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the to use essays flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the college presence and placement of narrative argument essay, every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the write first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of problems essay, what you are doing and why you are doing it.
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Clearing the Muddled Path of essay level, Traditional and Contemporary Mindfulness: a Response to Monteiro, Musten, and Compson. In their article, Monteiro, Musten and Compson ( 2015 ) explored the criticisms regarding the proliferation of contemporary mindfulness programs by attempting to represent the problems of teenagers essay positions and concerns of the essay traditional Buddhist community. They noted that traditional Buddhists have raised alarms over the proliferation of mindfulness programs primarily because such contemporary applications have significantly diverged from canonical definitions of mindfulness as derived from the good words in academic essays vast corpus of traditional Buddhist texts and practices. In addition, they characterized such objections by traditional Buddhists as a groundswell of protest, particularly when concerns are raised over the absence of ethics, or sila , in clinical and nonclinical mindfulness programs. They also touch on issues pertaining to a clash of worldviews between religion and science, as well as the teaching of secular mindfulness programs in essay corporations and the military. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) framed the online debate, first in terms of two streams, the traditional Buddhist community (which is college write depicted as fiercely critical of the other stream)—namely, contemporary mindfulness, as propagated and practiced by secular and clinical mindfulness practitioners. This framing has some merit, as the concerns raised have been the good to use subject of much debate and attention in both the popular press and Buddhist blogosphere, such as Purser and level, Loy’s ( 2013 ) “Beyond McMindfulness,” North’s ( 2014 ) op-ed piece “The Mindfulness Backlash” in the New York Times , Thompson ( 2014 ), “The Mindfulness Wars,” Whitaker’s ( 2013 ) “2013 as the year of mindfulness: Critics and defenders,” and Roca’s ( 2014 ) “The Dark Night of the Soul.” In addition, numerous Buddhist teachers and religious studies scholars have weighed in on the medicalization and psychologization of student papers online, mindfulness, considering how such reinterpretations alter the meaning, function and ends of such secular practices (Bazzano 2013 ; Brazier 2013 ; Buswell and Lopez 2014 ; Cohen 2010 ; Lopez 2012 ; Samuel 2014 ; Stanley 2013 ; Thanissaro 2012 ; Wallace 2007 ). Essay. In addition to analyzing and describing the trend towards the decontextualization of mindfulness and the role it plays within an problem math, integrated Buddhist path of liberation, a number of scholars have also described, perhaps more importantly, how contemporary mindfulness applications have undergone a refashioning and level write, make over in order to accommodate the needs of Western society deeply rooted in individualism, consumer capitalism, along with its pragmatic demands for tangible and worldly benefits (McMahan 2008 ; Schedneck 2013 ; Stanley 2013 ; Wilson 2014 ). “…I do not think we need be alarmed about the adaptation of Buddhist practices for secular ends. I call to good essays, mind a statement the Buddha made in the weeks before his death: ‘The Tathagata has no closed fist of a teacher with respect to teachings.’ By this he meant that he had taught everything important without holding back any esoteric doctrines, but I like to interpret his words to mean that we can let anyone take from the Dhamma whatever they find useful even if it is for secular purposes.” In their characterization of “a growing and level, sometimes-fraught debate” between traditional and contemporary mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) apparently have chosen to in academic, omit the equally numerous criticisms and college essay level write, defensive retorts coming from contemporary mindfulness advocates (Goldstein 2013 ; Halliwell 2011 ; Hunter 2013 ; Nicklebine 2013 ; Segal 2013 ), which have not been exactly congenial to william essay, the traditional Buddhist community. More importantly, this narrow framing of the issues serves to essay write, deflect attention away from the “mystification” of mindfulness, a term Wilson ( 2014 ) has recently used to describe the intentional rhetorical tactics and processes involved in extracting and uprooting mindfulness from us marines essay its grounding in a religious tradition, informed not only on a foundation of morality and ethics, but which is motivated by college level write soteriological aims for the cessation of dukkha , liberation from samsara , and a compassionate commitment to act for us marines essay the welfare of college essay level write, all sentient beings. It is this process of mystification that also accounts for the widespread misconception in the West that Buddhist practice is by step problem synonymous with mindfulness meditation.
Such cultural appropriation was of course the outgrowth of the mainstreaming mindfulness for clinical and essay write, non-Buddhist populations, a movement that has now come to permeate the mass media with its appeal as a convenient remedy for the everyday stresses and anxieties of the Western consumer. Mixed Messages of Contemporary Mindfulness. Another problem in this categorization scheme is that while contemporary mindfulness is defined as “all forms of mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice” (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 1), the most established, popular, and researched clinical program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), now advertises its training and curriculum “as a vehicle for embodying and transmitting the dharma in a wholly secular and universal idiom. It is a recontextualizing of dharma, not a decontextualizing of it” Center for on education Mindfulness ( 2014 ). Williams and Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. College Essay Write. 15) have even gone so far to say that MBSR and MBIs are a recontextualization of the Buddhist teachings in all of narrative argument essay on education, their “essential fullness.”. College Write. In fact, the preface statement to narrative, the standards and principles expected of college write, a MBSR teacher explicitly makes mention of the fact that MBSR derives much of its approach from Buddhist practices, underscoring that mindfulness is “the heart of Buddhist meditation.” Prospective MBSR teachers are expected “to be a committed student of the dharma, as it is expressed both within the Buddhist meditation traditions and in more mainstream and universal contexts exemplified by MBSR” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). This strong requirement—to be committed to the dharma, with an explicit emphasis on Buddhist meditation—is qualified, however, by a curious exemption clause: “This has nothing to essay outline, do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). How should one make sense of these mystifying statements? It appears that MBSR teacher training is indeed explicitly based in Buddhist meditative practice and in college essay a Buddhist context; its teachers are expected to be committed to the “dharma” and undertake long, 7–10-day silent retreats, preferably in the Western Buddhist vipassana tradition. At a meeting of us marines essay, MBSR teachers in Northern California, Saki Santorelli, the Executive Director for college essay write the Center for Mindfulness, emphasized the need for more in-depth teacher training and declared that the Center for Mindfulness (CFM) is in the business of papers, training dharma teachers.
And a senior MBSR teacher-trainer at the CFM has adamantly stated, “I really feel MBSR is not secular …” and that “MBSR is college write very spiritual and holy. If you look inside the curriculum you will find it is inspired from the essence and heart of the Dhamma.” Cullen ( 2011 ), a seasoned MBSR teacher, identified MBIs as a new lineage and an emergent stream of a “new American dharma,” one that is widely accessible, non-dogmatic, and pragmatic. Given the explicit use of such terms as “dharma,” “spiritual,” “holy,” and “lineage” by these senior MBSR teachers, these declarations do not exactly have a secular ring but border on the evangelical. Indeed, the juxtaposition of the “traditional” versus the “contemporary” mindfulness streams appears to be blurred and questionable, if not, misguided. It is understandable, however, why Monteiro et al. would subscribe to such a polarization between the two streams, as well as the ambiguous stance the Center for Mindfulness has towards Buddhism as a tradition and religious practice. First, distinguishing contemporary from traditional (Buddhist) mindfulness is dependent upon a selective reading of to use in academic, clinical mindfulness programs, particularly MBSR. This is due to the fact that MBSR is usually presented as wholly secular, medical, scientific, evidenced-based clinical program, devoid of any religious affiliations. And this emphasis on the secular and scientific is write certainly the case when mindfulness-based programs are targeted for implementation in public schools, or in by step solving math seeking grant funding from federal agencies such as National Institute of college, Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense (DoD).
In these cases, advocates engage in self-censorship, taking care not to emphasize the Buddhist connections. In other words, depending on the recipient, MBSR is billed, on the one hand, as an either wholly secular and contemporary program, or on problem math the other hand, as a sacred, spiritual, and holy practice—a faithful recontextualization of the dharma. In attempting to have it both ways, MBSR has succeeded in extending its scope and reach, but at the expense of an impending identity crisis. The chameleon and shape-shifting nature of MBSR’s public face is a growing source of confusion. Training for MBSR teachers explicitly draws from Buddhist sources (albeit in a highly modified and truncated fashion), and its senior teachers have even declared MBIs are a new transmission of the dharma. College. Many Western Buddhist centers (mostly Western Insight Meditation and narrative argument essay, some progressive Zen centers) even offer MBSR courses alongside traditional Buddhist classes.
Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 12) has even referred to MBSR and other related MBIs as “Dharma based portals.” Despite this intermingling, there is still an intentional distancing from college write Buddhism as a faith tradition, which should come as no surprise, since in a secular society, many consider religious traditions to be suspect—the legacy of outdated, corrupt, and authoritarian premodern institutions. CFM’s qualifying statement that MBSR teacher training, “…has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for good essays Mindfulness 2014 ) can also be seen even within Western Buddhism. Because Monteiro et al. have focused on essay write the extreme end of a spectrum that they label as traditional Buddhism, they failed to consider the middle ground of contemporary Western Buddhism—which has already distanced itself from religious Buddhism. In fact, in many Western neo-vipassana centers, one can be a Buddhist practitioner without having to become a Buddhist. Good Words In Academic Essays. The taking of Buddhist vows in level write the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (the traditional ceremony of Buddhist conversion) is generally not offered in william such centers nor on meditation retreats, and the taking of Buddhist ethical precepts is usually limited to while one is on a retreat, rather than as a commitment to the whole of college essay level write, one’s life. “…mindfulness continues to operate in a religious or quasi-religious fashion, despite its advocates’ frequent insistence that it is of teenagers essay not the college level case (or, at us marines least, need not be) connected to religion. College Essay Write. As we’ve seen, religion and values are downplayed by mindfulness authors to garner large audiences—but in many cases, the problems reason they want an audience in the first place is because they are convinced that mindfulness and other elements derived from essay level Buddhism have a real ability to alleviate suffering (the goal of religious Buddhism)….Mindfulness is connected to a whole set of self-disciplinary and lifestyle practices that are given moral weight by problems of teenagers their promoters.
Even if we accept the protestations of level, many advocates that mindfulness is not a religion per problems of teenagers essay se, it is nonetheless doing the work of level, religions.” “…such spiritually-laden language appears to be incongruent with the general presentation and words in academic, conceptualization of MBIs in essay write relation to their operationalization within clinical settings. Essay. Thus, the identity of MBIs as well as their primary underlying “intention” (i.e., a means of improving psychosomatic well-being or a tool for write spiritual development) appears to narrative argument on education, be slightly confused, and this is write potentially confusing for service-users.” “Although, I am aware that sometimes, the presenters of us marines, mindfulness practices on the one hand, want to argue this [mindfulness] has nothing to do with Buddhism, it is secular…but at the same time, they want to argue this is the essence of the Buddhist teachings. I’ve often told them, you know, you cannot have it both ways. It is essay level write either secular, or you want to say its the essence of Buddhism, therefore it's a Buddhist practice. You cannot have it both ways.” This phenomenon of “dual identities” may have legal implications in terms of an essay, evasion of professional accountability and a potential violation of informed consent laws. As Brown ( 2013 ) pointed out, there is a growing controversy that Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) providers may not be meeting the essay level reasonable-person standard providing service users (clients) the information necessary to of teenagers, make informed decisions. Because both MBSR and MBIs can be considered forms of CAM, providing only information limited to medical risks is insufficient. Essay Level. Religious affiliations, ties or content must also be fully disclosed since these factors have bearing on patients “long-range goals and values,” which can include religious commitments (Brown 2013 , p. 201). Papers Online. When contemporary mindfulness providers communicate that their treatments have nothing to do with Buddhism, they are engaging in self-censorship and a tactic of what sociologists refer to as “camouflage” (Brown 2013 , p. Essay Level. 209).
Brown ( 2013 , p. 209) described this communicative strategy as “elaborative techniques of shakespeare outline, concealing and gradual exposure.” A good example of level, such a flagrant bait-and-switch camouflage technique can be seen in tactics used to recruit new Scientology cult members with the pseudo-scientific “E-meter stress test.” The camouflage tactic of promoting contemporary mindfulness as exclusively and purely secular and scientifically based is used to appeal to a segment of the population would consider Buddhism incompatible or even a threat to their own religious beliefs. This failure of full disclosure may fall short of meeting the william essay outline standards of informed consent, which legally and ethically requires whether such a treatment may, according to attorney Richard Steinecke, “offend a religious, ethical or personal belief of the patient” (Brown 2013 , p. 208). According to the reasonable-person standard of informed consent, protecting patient rights requires respecting the personal autonomy of patients to make their own decisions and, in order to do so, they must have access to the necessary information that is material to their decision making. Drawing from the work of ethicist Beauchamp ( 2010 ), Brown ( 2013 , p. 201) reiterated his main premise that “patients cannot intentionally participate in CAM without understanding the write consequences of their actions for both health and religion.” “Jon Kabat-Zinn minimizes spiritual vocabulary during his eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction classes. Essay On Education. But as students graduate, he recommends that they find an ongoing meditation group such as an Insight Meditation Society, an organization that Kabat-Zinn describes as having “a slightly Buddhist orientation” (p. 209). One reason why Kabat-Zinn and his MBSR teachers are so adamant that ethics remain “implicit” in their curriculum is that it is part of essay write, this camouflage strategy. In order to of teenagers, cast the widest possible net and “mainstream” mindfulness, an college essay level, explicit commitment to ethics and or any appearance of religious affiliations with Buddhism would compromise that strategy. The camouflage strategy is particularly salient as MBSR and other MBIs are frequently offered to a vulnerable population, especially when such cases also involve experimental research.
Brown ( 2013 ) argued that in such instances “therapeutic misconception” may be occurring, whereas the patients who are consenting to such mindfulness treatments believe they are receiving medically and scientifically based therapies, when in problems of teenagers essay reality they are gradually be introduced to religious practices, without full disclosure or informed consent. Even if such disclosure was forthcoming, Shonin et al. ( 2013 p. 3) also pointed out the claims that MBIs are “grounded” in essay level write the Buddhist teachings, or other such language as being “inspired” or “informed” by Buddhism, need to be honest and forthright in that such adaptations are “by no means congruent with the traditional Buddhist perspective.” Up until now, MBSR and MBIs have maintained that the good words essays ethical dimension of their treatment is covered already by professional standards (such as the Hippocratic Oath), especially if such service providers are licensed psychotherapists or health service providers. However, many ethicists have criticized the professional practice standard as being inadequate in providing full disclosure of non-medical risks. Questioning the college essay write Buddhist Roots of Contemporary Mindfulness. Monteiro et al. devoted a considerable amount of time expounding on the function and purpose of the Eightfold Path as a means for understanding behaviors and attitudes that are skillful and wholesome, as well as for contextualizing and defining right mindfulness ( samma sati ). They went on to make the student claim that Eightfold Path could best be understood not only as a set of guidelines for the development of skillful conduct, meditative concentration, and college, wisdom but also as an universal cosmic law of nature.
They claimed that the Eightfold Path is actually a causal law of nature, “not an invention of the Buddha or any other teacher, any more than gravity, for example, was the invention of words to use essays, Newton” (Monteiro et al. 2015 ). While their source for college this claim is derived from (Gethin 2001 , p. 220), their cherry picking and further extrapolations derived from this passage are quite problematic for a number of reasons. First, Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) later clarified (in the same chapter that Monteiro et al. referenced) that the Noble Eightfold Path ( ariyo atthangiko maggo ) “was always primarily conceived of as a way of practicing or of going along …” and that the argument essay on education eight factors of the path have always been “thought of college essay level write, as eight items that are to be collectively brought to rightness.” Gethin went on to point out that in argument essay the early stages of the college essay path, the aspirant learns to by step problem, abandon wrong views, which is still at level the level of “ordinary right view.” At this stage, the aspirant still has many doubts as to whether the path will ultimately lead to the cessation of suffering. It is not until the aspirant develops supermundane right view, which is considered noble, that the aspirant dispels all doubt, knowing with full confidence that the path truly does deliver on its promise. Such a conversion experience is also known in the Pali literature as becoming a “stream-enterer” ( sotapanna ), which is online actually characterized, according to Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) “as one who has complete trust ( avecca - ppasada ) in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, as one who has overcome doubt.” Clearly, developing complete trust in the three jewels implies a direct knowledge of, and deep commitment to, the Buddhist teachings. Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 , p. Level Write. 3) assertion “…but there is no reason in principle why familiarity with explicitly ‘Buddhist’ teachings are a necessary condition for such liberation” is in direct contradiction to Gethin’s account of the stream-enterer on the path to problems of teenagers, liberation is one who develops “has complete trust in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.” Second, the comparison of the Eightfold Path as a universal and college, causal law of nature, not unlike that of gravity, is a faulty analogy. Surely, the natural laws of gravity existed prior to step solving math, Newton’s formulations, but the premise that the specifics of the eight-path factors are eternal, universal, and cosmic laws operating on human beings in a similar fashion as gravity causes apples to fall from a tree is to commit a category error.
There are similar tropes often trotted out by college write the contemporary mindfulness community, such as we need not become believers in student Islam in write order to use algebra, or become converts to Hinduism in order to use subtraction, or that there is no such thing as a Christian physics. These analogies are often used as attempts to defend cultural appropriation of mindfulness from Buddhist sources while simultaneously disavowing any affiliation and connections to Buddhism. The reason such analogies are faulty is essay because science and its natural laws are not a cultural enterprise (Coseru 2014 ). Cultural artifacts, in this case, the formulation of the essay level write Noble Eightfold Path by the Buddha, is not amenable to, nor can be reduced to, scientific explanation. Gravity, algebra, and subtraction are not “cultural” artifacts nor are they culturally determined. Step By Step Solving. As Coseru ( 2014 , p. 1) pointed out, “the principles of mathematics [or laws of gravity] apply regardless of religious beliefs or cultural norms” and that there is a world of difference between the domains of college level write, scientific inquiry and culturally determined human values and endeavors. Whereas scientific laws are descriptive of the fundamental principles operative in the physical universe, human values are concerned “with what humans do, that is, with cultural practices writ large.” “Beethoven’s 9th symphony is not truer than Mozart’s, Jazz is shakespeare essay outline not truer than classical music, and mindfulness meditation is not truer than contemplative prayer because truth is not their currency, at essay write least not scientific truth. As symbolic species, we have a tendency to imbue everything we do with meaning, and to seek meaning in everything we do. That is why we have social and cultural institutions. I don't mean to us marines, suggest that scientific inquiries and the kind of inquiries we pursue in the humanities and the social sciences should be kept apart, just that phenomena that fall under one description are not amenable to descriptions in college essay level write other domains.”
Moreover, where lawfulness does operate in us marines essay accordance with the Buddhadharma, it is college essay level write that which pertains to the operation of karma and narrative argument essay, its results (extending across lives) and in essay write the relation of the practices to the results of practice. But properly, these are matters that are described as paccatta veditabbo vinnuhi —“to be realized personally by the wise” (Bodhi 2014c ). They are not matters publicly demonstrable such as the physical laws of gravity (Bodhi 2014c ). Us Marines Essay. By making an appeal to level write, universality, Monteiro et al. Essays. appear to making a case for a “trans-historical Buddhism,” one which is immune to social, cultural, and historical contexts, thereby making it portable and adaptable for any secular purpose (Ivy 2005 ). Essay. Their claim that the “outcome of the training transcends Buddhist teachings” is not new (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 3); in fact, it can be traced directly to Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) assertions that the “dharma” is analogous to the fundamental physical laws of the universe, coupled with the claim that MBSR is the essence of a “universal dharma.” For example, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011b , p. 57) exclaimed, “The word Dharma refers to both the teachings of the us marines essay Buddha and also the way things are, the fundamental lawfulness of the college write universe. So although the Buddha articulated the problems essay Dharma, the Dharma itself cannot be Buddhist any more than the law of gravity is English because of write, Newton or Italian because of Galileo. It is a universal lawfulness.” This statement resonates with other similar talking points that Kabat-Zinn has made both in writings and in public lectures, such as “the Buddha was not a Buddhist.” “The Buddha wasn’t a Buddhist….we turn the Buddha into some big thing.
But his fundamental teaching, you can think of him as more as a scientist, like a Galileo or an Einstein—with very, very deep insight into the nature of his own experience. But from the william point of view of write, mindfulness, and although it is us marines spoken of as the heart of Buddhist meditation, it’s about paying attention. How Buddhist is that? It’s about awareness, how Buddhist is that? It’s about loving-kindness, how Buddhist is that? Or compassion? So, if we drop into its essence [mindfulness], which has always been its essence, then those kinds of questions are second-order. It’s not like we are secretly trying to turn everyone into Buddhists, as if that was our hidden agenda.” In the above public statements, it is apparent that Kabat-Zinn distances mindfulness from its Buddhist roots, arguing that the mental states and qualities resulting from the practice of mindfulness meditation—such as paying attention, awareness, loving-kindness, and compassion—are not exclusive to the Buddhist domain.
This rhetorical strategy tracks with Wilson’s ( 2014 ) analysis of how the cultural appropriation of write, mindfulness is a progressive, multi-stage process. As Wilson pointed out, first Buddhism was made more palatable by singling out essays, mindfulness as the heart of Buddhism, making Buddhism itself more marketable to the West. College Essay Write. The next stage involves purging Buddhism and any overt associations to Buddhism in order to student, promote and sell mindfulness. This purging of Buddhism in college order to promote secular mindfulness has rested squarely on of teenagers essay the way the essay level term “Dharma” has been appropriated by words in academic essays Kabat-Zinn. Dharma has a wide range of meanings including “law,” “truth,” “righteousness,” and “doctrine” (Davis 2004 , p. 21). However, as Davis ( 2004 , p. 22) pointed out, the decision to appropriate this term as a stand alone essence of the Buddhist teachings, as well as strategic means for college essay purging its association with the Buddhist path, reduces its meaning to mainly its philosophical and psychological aspects. In fact, Davis argued that this rhetorical move negates and discounts a crucial aspect of of teenagers, how the dhamma was conceived and taught in college level many of the Buddha’s discourses, which emphasized the application of the student Dhamma - Vinaya —which “refer specifically to the restraint of a person’s unskillful mental and physical activity, and the cultivation of skillful mental and activity, for the purpose of developing insight and thus gaining total liberation from suffering” (Davis 2004 , p. College Essay Level. 22). Argument Essay. There are a number of passages in the Pali Tipitaka where the Buddha makes it very clear that he taught the “Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata” (Bodhi 2014a ). “Mindfulness is an college essay level write, English word, not a foreign Sanskrit, Pali, or other Asian term.
It can be used comfortably without any indication of being specifically Buddhist, and therefore was of essay, use for college essay Kabat-Zinn’s agenda. At the same time, he intended mindfulness to mean not only awareness and meditation but also a shorthand for argument on education the Buddhist tradition, so that Buddhism could be brought into essay write non-Buddhist settings by simply substituting a different word that would not set off alarm bells. Arguably, then, when Kabat-Zinn speaks of mindfulness-based stress reduction he in good words essays fact means Buddhist-Based (or at least Dharma-Based) Stress Reduction, given this intended double definition of mindfulness” (italics in original). At the Buddhism in America conference, Kabat-Zinn explained his view: “The Dharma, to essay write, me, is pointing to something that really is universal … The cultural and ideological overlays, and the historical elements of [Buddhism], beautiful and honorable and step by step problem solving, wonderful as they are, are not necessarily the heart of the essay level write Dharma, which transcends them.” However, the premise that the “Dharma” can be extracted from the Buddhadharma, and essentialized, is equivalent to closed system thinking (Wilden 1980 ). No system, especially the papers teachings of the Dharma, is ever totally closed, or ever totally independent. Moreover, the notion of a universal “essence” actually contradicts one of the core Buddhist teachings of no-self nature, or annatta , for an essence assumes the characteristic of essay write, a “thing” independent of by step problem, interactions, relationships and a social-historical context. In many respects, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) and Monteiro et al. Essay. ( 2015 ) fall prey to essay, the belief that contemporary mindfulness is a universal, “noncultural” form of Buddhism, reflective of a collective blind spot among North Americans to downplay the importance of culture. Essay Write. Sociologists have pointed out argument essay on education, that for most North Americans, culture and its effects on them, are largely invisible and hidden from view (Bellah 1985 ; Stewart and Bennett 1991 ). This tendency to downplay or minimize the cultural dimension shows up in essay the contemporary mindfulness movement’s celebration of shakespeare outline, personal freedom, authenticity, and college level write, the emphasis on the primacy of the individual as the words sole moral agent and source of authority. “One possible irony of the mindfulness movement is that it emerged in part from level movements that desired to reform Buddhism and get back to its original, authentic teachings of the historical Buddha.
Many early Western authors espouse a radically modified form of of teenagers essay, Buddhism pruned of write, what they call “Asian trappings” that were accumulated by supposedly “impure mixtures” of good words essays, basic Buddhism with local cultural traditions and outside religions, such as Confucianism or animistic cults. College Essay. ….Yet, this newly pared-down Buddhism that supposedly returns to Indian roots is eminently prepared to be applied to the worldly cultural concerns of Americans, especially those in the middle-class, mainly white communities that have dominated the papers online public conversation over what American Buddhism should be. ….Thus the immense popularity of mindfulness does not represent, as its proponents sometimes allege, a universal, noncultural Buddhism. Instead, the application of mindfulness to write, so many aspects of American culture is in fact clearly yet another “practical benefits” approach to Buddhism, pursued in step by step math this case by American Buddhists and write, sympathizers. Though some believe they have done away with “attachment-based” utilizations of by step solving math, Buddhism, in fact their stripped-down approach makes aspects of Buddhism available for attachment to write, new culture-specific concerns such as overeating, wasteful consumption, parenting difficulties, and workplace stress—so available, in fact, that many of the people developing such applications are not Buddhists themselves.” In tracing the development of the contemporary understanding of mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) turn to Sharf’s ( 2013 ) critique of “Buddhist modernism,” linking the therapeutic turn in problems of teenagers mindfulness to the Theravada revival movement of the early twentieth century. Sharf’s critique, however, went beyond establishing such a link, as he also provided historical examples that show the secularization of mindfulness/meditation reaches much farther back in Buddhist history. For example, Sharf traced the notions of “bare attention” and “present-centered awareness” to other historical instances besides the Theravada reform movements, particularly the popularization of Chan meditation in eighth-century China. In this latter case, Sharf noted that some Zen (Chan) sects promoted a method of meditation to the laity—a method that emphasized dwelling within present moment experience with promises of a fast-track to college, liberation. However, a number of Zen reformers, such as Dahui, were vehemently critical of this method of “present-centered awareness,” and considered it to be a form of “meditation sickness,” whereby the meditator becomes passively content with quiescence, losing interest in and responsiveness to the suffering of the world. Sharf’s critique revealed that even in narrative argument the Buddhist world, mindfulness meditation has been decontextualized and essay, stripped of its moral and philosophical theories, and that such critiques have been commonplace among Buddhists reformers for at least a millennia.
There are also a number of historical inaccuracies regarding the Theravada reform movement that are in us marines essay need of college essay, correction. While Mahasi Sayadaw is student papers online often attributed to be the forerunner of the Theravada vispassana reform movement, his role was paved by many prominent Burmese monks before him, such as the notable Ledi Sayadaw (Braun 2013 ). Level. Mahasi Sayadaw was also an accomplished textual scholar who had a full mastery of Buddhist doctrine (Bodhi 2014b ). He certainly would not have downplayed ritual for ordinary Buddhist practice, but during his meditation retreat rituals were not conducted. Thus, he was quite different from the secular proponents of words in academic essays, modern mindfulness. Even S.N. Goenka, who might also be considered a “Buddhist modernist,” actually incorporated ritual into his meditation courses, with chanting and his invocation of the blessings of the level “Bodhi Dhatu, Nirvana Dhatu” upon the meditators at the beginning of william shakespeare outline, each day’s practice. Moreover, neither Buddhist modernism nor Mahasi Sayadaw were responsible for the “dry insight” method which bypassed development of the jhanas . The path of the bare insight practitioner is already found in the Visuddhimagga and the Pali commentaries. For intensive meditation practice in college essay level any tradition, intricate doctrinal instruction may not be not given, but an papers online, accomplished Buddhist teacher will guide the students on the basis of his own knowledge of doctrine through the stages of development. In the case of the essay level Mahasi method, bare mindfulness of the present is the us marines starting point of the practice, but with the progress of the practice the student is guided into college essay level the stages of insight according to the classical model laid out in texts like the Patisambhidamagga and the Visuddhimagga (Bodhi 2014b ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 ) claim that the Theravada reform movement required no familiarity with Buddhist philosophy or traditional commentarial texts such as the Abhidhamma , one the essays foremost pioneers and leaders of college level, this movement, Ledi Sayadaw, was a strong advocate for systematic study, textual learning, particularly the Abhidhamma , on the part of the us marines essay laity (Braun 2013 ). While it is true that both Mahasi Sayadaw and college essay write, Ledi Sayadaw downplayed the cultivation of concentration ( samadhi ), they stressed meditation as a practice depended on essay textual learning.
The de-emphasis on learning and guidance from traditional Buddhist commentaries occurred after it was imported by American insight meditation teachers. Cultivation of Therapeutic Well-Being vs. a Transformative Vision of Moral Engagement. The description and function which Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) provided of contemporary mindfulness-based interventions is essentially therapeutic, with an overall focus on the cultivation of individual well-being. College Write. They presented a components model of mindfulness-based interventions targeted to MBIs that have their origins in words essays MBSR and which are claimed to essay write, have connections to “Buddhist principles” of practice. They also include mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT), which is a recent adaptation of MBSR for delivering pre-deployment mindfulness programs to military personnel. The first component is described as “contemplative practices that are spiritual and/or religious” and as serving to “center us, bring us away from argument essay on education mental dispersal, and level write, connect us with our immediate experience.” Typically, these practices consist of a combination of sitting and walking meditations. They are clear that such contemplative practices are adapted for participants in MBIs courses. These adaptations are significant, both in function and purpose, as evident by the aim as described: to connect individuals with their immediate, present-moment experience.
Describing the meditative practice of MBIs as a means of narrative argument essay, “centering” and write, reducing “mental dispersal,” appears to be equivalent to reducing mental ruminations about the past and future in order to enhance the connection with immediate experience. Viewed as a therapeutic modality for good words to use sensory enhancement, contemplative practice is construed as focusing on college level everyday activities to cultivate a mode of attentiveness for shakespeare outline dealing with the stresses and anxieties of ordinary life (Purser 2014 ). Perhaps the level signature example of essays, this mode of mindfulness-as-sensory enhancement is the mindful eating of a raisin, the first MBSR exercise introduced in the beginning of an eight-week program. The mindful of eating the raisin brings the immediacy of experience back to life; the participant comes to know and appreciate the raisin in a different way by focusing attention on college write the sensations of eating it. This mode of contemplative practice focuses on problems essay the epistemological aspect of essay, meditation. The self-as-knower engages in a meditative practice that results in a sensory enhancement of the immediacy of essay, experience and level, which, in no doubt, has therapeutic benefits. Buddhist contemplative practices also focus on the epistemological dimensions of experience, particularly those whose purpose and function is to enhance concentration and mental stability (e.g., s amatha , calm abiding). However, such concentration practices are often considered as foundational supports or preliminaries to us marines essay, the development of insight and wisdom. The practice of insight meditation, along with other related practices whose purpose are the development of wisdom, or prajna , are aimed to effect a fundamental ontological shift in being and radical transformation of the self, or the one who knows. The outcome is not merely therapeutic in essay level nature (sensory enhancement in to use in academic the service of individual well-being or stress reduction) but the emergence of a radical transformation in one’s vision of reality coupled with a spontaneous moral engagement with the level world.
However, there is another epistemological aspect of Buddhist philosophy (and by argument implication Buddhist meditative practices), which has to essay level, do with a fundamental error of perception. This perceptual error is essay often referred to as “basic or fundamental ignorance,” but such a translation falls short in explicating the essay write innate and reflexive perceptual process that is also considered the root cause of dukkha (and for now, this term will not be rendered or translated as “suffering,” which will become more apparent later). Basic ignorance, or delusion, is essay derived from the Sanskrit term avidya (in Tibetan ma - rig - pa ). The antonym is vidya , which is often translated as “seeing.” However, in this context, it refers to the perceptual capacity for college essay write clearly seeing the true nature of reality and argument essay, things as they are (this includes subjects and objects), that is, as impermanent, interdependent and essay level, lacking any intrinsic reality (Garfield 2015 , p. 26). “ Dukkha , however, is caused by a perceptual process. It is not that we engage with the world, or contemplate ourselves, and infer or decide that we or the argument essay things around us are permanent, independent and have identifiable intrinsic natures. Essay. Rather, we take the world and step by step solving, ourselves to be like that in our immediate perceptual engagement.
Perception itself is therefore shot through with reification.” As Garfield made clear, the perceptual process is tainted and distorted by the superimposition of reification; a process that is not in the conscious domain of a cognitive skill or even philosophical analysis. In fact, Garfield preferred the term “primal confusion,” to better describe avidya , delusion or basic ignorance. The Buddhist path culminating in the development of wisdom is aimed to essay, dispel primal confusion by developing and cultivating the power of insight to to use in academic essays, uproot the level write innate and latent tendencies that infiltrates the perceptual processes leading to the reification of both self and student papers, objects. College. Thus, the cessation of dukkha requires a thoroughgoing reorientation, facilitated by the orchestrated synergies of the entire Noble Eightfold Path—aimed at good words the deepest strata of college essay level, ontology in order to effect a fundamental transformation in epistemology. In contrast, according to Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ), the reduction of shakespeare essay, suffering, allegedly through Buddhist-based concepts, amounts to essay, the cultivation of “experiential awareness” (isn’t all awareness experiential?), but such concepts, they went on to add, are not at all unique to Buddhism—they are also operative in student online such psychotherapeutic approaches as Gendlin’s focusing therapy, which also trains clients to be attentive to essay level write, their bodily felt sensations. It should be apparent by now why it is so important to clarify exactly what is meant by “Buddhist philosophy” in order to understand both the commonalities as well as the major points of departure between contemporary and traditional mindfulness.
Moreover, because the term “Buddhism” is a modern invention of European orientalists, and is far from being monolithic, making sweeping claims to “Buddhist philosophy” without contextualizing such claims is shakespeare essay outline fraught with perils. The tendency to date has been towards a cross-cultural conflation and college essay, an uncritical transposition of us marines, Buddhist terms, principles and concepts from the religious domain into college level write clinical and essay, therapeutic contexts. This is problematic as many Buddhist terms have a wide semantic range and their intended meaning, role and college essay, function can only be understood within their respective religious and historical contexts, which means taking into account their embeddedness within a soteriology and systematic path oriented towards liberation and awakening. There are a number of examples of where such linguistic and conceptual conflation is resulting in student what Rosch ( 2007 , p. 259) referred to essay write, as a “confusion of levels.” For example, Dorjee ( 2010 ) made an important distinction regarding the role of mindfulness as a precursor to, and in academic, as a separate mental faculty from, the college level write development of wisdom and insight. She distinguished the therapeutic mechanisms of MBSR, such as “decentering” and deautomatization of mental events, from the higher stages of the to use essays meta-awareness of mind that are developed during the fourth foundation of mindfulness as practiced within Theravada Buddhist tradition. In this latter stage of advanced mindfulness training, well after the essay level write attention has been stabilized and refined ( samadhi ), there is often a pronounced dissolution of the subtle sense of papers, “I, me or mine” and a deep insight into nature of the codependent origination (Dorjee 2010 ; Olendzki 2010 . Similarly, such advanced levels of mind-training can be found in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which culminates in college the arising of wisdom and pristine awareness ( rigpa ) (Wallace 2012 ). This dimension of the mind is radiant, luminous and clear, and transcends the six modes of consciousness (the five physical senses and the ordinary mental consciousness). It is known in Theravadin commentaries as the pure “ground of becoming” ( bhavanga ), and also manifests during dreamless sleep and at the moment of death (Wallace 2012 ). In the Tibetan tradition, this experience of non-dual awareness is no longer even viewed as “mindfulness.” When words and of teenagers essay, phrases such as “insight,” “wisdom,” “witnessing,” “ dukkha ” “seeing things as they are,” and level, “direct perception” are lifted out of a Buddhist context and reused in Western therapeutic mindfulness discourse, their meanings change significantly. Perhaps the most conflated term and narrative essay, overused phrase in usage in a therapeutic mindfulness context is “insight” and college essay write, “seeing things as they really are.” Dorjee ( 2010 ) pointed out student online, that within the level therapeutic mindfulness context, “insight” is more descriptive of the decentered perspective on our thoughts and feelings, or what Wallace and Shapiro ( 2006 ) referred to as “reperceiving.” This signifies taking a more detached stance in relation to william outline, one’s thoughts and feelings. This is a very different level of insight as compared with how the term is used within the Theravada tradition, which, as alluded to earlier, is more descriptive of a penetrating insight into the three characteristics of impermanence ( annica ), not-self ( anatta ), and all conditioned phenomena as suffering ( dukkha ), accompanied by “a complete dissolution of an independent self” (Dorjee 2010 ). Level. Both Dorjee ( 2010 ) and Rosch ( 2007 ) also called attention to how the step problem math decentered perspective that is developed in level write MBSR (an eight week program) is often conflated and confused with some of the most advanced meditative states in good words to use essays the Buddhist traditions, including Dzogchen. This can be seen in the discourse among numerous Western mindfulness authors such as Bishop et al. ( 2004 ), Brown et al. ( 2007 ), Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ), and Teasdale et al. ( 2002 ) who are fond of the phrase “seeing things as they really are.” However, in a Buddhist context, this refers to the penetrating insight into the three characteristics and level, a complete dissolution of the “observer-observed” dichotomy.
In a clinical and contemporary mindfulness context it is student papers online spoken of in a more generalized and essay write, therapeutic sense, describing a basic recognition and us marines, ability to detach from the contents of mental events. Rosch ( 2007 , p. 263) characterized these distinctions in terminology as being descriptive of relative sanity in a therapeutic context versus the Buddhist wisdom-insight developed through prolonged periods of advanced meditative practices. This trend towards linguistic conflation extends to the meditative practice domain, in college which case, traditional Buddhist practices are refashioned, modified or completely changed to such an extent that they bear little similarity to narrative essay, their original function and purpose. What remains is a reductionistic form of write, Crypto-Buddhism. Papers Online. For example, MBSR utilizes the “body scan” which is proclaimed to be based on the first foundation of mindfulness practice, as found in the Satipa ?? hana sutta ( Discourse on the Foundation of Mindfulness ). Cullen ( 2011 ) made the claims “Perhaps it is essay write important to reiterate here that MBSR is informed by and grounded in us marines the application of the four foundations of mindfulness and the view that mindfulness, as taught in this program, has elements of all of the brahma viharas seamlessly integrated into it.” The qualifier here is, of essay write, course, the ambiguous notion of what it really means to be “informed by” and “grounded” in Buddhist meditative practices. For example, the body scan practice as it is taught in MBSR, is often conducted in a supine position with eyes closed.
The basic instructions given are to begin noticing sensations, starting with the feet, and moving progressively through the essay limbs, torso, and ending at the top of the head. Essay. In her ethnographic study of problem math, MBSR classes, Rosch ( 2014 ) found that participants described this session as a form of relaxation, with many reporting that the college practice was used as an aid to facilitate the onset of problems of teenagers essay, sleep. Many of the participants also said that it helped them to sleep or actually put them to sleep, some reporting happily that they had never stayed awake for the entire CD. Rosch ( 2014 , p. 13) also observed, that during the college essay group MBSR sessions, “a chorus of snores typically accompanied the body scan.” Compare this account of the essays body scan with the traditional 32-part body scan practice in the Satipa ?? hana Sutta which systematically reviews and contemplates the anatomical constitution of the college essay level write body as a means to to use, reduce one’s attachment to the body. Contemplation of the body instructions are oriented to college level write, seeing its impurities, even directing attention to contemplating bodily orifices, feces, guts, pus and so on—and other more repulsive features, all with the aim to induce a realization that there is nothing inherently beautiful or attractive about the nature of the narrative on education body, in order to counter the tendency towards conceit (Analayo 2010 , p. 148). Even the monk Mahayasi Sayadaw, a twentieth century Theravada reformer, instructed his students to dwell upon the impurities of the body in order to develop an college level, aversion to it. Additional practices in the contemplation of the body include mindfulness visualizations of a decaying corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being eaten and devoured by various creatures, such as crows, hawks, vultures, worms—progressively decaying until even the skeleton bones turn to dust. The contemplative practice of a decaying body is meant to make vivid the inevitably of death and impermanence of all beings.
It appears that the body scan as practiced in MBSR is problems a recontextualization of the modernist adaptation of Burmese Buddhist meditation teacher Ledi Sayadaw and Indian teacher S.N. Goenka’s variation on scanning body sensations. The practice of scanning body sensations was applied as a way of developing equanimity to the pain that comes from sitting immobile for many hours on intensive vipassana retreats. Essay. In this context, participants were taught to view sensations as being transient vibrations, thereby hopefully eliminating all desire and student, aversion from their minds (Rosch 2014 ). The body scan in MBSR does not instruct participants to view sensations as “transient vibrations” in order to college write, endure painful sensations while remaining vigilant, alert and to use in academic essays, immobile in a sitting posture, nor to develop a detachment to essay write, the body, nor does it encourage participants to see the inevitability of the body’s death and its inherent unattractiveness. Us Marines. Instead, the body scan in MBSR is guided by therapeutic aims: the essay practical benefits derived from relaxation can result in “self-acceptance” and “healing.”
Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) accused the traditional mindfulness communities as not greeting nor positively welcoming the essay exponential number of college essay, clinical and scientific studies investigating the efficacies and mechanisms of essay outline, MBIs. They went on to state, “Many [in the traditional mindfulness community] have found deconstructing mindfulness into its mechanisms and active components disconcerting.” Alan Wallace is specifically targeted as being representative of these “disconcerting” sentiments, given his critical questioning of the metaphysics of scientific materialism in the field of contemplative neuroscience, “which, in his view, is level write inconsistent with the teachings of the Buddha.” What really appears disconcerting here—and essentially a non-sequitur—is conflating investigative studies into the underlying mechanisms and active neural components of good in academic, mindfulness with a metaphysical critique of scientific materialism. It also seems quite odd to single out Alan Wallace as holding an anti-scientific position given his instrumental role in forging the early dialogues between scientists and the Dalai Lama at the Mind and Life Institute, as well as his pioneering scientific research on the Shamatha project in essay level collaboration with numerous neuroscientists. Monteiro et al. went on attempting to persuade that there is ample and conclusive evidence for the clinical efficacy of MBIs based on a single meta-analytic study they cite (Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012 ). What is not mentioned here are the good in academic essays numerous methodological issues with MBI studies, such as the wide variance with how mindfulness across various studies is essay level conceptualized, variations in words to use in academic essays program design, small sample sizes, inadequate controls of confounding factors, a lack of randomized control trials and active control groups, a lack of long-term follow-up data and longitudinal studies of MBI participants, an overreliance on questionable self-report measures, wide variations in essay teacher experience and competence, and poor monitoring of participant adherence to practice protocols (Shonin et al. 2013 ). Monteiro et al. also omitted an important meta-analytic study on the efficacy of step by step, mindfulness meditation that was recently published (Goyal et al. 2014 ). Goyal et al. reviewed 18,753 citations of meditation studies and found only 47 of them to have active control groups. For programs with active controls, there was no effect or insufficient evidence that mindfulness meditation was anymore effective than exercise, progressive relaxation, or group therapy.
Perhaps the “disconcerting” sentiment in the traditional mindfulness communities has more to do with the hype and college essay level, overblown conclusions regarding the scientific evidence associated with MBIs. However, such concerns are now being expressed from within the contemplative science community itself (Logothetis 2008 ). In fact, the Mind Life Institute recently convened a working group of neuroscientists and clinical researchers to address strategies for countering the papers hype and evaluating the essay level write validity of problems essay, media reports on scientific studies of mindfulness (Kerr 2014 ). According to Britton, “public enthusiasm is outpacing scientific evidence,” noting that most MBI studies which lack active control groups are being passed along as scientific evidence, often by those who stand to benefit from mindfulness programs (Heuman 2014a , p. 1). Britton goes on to warn that experimenter allegiance is often overlooked when such studies are reported. When the researcher also happens to be a creator of a clinical mindfulness program it can, according to Britton, “count for a larger effect than the treatment itself” (Heuman 2014a ). Monteiro et al. maintained that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share a singular and common intention “to alleviate suffering in the world as it is now,” implying that these two streams share the level write same roots. Such is not the case. There is common ground, but only on the surface. The goals and aims of contemporary and us marines, traditional mindfulness diverge; the former is concerned with the college essay level write alleviation of worldly suffering and the practical benefits derived from us marines essay mindfulness practice.
Traditional mindfulness (embedded within the Buddhist Eightfold Path) is concerned with the cessation of dukkha and, depending on the specific tradition and context, culminates in the fruition of awakening and the attainment of essay level, nirvana . The telos of contemporary mindfulness is online therapeutic in nature. Contemporary mindfulness is conceived as a therapeutic form of self-help and self-care, which, as Monteiro et al. ( 2015 , p. 4) pointed out, operates within a pragmatic and commercial context that “expects quick relief from distress and is focused on capital gain.” Buddhist, or traditional mindfulness, operates within a soteriological context or path ( marga ) that creates a commonality of concern which informs all the various strands of essay write, its religious endeavor—moral values, ritual observances, doctrinal teachings, and contemplative exercises—into a unified network of practices focused on liberation (Buswell and Gimello 1994 ). Essays. Rather than being motivated by “quick relief from distress and capital gain,” some Buddhist traditions consider the path of college, liberation as evolving over william outline, many lifetimes, involving deeper levels of renunciation from worldly life. A common misconception—that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share the same intention—is based on the “suffering” trope; this can be attributed to a mistranslation of the level write Buddha’s statement, “I teach one thing and one thing only: suffering and the end of william outline, suffering.” However, as Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the correct translation is, “In the college level past, monks, and good words in academic, also now, I teach suffering and the cessation of suffering.” Moreover, Bhikkhu Bodhi has also clarified that any utterance of the Buddha was always guided by the intention to enhance the welfare and college level write, happiness of essay, those receiving his message. The Buddha’s statement regarding the cessation of suffering was made in a particular context, specifically in response to a question someone had asked the Buddha in essay level the hopes that he would engage in metaphysical speculation. Taken out of context, many contemporary mindfulness teachers have misconstrued this statement as being representative of the whole of what the Buddha taught. As Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the Buddha taught on a wide range of topics besides suffering and its cessation, including important topics like the workings of karma, moral and ethical behaviors and dependent co-origination, as well as many practical topics for householders, such as marriage, the good words in academic essays distribution of wealth, and household budgets. Summarizing this misconception, Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) stated: “…But his words are not always tied to the theme of ‘suffering and its cessation.’ To insist on confining them to this topic is to drastically narrow the range of the dharma.” “We can now see why dukkha is so pervasive, and so why the term dukkha does not admit of easy translation into a language that does not encode this view of reality.
Suffering, dissatisfaction, unease, stress, anxiety and pain are all kinds or aspects of dukkha, but none of them exhaust it. Siddhartha Gautama’s genius was not simply to see that we suffer, or that many of us are unhappy. That has been noted many times by philosophers in many traditions. His genius was instead to level write, see that dukkha is the fundamental structure of our lives, what Heidegger would have called our existentiale. To be human is to live in dukkha.” In describing the current practice of traditional mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) seem to privilege the Anapanasati and Satipa ?? hana suttas , the primary instructions for mindfulness training in step problem solving math the Theravada tradition. These suttas have also been the mainstay for Western neo-vipassana insight meditation centers and it is no coincidence that these centers are the most closely aligned with MBSR. However, associating traditional mindfulness to only these two suttas from the Pali Nikayas does not do justice to the wide range of conceptions and practices of college level, mindfulness within the Buddhist tradition. For example, even within the Theravada tradition, there are many other seminal texts and us marines essay, commentarial treatises (such as the Milindapanha , Abhidamma , Visuddhimagga ), with each offering nuanced understandings of the moral phenomenology of mindfulness.
Beyond this, the Mahayana traditions (such as Chan, Zen, Pure Land) and the Tibetan Vajrayana (Mahamudra, the Tantras, and Dzogchen) each have unique conceptions of mindfulness and its function on essay level write different stages of the path. Classic teachings by these later traditions, along with the teachings of such Buddhist adepts as Asanga, Kamalasila, and Shantideva have rarely entered the contemporary mindfulness discourse. “Rather than encouraging the meditator to problems essay, see through the illusion of the Self which is ‘observing’ phenomena, its language implies such a position can be adopted, and by essay level doing so one can enhance one’s control of papers, (particularly negative) mental and emotional experiences. At a subtle level, such habitual positioning may actually reinforce one’s sense of self such that, if one were to continue practicing beyond a course (as MBCT encourages), the very progress such practices are designed to facilitate on the Buddhist path would be blocked by an unrealistic view or assessment of the meditative process.” (italics in original). There are a number of write, unexamined assumptions that such a therapeutic stance entails.
First is the notion that the individual client has full control and agency for essay their own emotional reactivity, as well as their ability to decenter from the contents of their experience. Lomas et al. ( 2014 ), however, have recently challenged this assumption, noting that clients currently suffering from depression may lack the mental strength to engage in the challenging work of decentering from college level write negative cognitions, and that MBCT could potentially exacerbate mental ruminations (see also Teasdale et al. 2003 ). Second, the assumption that a client has full agency over their cognitions also assumes that they are fully responsible for their own “healing,” a popular narrative in by step math the complementary and alternative medicine domain. This philosophy is college level closely aligned with much of the self-help and pop psychology literature which proselytizes mindfulness can tap into “inner resources” that will facilitate recovery from, or at least acceptance of, an illness—and in narrative essay on education some cases, serve as preventive medicine from the onset of stress-related diseases and chronic illnesses (Barker 2008 ). It is also closely related to the therapeutic practice of increasing a client’s sense of essay, conscious control over their thoughts and emotions (often referred to as “client motivation”), and more recently, has been promoted as developing more “willpower” (McGonigal 2013 ; Moloney 2013 ). The policy implications of these claims are also suggestive that a client’s misery (along with the full agency and capacity to heal) and mental suffering is simply located inside their head, and therefore mindfulness-based interventions provide the problems of teenagers means for enhancing self-regulation, self-management, self-acceptance, and self-control. College Essay. In contrast, Foucault has noted how these types of “psy discourses” present a benevolent face with their professed claims at of self-emancipation, while their actual usage may make individuals more manageable and disciplined within current institutional structures (Illouz 2008 ). Payne ( 2014 ) has suggested that the us marines essay contemporary mindfulness community has failed to recognize their highly privatized, atomistic, and neoliberal conceptions of the autonomous self/individual. This cultural bias places a heavy burden on the individual, as the source of suffering is level write viewed as a lack of self-regulation and entirely self-made. Mindfulness-based interventions are in close resonance with the ideological basis for “blaming the victim,” as it is the individual (not the shakespeare essay social context, history, or factors such as socio-economic status, inequities) that is held fully responsible for their own emotional reactivity, mental suffering and college level, misery, as well as their own illnesses. In addition to the fields of psychology and medicine, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) also claim mindfulness approaches have “given new perspectives to organizational psychology and changing organizational cultures.” However, there is not a single empirical study to date in any of the top-tier organizational studies journals that provides convincing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions in organizations have led to substantive and fundamental changes in organizational culture. Even the essay most visible and college essay level write, publicized corporate mindfulness program at Google, “Search Inside Yourself,” for which over 2000 Google employees have taken, has not yielded any publishable or empirical results with regards to corporate culture change. The issue of whether mindfulness-based interventions could have unintended consequences in suppressing or marginalizing critical thought that investigates the very context, structures, and systems of by step problem, causes that give rise to social suffering will be addressed later in this article.
Both streams—contemporary and traditional mindfulness—are devoted to means of responding to human suffering. Write. For contemporary mindfulness, it is via therapeutic interventions that enhance skills in self-regulation, reducing the of teenagers essay proliferation of negative cognitions and mental ruminations. For traditional mindfulness, it is via a comprehensive mental and ethical training system whose soteriological aim is the essay level full path of liberation from the cycle of samsara. Of Teenagers Essay. While these streams share a mutual interest in acknowledging the plight of human suffering, the write commonality is nominal and at the surface-level only. Once beneath the surface, their aims and intentions substantively diverge as contemporary and traditional mindfulness address suffering and the nature of mind at qualitatively different levels of depth and ontology. Conflating both the means and ends regarding these two streams only contributes to conceptual confusion. Essay. The claim that contemporary mindfulness retains the “essence of a tradition” was shown earlier to be a strategy of appropriation and radical decontextualization (Wilson 2014 , p. 44).
Ethics in essay Mindfulness: Their Absence or Presence Is Not the (Only) Question. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) attempted to represent the Buddhist critique of contemporary mindfulness as stemming from: (1) debates and fundamental differences between religion and science; (2) incompatible conceptual frameworks, and mainly; (3) a decontextualized and secularized form of mindfulness that is void of an narrative on education, ethical foundation. Recent advocates of contemporary mindfulness have launched fierce criticisms and rhetorical attacks on the Buddhist tradition. For example, Sam Harris ( 2014 ) exemplified this when he characterized the Buddhist religious tradition as an “accidental strand” of history and college, tells those in the mindfulness movement that they “no longer need to good essays, be in the religion business.” Or take the book, Search Inside Yourself : The Unexpected Path to Achieving Success , Happiness ( and World Peace ), written by Google’s top in-house mindfulness advocate, Tan ( 2012 ). The inside front cover flap immediately signals that the authority for mindfulness certainly “cannot be the domain of bald people in funny robes.” Rather it lies with the scientists in white lab-coats, as Tan cited study after study to back up his claims that mindfulness delivers greater happiness, prosperity, health, and career success. And when it comes to college write, mindfulness, Tan insisted, “everything can be completely secular.” Dan Harris ( 2014 ), co-anchor of problem solving math, ABC’s Nightline and Good Morning America , and the author of the best-selling book 10 % Happier , said, “I always thought mindfulness practice was for people who live in yurts, or collect crystals …as it turns out, there is all this science that says it can boost your immune system, reduce your blood pressure, and rewire key parts of essay write, your brain,” as he decried “meditation’s massive PR problem”, code for by step shedding any associations with anything that smacks of tradition. Sam Harris gave an essay level write, obligatory nod to narrative, tradition, “That’s not to say that people who have brought meditation to the West haven’t done great and truly heroic things …but now we are at essay level a new stage. The science has shown that this can truly have a revolutionary impact on the brain, at least its strongly suggestive of that.” These are familiar tropes of the contemporary mindfulness movement: that science, in validating mindfulness practice, has liberated it from the problems of teenagers essay flaky, foreign, irrational, outdated and spooky metaphysics of religious tradition. This rhetoric is essay write troublesome in that it casts the Buddhist tradition as amounting to nothing more than an us marines essay, outdated set of cultural accretions. Such messages betray not only a terrible lack of understanding of the very nature of religion in college essay general and step by step math, Buddhism in particular, or what it means to engage meaningfully with a tradition, but they also perpetuate a naive belief in the unassailable authority science and the form of logic derived from it.
These views are representative of scientism, a fundamental belief that “scientists alone hold the key to understanding reality, and that key is the range of college level write, scientific methods accepted by papers the orthodox scientific community” (Wallace 2014 ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s characterization, the college debates are not between religion and science, but religion and scientism. Good Words To Use In Academic. When contemporary mindfulness advocates marginalize the Buddhist religious tradition, they are essentially defending the beliefs of college essay, scientific materialism, dismissing any methods or evidence that is incompatible with this belief system. Why engage in essay a dialogue with tradition when it is considered, at best, as basically irrelevant, or even as a detriment and anachronistic to the progress of the essay mindfulness movement? The messaging is that it is of strategic necessity that Buddhism be purged, that all residues of tradition jettisoned, if mindfulness is to good words in academic, be widely propagated as a scientifically approved method immune to college essay level, cultural and historical influences. In other words, we cannot trust what tradition has transmitted for the last 2600 years—it is prima facie suspect. Only by placing our faith in by step problem science can we validate the value of mindfulness. With regards to essay level write, the second claim, the issue of incompatible conceptual frameworks, the problem is william essay more than merely one of transporting terminologies from a soteriological to a clinical context. Rather, what is college essay often missed among contemporary mindfulness advocates is a modernistic bias that presupposes that the modern world-view is problem solving math universal, immune to it own cultural assumptions.
Mindfulness, no matter whether traditional (religious) or contemporary (secular), is always situated by a context, and such contexts frame meanings. A stripped-down and write, decontextualized model of contemporary mindfulness is problematic only because it assumes that mindfulness has an essence free of context, and by extracting that essence it can be better understood, studied and practiced. The mindfulness movement suffers from a massive blind spot because it obviously grows out of a distinctly American context that has prided itself on the narrative of scientific progress, the belief in the individual as the sole nexus of meaning, an entrepreneurial ethos, and other underlying and generally unexamined assumptions that are anything but universal, much less Buddhist, but are simply absorbed from argument essay our social environment. This narrative also creates a radical break with the past, which conspires to reinforce the view that mindfulness operates outside of, rather than within, the existing social and historical context. In this respect, the college level write mindfulness revolution is a big bang innovation myth, a uniquely American cultural phenomenon. Monteiro et al. framed the Buddhist critique as mainly being a matter of the omission of ethics in student online contemporary and clinical applications of mindfulness, but this formulation misses the heart of the matter.
The issue is essay level not whether ethical dimensions of words essays, mindfulness are present or absent, implicit or explicit in contemporary mindfulness applications, but a set of assumptions that view ethical frameworks for contextualizing mindfulness practice as an inconvenient “add-on,” a set of prescriptions, rules or moral imperatives for behavior and action. Monteiro et al. added to this confusion by presenting the Buddhist ethical concerns as simply being a matter of developing “right” ( samma sati ) versus “wrong” mindfulness ( miccha sati ). Contemporary mindfulness teachers go to great lengths to explain their position that ethics must remain implicit in order to avoid potential value conflicts in essay write secular settings where mindfulness practices are offered. There are a variety of arguments offered that support this position: the practice of clinical and contemporary mindfulness practices naturally lead to ethical behavior; that ethical dimensions are “built-into” the practice itself; ethical outcomes depend on the mindfulness teacher “embodying” and us marines essay, modeling ethical behavior, and so on. There appears to be an avoidance of moral inquiry in contemporary mindfulness discourse, along with a general reluctance to consider how the essay level practice of mindfulness and questions of the good are unavoidably intertwined.
This is due partially to the fact that the contemporary mindfulness movement is operating within a market society, where the dominant ethos is market logic and by step problem, the value neutral discourse of economics. College Essay. Thus, there is a powerful appeal to avoid engagement with moral and words to use, ethical questions when economistic conceptions of virtue have entered spheres of life that were traditionally buffered from market logic (Sandel 2013 ). Letting the market decide questions of the good, assuming that ethical behavior will “naturally” arise out of either the practices themselves or via the essay level professionalism and “embodiment” of teachers, or through the happenstance of inductive self-discovery, might be referred to william shakespeare essay outline, as the “laissez-fare mindfulness” school (Wilson 2014 , p. 194). Disentangling Buddhist Ethics: Moral Engagement and the Problems of Social Suffering. Like many other contemporary mindfulness teachers, Monteiro et al. are fond of viewing MBIs—whether applied in write clinical, corporate, or public sector contexts—as another Buddhist utilization of skillful means or upaya . Monteiro et al. and others, such as Kabat-Zinn, have appropriated this Buddhist concept as a way of retrospectively explaining how their adaptations of mindfulness to modern contexts is “developed in a manner consistent” with Buddhist teachings. Their interpretation of skillful means is that it is of teenagers equivalent to a pedagogical tool for adapting mindfulness practices to the needs of a secular and cultural context, however, omits a few important details. The concept of college essay level, skillful means can be traced to the Mahayana schools, and figures prominently in the Lotus Sutra , a classic text in that tradition. In the Lotus Sutra , numerous parables show the Buddha taking on different forms and deceiving his audiences—purely out of compassion in order to lead them to the final destination of liberation and awakening.
Even the by step problem Theravada tradition (which Monteiro et al. is suggestive that because of its close adherence to the monastic code of ethics, the vinaya , is a version of Buddhist fundamentalism), also has teaching stories from the sutras that exemplify the Buddha’s skillful means. A classic teaching story is Kisa Gotami, who tragically loses her infant son and pleads to the Buddha for him to college essay write, bring her son back to shakespeare outline, life. Essay Level. The Buddha agrees, but only if Gotami can first bring to him a mustard seed from a home that has never encountered the death of a loved one. Gotami, of course, despite the many homes she visits, cannot find any home or family that has not witnessed death. Argument On Education. She returns herself healed and essay write, becomes a nun and argument essay, disciple of the Buddha. In all of the examples and allegories, whether in Mahayana or Theravada texts, it is the fully awakened Buddha and highly advanced Bodhisattavas who employ expedient, skillful means to lead their followers to college essay level, the path of liberation. This skillful use of deception (Buddhist variants of the Trojan Horse) was reserved for Buddhas and papers online, Bodhisattavas. As (Wilson 2014 , p. 91) pointed out, when people like Kabat-Zinn and other mindfulness teachers such as Monteiro et al., “draw on the concept of skillful means, they authorize themselves via the example of the college level Buddha to change aspects of the tradition to better suit the different environmental circumstances of essay, Buddhism outside of its premodern Asian historical context.” Mindfulness in corporations is also considered as an example of this modernizing of “skillful means.” The skillful Trojan Horse metaphor is often used to defend claims that introducing mindfulness programs into college essay level corporations will naturally and eventually lead to a major transformation of corporate behaviors and practices—away from self-interest and narrow concerns for maximizing shareholder profits—to more humanistic, compassionate, and socially responsible organizations that are concerned for the public good. Student Papers. Corporate mindfulness advocates have often compare their initiatives with the essay level write work of the Buddha, noting that he often taught kings, merchants, and feudal village leaders. This is papers online true, but misleading.
While the Buddha taught the level write dharma to leaders and good to use in academic, the merchant class, what he taught was not a mindfulness-based intervention so they could simply feel better about themselves, nor did he simply provide them a meditative technique for improving their concentration so that they could obtain even more wealth and riches, rather, the Buddha advocated a wiser form of ethical leadership that counteracted the mental poisons of greed, ill will and essay level write, delusion. Monteiro et al. have positioned their assessment of MBIs in terms of the degree to which these methods are in essay alignment with basic Buddhist principles, which they have circumscribed in terms of right mindfulness, insight into the root causes of suffering, and the inclusion of the ethical components of mindfulness. This is admirable, but also limiting, for their assessment fails to critically examine how MBIs are limited—not because they fall short of emulating Buddhist principles—but because of their adherence to college, a therapeutic culture and discourse of essays, self-help that is college premised on william essay a highly privatized sense of level, self and neoliberal conceptions of step solving, subjectivity that is clinically withdrawn from the public sphere. There have been numerous claims that MBIs are based on the four foundations of mindfulness (Cullen 2011 ; Kabat-Zinn 2011 ; Stahl 2014 ). What is actually meant by the claim that MBIs are “based on” one of the most highly revered discourse of the Buddha, the Satipattthana Sutta , remains ambiguous. The four foundations of mindfulness provide exact instructions on the practice of college essay, mindfulness meditation (Analayo 2010 ). The original, overarching purpose and context of these mindfulness practices were based on the renunciation of greed, desires and discontent with the world, and these instructions in the four foundations were considered as a vehicle for a direct path to liberation ( nibanna ). Problems Essay. The discourse is divided into four sections, pertaining to mindfulness of the body ( kaya ), feelings ( vedana ), mind ( citta ), and mind-objects (also called dhammas , or phenomena). Mindfulness of the body ( kayanupassana ) comprises fourteen subjects of meditation, with mindfulness of the breath ( anapanasati ) being the most popular. Mindfulness of feeling ( vedananupassana ) is of three types, pleasant, painful, and neutral, referring to both material and write, spiritual feelings. Student Online. Mindfulness of college, mind ( cittanupassana ) is differentiated into contrasting states of mind, namely, with and without lust, hatred, delusion, a mind contracted or distracted, exalted or unexalted, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated. Essay. Finally, mindfulness of mental objects or phenomena ( dhammanupassana ) consists of five categories: the five hindrances, the six internal and college write, external senses, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the four noble truths. Essay. In addition, the instructions also include contemplations directed towards observing the arising and passing away of these phenomena in the stream of college essay, experience. While MBIs may claim and appear to shakespeare, draw, albeit highly selectively, from the four foundations of level write, mindfulness, their extraction from the context of Buddhist liberation radically alters the by step solving math nature and meaning of level write, these practices.
Mindfulness meditation becomes psychologized and essay, reoriented to improving and enhancing ordinary worldly life—a method for alleviating the stresses, anxieties and worries of middle-class lifestyles. There is, of course, nothing problematic in college essay level utilizing Buddhist techniques for us marines therapeutic and clinical purposes, but to claim that MBIs are equivalent secular expressions of the four foundations of mindfulness goes too far. How is level it, for example, that MBIs which emphasize “nonjudgmental awareness” engage in by step math the third foundation of mindfulness which entails discriminating unwholesome states of mind to contemplating the presence (or absence) of higher states of mind? How do MBIs provide instructions in the fourth foundation of mindfulness, which includes contemplating the seven factors of awakening and the four noble truths (including the eight fold path)? There is also a strong emphasis in essay level write the Satipa ?? hana on both internal and external phenomena, especially in terms of noting their impermanent nature. MBIs, however, tend to william essay, be much more internal in focus. There is also very little emphasis or training in contemplating the conditioned and impermanent nature of the five aggregates (material form, feelings, cognition, volitions and consciousness). This perhaps explains why several practices are omitted in essay MBIs, such as contemplating the body as a decaying corpse, contemplating the inevitability of the death of one’s own body, and viewing the body in terms of the four elements (components of the first foundation of mindfulness). As I previously pointed out, the body scan in MBIs only has a distant family resemblance to student online, the 32-body part practice in essay write the Satipa ?? hana . In the latter text, the body parts are visualized and contemplated with a view of seeing them as composite, impermanent and unattractive. The whole aim of this practice is to william shakespeare essay outline, reduce attachment to the body as well as conceit, not merely to release tension and stress. Granted, those who enroll in 8-week MBI courses are there for relief of chronic pain and stress, not for ultimate religious liberation from the wheel of birth and death, detachment from the body and worldly concerns, and essay level write, the abandonment of craving.
Perhaps the most dubious claim among MBI advocates is that ethics are implicit, and need to remain so, in argument on education both the college practice and in the teaching of mindfulness in secular settings. Monteiro et al. turned to a single study by Shapiro, Jazaieri and Goldin ( 2012 ) to justify their claim that implicit ethics, as exemplified in step by step problem solving MBSR, leads to an increase in ethical decision making and moral reasoning. What they fail to report is college essay level that this study is based on an extremely small sample size of us marines essay, 25, mostly Caucasian women, lacking both randomized and active control groups. Furthermore, the college essay level write study relied completely on self-report data using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), both of which have been the subject of severe criticisms in the clinical literature (Grossman and Van Dam 2011 ). The debate on whether ethics are implicit in mindfulness practice itself, or whether ethics should remain implicit in the teaching of secular mindfulness, is partly driven by a fundamental misconception that the step problem solving math ethical aspects of Buddhist mindfulness practice and its path of spiritual-moral development are derived from adherence to prescriptive behaviors and ethical imperatives, or the intentions of a self-as-agent. In other words, Monteiro et al., Kabat-Zinn, and others in the MBI community view ethics and essay write, morality through a Western Judeo-Christian lens, equating them to a set of narrative on education, abstract principles to which one can be compelled to ascend. The usual reservation raised by MBI teachers is that there is no room for allowing ethics or moral discourse into secular mindfulness programs as it could potentially be seen as an imposition of religious dogma or pose value conflicts—is premised on this Western view of ethics. Attempting to hermeneutically force Buddhist ethics into an MBI curriculum unaware of such ethnocentric biases is bound to result in misconceptions and facile understandings.
Monteiro et al. proposed a confusing admixture of virtue ethics, a distorted conception of level, Mahayana Buddhist ethics as utilitarianism, deontological claims to universality via a misreading of Gethin, and a strained attempt to convert traditional Buddhist teachings into secular counterparts (the Four Noble Truths now become the cultivation of “moral courage”). Keown ( 2001 ), whom Monteiro et al. Problems Essay. cite throughout this section, warned against the subtle danger of “cultural misappropriation” in college essay attempts to selectively import Buddhist morality into Westernized views. Step Problem Solving Math. At this point, one begins to wonder what the aim is here given that Monteiro et al. stake out contemporary mindfulness in college essay the very beginning as “mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice.” Even (McCown 2013 , p. Us Marines. 65), who is cited as an advocate for MBIs, seems wary of essay level write, importing Buddhist ethics into contemporary mindfulness practice as he states, “To articulate an ethic based on distinctly Buddhist concepts or uses specifically Buddhist language, then, would run counter to the concepts and practices that have, in smaller or larger part, fueled the growth of MBIs.” Perhaps the most problematic and disconcerting exposition in this paper is the interpretation of Mahayana Buddhist ethics, which Monteiro et al. use as an example to essay, justify and rationalize killing, as well as a supposed means to go beyond the write seemingly narrow edicts of the Theravada school. Monteiro et al. turned to Harvey ( 2000 ) for justification, “some scholars have stated that killing may not be something to condemn if it arises from virtuous intentions.” The question here is who arbitrates whether such intentions are virtuous?
If a military combatant kills in the name of “My God, My Country” and in the spirit of unity with their unit, is it virtuous? Is such killing virtuous in unjust wars or in American imperialist interventions such as in the war in Iraq? Are drone operators trained in mindfulness exempt from all moral accountability because their intentions are simply to defend our “national interests”? This is online evidently no problem for Monteiro et al. as one “could mitigate that form of college write, unwholesomeness [killing]” by simply “acting from the Bodhisattava’s ideal.” “The sword is generally associated with killing, and most of us wonder how it can come into connection with Zen, which is a school of Buddhism teaching the gospel of love and mercy. The fact is the art of swordmanship distinguishes between the sword that kills and the sword that gives life. The one that is used by a technician cannot go any further than killing, for he never appeals to the sword unless he intends to kill. The case if altogether different with the one who is compelled to lift the sword.
For it is of teenagers really not he but the level sword itself that does the killing. He had no desire to do harm to anybody, but the enemy appears and problems essay, makes himself a victim. It is as though the sword performs automatically its function of justice, which is the function of essay level, mercy….When the sword is us marines essay expected to play this sort of role in human life, it is no more a weapon of self-defense or an instrument of killing, and the swordsman turns into an artist of the first grade, engaged in producing a work of genuine originality” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 110). Monteiro et al. are basically dredging doctrinal support for war and violence through an overly simplistic use of the skillful means ( upaya ) teaching. As described earlier, this doctrinal teaching has been vulnerable to much abuse and misuse. The classic teaching story illustrative of skillful means in the Mahayana is to be found in the Upayakausalyasutra , which describes an incident when the Buddha Shakyamuni was still a bodhisattva in one of his past lives. In this story, Shakyamuni was on a ship and became aware of a robber on board who had the intention of killing all the passengers on the ship. To prevent this act from happening, Shakyamuni decides to kill the college essay level write robber out of compassion—saving not only the passengers, but also the robber from accruing even greater negative karma.
Because the Buddha Shakyamuni acted out of student papers online, great compassion, because his intention was wholesome, his act was morally justified. This story, along with other sutras, have been historically misinterpreted and distorted to sanction warfare and violence. What is omitted and glossed over by those who distort these teachings is that it is a highly advanced Bodhisattva or even a Buddha that is engaging in these acts, not Japanese kamikaze pilots emboldened by Imperial Zen propaganda or by 18-year-old privates in the US Marines engaging in mindfulness practice for twelve minutes a day as they do in mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT). Moreover, in Buddhist soteriological theory, since awakened Buddhas have put an end to their own karma, they act without intention, that is, their acts of compassion arise spontaneously (without deliberate conceptuality) out of non-dual transcendental wisdom. Attempting to find moral justification via an appeal to the Mahayana for killing, even if such acts are driven by positive intentions within morally ambiguous situations, is college level fraught with peril. This is especially problematic when the attempt is to find Buddhist doctrinal support for contemporary mindfulness applications involving police and military forces that are receiving mindfulness training. It is quite dangerous to simply assume that police and step problem solving, military forces are engaged in right mindfulness, or are uniquely and heroically acting as awakened Bodhisattavas, carefully discerning and “weighing the ultimate cost of shooting or not shooting” prior to essay write, making the decision to kill the narrative essay on education targeted person.
The risks of self-deception, group loyalty at any cost, and nationalistic jingoism can easily be rationalized as harboring positive intentions. There is really no need to force fit or misappropriate Buddhist Mahayana teachings for such purposes. Of course, there are indeed exceptional and extreme cases, such that not taking a life or not retaliating would lead to even greater tragic losses, such as in the instance of Hitler’s expansionism of Nazi Germany, or in a case where a police officer must shoot to prevent a lunatic gunman from killing innocent children at a school site. But even for these extreme cases, one could turn to our own Western ethical tradition, utilitarianism, or Kohlberg’s ( 1981 ) stages of moral development, for guidance. Perhaps the main confusion in the Monteiro et al. College Essay Level Write. paper as it pertains to Buddhist ethics, and its possible import to contemporary mindfulness, is that it is ultimately not a clean moral theory of problems essay, action. Rather, as Garfield ( 2015 ) suggested, Buddhist ethics should be thought of more as a moral phenomenology of experience . This suggestion might come as a surprise to many, as Buddhist ethics has often been seen through the lens of either utilitarianism or Aristotelian virtue ethics. What is frequently, if not perhaps always overlooked among contemporary mindfulness teachers, is level write that Buddhist ethics is situated within a complex nexus of thoroughgoing interdependence, dependent origination ( pratiyasamutpada ). It is perhaps no coincidence then that MBSR and MBIs have omitted what the to use in academic Buddha actually declared as to be one of his core teachings (“to understand the dharma is to college essay write, understand dependent origination”). Garfield ( 2015 ) was adamant that Buddhist moral phenomenology is concerned with locating human action within a vast causal nexus of interdependence, and of karma , that “Moral reflection on action must take all of these dimensions of us marines essay, dependence into account. To focus merely on motivation, or on character, or on the action itself, or on its consequences for others, would be to college essay write, ignore much that is important” (Garfield 2015 , p. 313).
Contemporary mindfulness proponents are operating from a faulty premise, at least from a Buddhist moral theory point of view, that ethics are somehow separable from the words to use nature of experience and from meditative practices themselves—in other words, because ethics are still viewed as a set of imperatives or consequentialist calculus for deciphering “virtuous intentions” and their relation to action—they miss the level write essential point. Buddhist practice, as Garfield ( 2015 ) emphasized, is essay about solving a problem and that problem is dukkha and its triune roots, aversion, attraction and confusion (Olendski 2014 ). The Buddhist eightfold noble path is college essay write a solution to the problem of dukkha , and simply focusing on motivation and problems, intention as the arbiter of ethical action is to level, take an extremely narrow view. Again, Garfield ( 2015 , p. 315) cautioned us against superimposing Western ethical biases on Buddhist moral theory: “The eightfold path identifies not a set of to use essays, rights or duties, nor a set of virtues, but a set of areas of college level, concern or dimensions of conduct. Good Essays. The path indicates the complexity of human moral life and essay, the complexity of the sources of suffering.” This also points to the fact that any ethical orientation to mindfulness must be situated within a larger social context; ethical action only has meaning and sense when it pertains to how actions affect and impact the lives of online, others in the vast causal nexus of interdependence. The issue of whether ethics should be implicit or explicit is a moot point. There is no way of essay level, avoiding a moral point of view, as ethical engagement is predicated on our perceptual process. Debating whether ethical imperatives should be introduced into william mindfulness programs is the college essay wrong question. Good To Use Essays. When ethical engagement is viewed in terms of a reordering of our perceptual process, rather than on “embodying virtuous intentions,” deciphering actions, rights, duties and college write, prescriptions, or virtues – we can begin to think of mindfulness in terms of whether it cultivates, what Garfield has termed “morally awakened perception” (Garfield 2015 , p. 325).
However, this is only half of the equation. Student Online. What is often missed in contemporary mindfulness is college essay write that elevating ethical concerns in mindfulness curricula, practices, and community discourse raises the stakes to act and care for the suffering of others. Such a project means moving beyond the therapeutic to activism. Repositioning ethical dimensions within a framework of causal interdependence also reframes the narrative argument nature and college essay, locus of suffering and welfare, transcending both a self-oriented and other-oriented dualism. This is the innovative contribution of the essay outline Mahayana, and the bodhisattva ideal, that genuine well-being is essay write always grounded in an ethic of problems essay, care and action on behalf of all sentient beings, near or far. “Sincerity [in carrying out orders] means having feelings and actions of absolute service, giving one’s all [to the essay write task at shakespeare essay outline hand]. In doing this there can be no thought of college, personal loss or gain….By carrying out our [assigned] tasks, we become part of the life of the entire universe; we realize our original True Self…..This is the most noble thing a human can do” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 185). This is a bold claim, that submitting oneself to the larger corporate interest, one can realize the True Self—which, in Zen, is equivalent to enlightenment. It is tempting to discount this example as merely a byproduct of Japanese collectivist culture.
Yet, this example illustrates how a secular adaptation of traditional Zen Buddhism, along with its use of samadhi power (focused concentration and solving math, attention enhancement), has been coopted for bolstering obedience, conformity and loyalty to corporate authority. What parallels might we see in the current trend of corporate mindfulness in the West? Wall Street traders and hedge fund managers speak of the benefits of mindfulness training in terms of how it is helping to college essay, “fine-tune their brains,” or as a means for “upping their game,” and in academic essays, “giving them an edge” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). At Goldman-Sachs, where corporate mindfulness programs have now become immensely popular, traders often liken themselves to essay level, the “new Samurai” or as “Ninja warriers” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). Shakespeare. Monteiro et al. listed numerous benefits of college essay, corporate mindfulness programs—better listening, seeking common ground, and learning to navigate the dialect of the organization (citing Bush and Goleman 2013 ). In other words, mindfulness in the workplace is promoted as a way to of teenagers essay, reduce friction, increase efficiency, and relieve the pressures of late-capitalism. College Essay Write. They go on to claim, “In workplace programs, concepts such as being comfortable with uncertainty, taking a nonjudgmental stance to a situation, or cultivating compassionate action are intended to transform emotional reactivity so that the words to use in academic situation can be met with skillful means” (p. 11). College. In all of these examples, the scope of the narrative essay mindfulness training is focused on the individual employee. The conditions of uncertainty, stressful conditions and toxic situations, are attributed to the emotional reactivity of the individual. The onus of responsibility is placed squarely on the individual—the sources of stress, anger, conflict and confusion—are a personal, privatized problem which corporate mindfulness is designed to fix. It isn’t a misperception “that mindfulness programs intend to essay, develop an indiscriminate tolerance for stress,”, as they put it, but the fact that corporate mindfulness programs have excluded inquiry into the systemic sources of stress in the organization. Of Teenagers. Stress in organizations cannot merely be attributed to an individual’s emotional reactivity and lack of self-regulation; it is also systemic, cultural and institutional in scope. College Essay. Restricting the scope of mindfulness intervention to the level of the individual in corporate settings amounts to blaming the victim.
Huffington ( 2014 ), an of teenagers, avid promoter of mindfulness in the workplace proposed a “third metric” of college write, success—well-being, wisdom, and wonder (the first two metrics, of course, are money and papers, power). The message here is essay write that “wisdom” and mindfulness are fully compatible with late-capitalism and the primary metrics of money and power. Social critics, such as (Zizek 2001 , p. 1), contended that the Western Buddhist (and by extension, the corporate mindfulness) “meditative stance is arguably the most efficient way for us to fully participate in capitalist dynamics while retaining the appearance of mental sanity.” The jury is still out on whether corporate mindfulness programs will remain limited to papers online, a palliative for helping employees cope and tolerate the conditions of corporate capitalism, reinforcing rather than challenging the level write status quo. Many promoters of good in academic, corporate mindfulness claim that offering mindfulness programs to individuals, even if limited to personal stress reduction, works insidiously from essay write within, and essay, will eventually lead to wiser, more compassionate and socially responsible corporations (Boyce 2014 ; Halliwell 2014 ; Hunter 2013 ; Maturano 2014 ; Tan 2012 ). Organizational and social change is, as Stanley ( 2013 ) pointed out, envisaged as beginning with the individual. Corporate transformation of institutionalized suffering will be “changed one mindful individual at a time” (Stanley 2013 , p. 8). This is, again, the college essay mindfulness is a “Trojan Horse” argument. The notion that corporate transformation is by step solving effected through the power of empowering individuals with mindfulness training resembles in some respects the “experiments” and dubious claims by college essay Transcendental Meditation (TM) aspirants that groups of TM practitioners meditating together could lower crime rates in a large metropolitan city. Boyce ( 2014 , p. 8), editor of the glossy newsstand magazine, Mindful , made the claim: “Mindfulness may begin at stress relief but it does not end there. It naturally leads to inquisitiveness about our own minds and examination of how we are connected to other people, of the causes and problems of teenagers essay, effects of our actions….Who knows what a leader…might do for the greater good with the college essay level aid of a little mindfulness?”
That is a good question, who knows? Monteiro et al. themselves acknowledged that it is probably naive to us marines, expect that corporate mindfulness training programs that focus on individuals will lead to any sort of significant change in college level write corporate culture. They allude that the training of individual employees in mindfulness will lead to the creation of papers, micro-climates that offer some limited benefits. At best, corporate mindfulness programs have succeeded in creating what Healy ( 2013 ) referred to college essay level, as “integrity bubbles,” myopic islands and privatized glimpses of stress reduction and of teenagers, enhanced focused attention while mindlessly externalizing macro-tensions and structural inequalities. For example, Google, which has now become the poster-child for corporate mindfulness programs, has created integrity bubbles for some 2000 engineers while it profits enormously in manipulating the attention of consumers, as its main export is to make an industry out of cultural distraction. There appears to be no attention given in the Search Inside Yourself mindfulness curriculum for being mindful of, or cultivating wise attention to call into question the long list of Google’s nefarious corporate practices such as privacy violations, off-shore tax evasion, their grueling 80-hour work weeks, or their negative impact on housing evictions in San Francisco (Ream 2014 ). Or take Monsanto, once idolized for its early adoption of corporate mindfulness programs, but notorious for its egregious ethics violations, negligence of public health, abuse of patent laws, and production of potentially risky genetically modified organisms (GMOs), along with their lobbying efforts to defeat consumer protections. General Mills, another company that has received media attention for its large-scale corporate mindfulness program (Gelles 2012 ), has collaborated with Monsanto in lobbying against the consumer rights groups which are demanding the full disclosure of the content of Cheerios, one of their signature cereals that is marketed to children. What all of these examples call forth is whether corporate mindfulness programs are the college “Trojan Horse” and “disruptive technology” (Hunter 2013 ) that they claim to be, or whether such media publicity amounts to a form of “saffron washing” (Fiet 2014 )? When on the crest of a wave, it is also difficult to say whether the corporate mindfulness movement is an institutional fad or a sustainable innovation. Only time will tell.
Mindfulness, however, is not merely a frivolous and passing fad such as hula-hoops. The enthusiasm for mindfulness programs is having a contagion effect, now endorsed and promoted by physicians, psychotherapists, educators, corporate CEOs, politicians, and top military brass—requiring significant institutional investments—and erroneously assuming, as Cathy Kerr worries, that its “suitable for all people in all circumstances” (Heuman 2014b ). These are serious professionals who believe they are not easily fooled or duped by the latest novelty, fad or fashion. The illusion of papers, diffusion occurs when enthusiasm is mistaken for empirical evidence (Best 2006 ). However, as Best ( 2006 , p. 18) pointed out, the illusion of diffusion plays a key role in institutional fads, as serious people have a strong conviction “that far from being a fad, this innovation represents progress—it is an improvement that is level worthwhile and will endure.” The contemporary mindfulness movement could become a formidable force for a radical transformation of Western capitalist society if it can manage to overcome what (Fromm 2010 , p. 15) called the “pathology of normalcy.” Fromm’s social critique of william shakespeare, psychotherapy and psychiatry of his day was aimed at how the notion that mental health in society complacently had become a matter of individual adjustment to the status quo of a society that was itself off kilter. For Fromm, the “normal” functioning of society could itself be a disturbing pattern of college level write, collective pathology. Krishnamurti ( 1966 ) once remarked, “It is no measure of essay, health to be well-adjusted to a profoundly sick society.” The same injunction may hold true for contemporary mindfulness if its primary function is limited to individual adjustment to and an uncritical acceptance of the status quo. In order to do this, the contemporary mindfulness movement will have to come to terms with its current limitations and deficiencies. First, it should dispense with the rhetoric that the essence of the dharma is encapsulated in a single practice divorced from a wider cultural and historical context.
This includes the development of more other-oriented and relational forms of meditative practice that aim to level, cultivate prosocial behaviors. To meet this challenge, contemporary mindfulness programs will also need to expand their foci to include the social context of suffering in all it manifestations. Of Teenagers. This omission has been due to the rapid psychologization of mindfulness and it merger with the self-help industry under the aegis of therapeutic discourse. A major fall-out of this psychologized conception of mindfulness is that it comes to be understood at best—as a path for college essay personal salvation, and at worst, as just another self-help technique—both of which are blind and insensitive to the social, political and economic dimensions of suffering. Papers Online. Such discourse has deemphasized social relations and has covertly depoliticized socio-economic problems, localizing the causes of essay level, distress and unhappiness as being strictly internal and within the individual (Moloney 2013 ). Rather than serving as a social lubricant for the smooth functioning of society, contemporary mindfulness programs can begin to essay, encourage critical thought and essay write, investigation into the wider social and political causes of of teenagers essay, social suffering. In other words, rather than concealing socially induced forms of suffering as exclusively problems of “emotional self-regulation,” “reactivity,” “self-acceptance,” and “self-management,” mindfulness programs can assist people in diagnosing the college mentally toxic aspects of their social contexts. As Wallace ( 2005 ) pointed out, human flourishing entails a mindfulness practice that is congruent with a way of life that supports one’s own and others’ genuine happiness. A mid-course correction is papers online needed which would entail prioritizing a focus on interdependence and a relational view of mind that is inseparable from the wide sociocultural context.
An other-centered “civic mindfulness,” (Healy 2013 ) can expand the realm of practice towards a relational perspective that is discerning of social dukkha , developing corporate mindfulness program curricula that examine the causes of institutionalized greed, ill will, and delusion (Loy 2003 ). Contemporary mindfulness has yet to develop an efficacious ethical framework in an explicitly normative way that is integrated with practice. However, rather than eschewing ethical principles, or misconstruing Buddhist ethics through a Western lens, a secularized ethics would focus on the relation between behavior and its effect on one’s own and others’ genuine well-being. But this requires that one draw a distinction between hedonic and genuine, or eudaimonic, well-being. A true mindfulness revolution would call into question a Western sense of entitlement to happiness irrespective of ethical conduct. Finally, the contemporary mindfulness movement is in dire need of becoming more communal, fostering ways individuals can forge mutually supportive bonds with a sense of shared purpose and continuity over college write, time. Communal well-being is a prerequisite for authentic happiness, and a sustainable path towards even this secular end is unlikely to take root if mindfulness is reduced to a form of “mental fitness” conducted in isolation. The heart of mindfulness is a collective practice, that which unites people towards acting for essay on education the common good, which in turn provides the basis for human flourishing and college essay level write, social transformation. Ronald E. Purser 1 Email author 1. College of papers online, Business, Bus 349 San Francisco State University San Francisco USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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For the first six months of problems of teenagers essay, our marriage, I had to leave for basic training and essay write AIT, leaving my wife at home alone to watch over our son. Now that I am out and in the operational Army, there will be those times that I will be away for even. Com 150 Final: Volunteer vs Drafted Military. Volunteer Vs. Drafted Military By: Wm. Michael Barber Com/150 Dr. Lori Pash Instructor May 2, 2010 Volunteer vs. Drafted Military 1 . ?In the military , accountability is everything. In the solving Garrison, its a as simple as showing to pt formations, battalion formations, or recall formations.
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Whether. “ Military courtesy is simply the display of college, good manners and politeness in dealing with other people. Military courtesy conveys respect from both subordinate and senior to each other.” Use of Sir and essay outline Sergeant Officers of any rank are to be referred to as “sir” or as “ma’am”. Essay. Generally, as a. Being Late in the Military Environment.
know, being late is unacceptable in any working environment. We see it happen on an everyday basis. Whether you’re stuck in traffic, dropping your kids off at school, or you’re just late. It happens. It goes on in everyday life and people just let it slide. But being late in the military environment. 2013 Maintaining Military Quarters Maintaining military quarters is good to use in academic very important because of many reasons. Many airmen do not see the importance but I will give you ten possible reasons why a well maintained dorm is so very important. First of all maintaining your military quarters is important.
and take care of the oder that has been given to you by someone who is higher ranking than you. Some orders can be given just to make you keep your military bearing like someone telling you, to stop talking, or stand at essay level write attention. These orders can help you and keep you from digging yourself a deeper hole. A woman in the military has been a controversial topic for years. The first enlisted woman entered the Army in 1948. During this time , women where ousted in the community for being in problems essay the service.
Opinions were more towards a woman’s place was at home taking care of her family and home. Prior to 1983. understanding the evolution of militaries in the west. Although Lynn does not reject the technological and tactical components in the process of the creation of modern militaries , he does not view these factors as a driving evolutionary force. College Essay. The author sees the evolution of western militaries as a continuum that. Women Should Not Be in the Military.
Women Should Not be in the Military Samantha Purdue Eng 11-8 Mr. Pagan 8 May 2013 From the beginning of time , women and war have always been considered to have little in common. As the weaker sex, women are commonly associated with caring and with creating life, rather than with its destroying. The Importance of Punctuality in william essay the Military. Punctuality in Military /Civilian life This is more of a rant than anything.
I am suppose to write a essay about the importance of punctuality in military and civilian life. Write. Personally I really don’t care to write this essay. Yes I think people should be on time for good words in academic essays important things in level write life because.