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Broken Arrow casino developer says project will resume at undisclosed Tulsa County location. The Kialegee Tribal Town's planned Broken Arrow casino sits unfinished at pharmcas, the corner of 111th Street and 129th East Avenue. Now the tribe is planning to build a casino at a different location in Tulsa County, a developer says. MICHAEL WYKE/Tulsa World file. A casino patron plays a slot machine. JAMES GIBBARD/Tulsa World file. A casino patron plays a slot machine. Essay On American 1835! JAMES GIBBARD/Tulsa World file. A developer who partnered with a small Indian tribe that tried unsuccessfully to build a casino in Broken Arrow is not giving up on the project.
Developer Shane Rolls, in an interview with the Tulsa World, said he hopes to announce sometime this year where a new casino will be built in pharmcas Tulsa County. Essays Mahabharata! He declined to provide details. Rolls partnered with the Kialegee Tribal Town, a federally recognized tribe based in Wetumka, as part of an effort in 2011 to build a casino at Florence (111th) Street and Olive (129th East) Avenue in Broken Arrow. The tribe had about 350 members at the time, federal government records reflect. The proposed Red Clay Casino ran into stiff resistance on multiple fronts — from area residents, the Oklahoma attorney general, a congressman, the National Indian Gaming Commission and the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. The issue culminated in 2012 with a federal judge’s injunction halting the pharmcas essays Broken Arrow casino plans. The Kialegee tribe won its appeal of the injunction in November but has not announced any plans in the months since. Rolls, interviewed late last month, acknowledged the difficulties with the Broken Arrow location. “We are not going to that site,” said Rolls, of Tulsa. “That’s off the table. I can tell you that. “And there’s another site that’s under contract.” He said the new site is in Tulsa County. Essay Letter! A spokesman for the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs said it has no pending gaming applications for the Kialegee Tribal Town.
One obstacle for pharmcas, the tribe was a National Indian Gaming Commission opinion stating that the Broken Arrow property was not eligible for gaming via the Kialegees because that tribe did not have legal jurisdiction over the parcel. Jared Cawley, a spokesman for area residents who opposed a casino, said he was surprised yet pleased that the tribe is giving up on the Broken Arrow site. Paper! Residents opposed the location due to its proximity to homes, churches and pharmcas essays, an elementary school, Cawley said. Short About Family In Spanish! The tribe “didn’t have the legal ability to put it there because of the way the Indian gaming laws are written,” he said. Cawley conceded that it would be more troublesome for essays, residents had the Muscogee (Creek) Nation led the efforts to build a casino at the location. “As far as I can tell, if (it had been) the Muscogee (Creek) tribe, from a legal recourse standpoint, we would be able to voice our objections, but we wouldn’t have the same ability to stop it like we did with (the) Kialegee,” Cawley said. While Rolls declined to name the location of the new site, records obtained by the World show that at least four other properties have been discussed as far back as 2009. Before the Kialegee tribe settled on the Broken Arrow location, other locations discussed included land where a smokeshop is located at essay, 101st Street and Memorial Drive, property near the Kimberly Clark manufacturing plant in Bixby and another parcel near 111th Street and pharmcas essays, Yale Avenue. But by spring 2010, the tribe’s focus was clearly on the Broken Arrow property, with the Kialegees and the two landowners signing a lease agreement. Two years later, Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt sought a federal injunction prohibiting construction of the casino. U.S. Short Essay About Family! District Judge Gregory Frizzell would later side with Pruitt and issue an injunction, which the Kialegees were able to essays, overturn on essay in spanish, appeal.
By then, however, they had already been looking at other land options. In 2013, the Kialegee Tribal Town sent the essays National Indian Gaming Commission formal notice of its intent to license a new gaming facility in Wagoner County, records show. The vacant tract where the Kialegees proposed to build a casino was northwest of 131st Street and 241st East Avenue. The Wagoner County land is owned by 5 qualities good supervisor, Neal Freeman, an pharmcas, enrolled member of both the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and the Kialegee Tribal Town, according to a National Indian Gaming Commission opinion on essay, the licensing request. The land is also held in trust by essays, the U.S. government, according to a 1953 deed cited in National Indian Gaming Commission records. That land status is key for tribes seeking authority to 5 qualities supervisor, operate a casino. Essays! In a legal opinion released July 18, 2013, the National Indian Gaming Commission determined that the paper property did not qualify for gaming by the Kialegee tribe.
The “Muscogee (Creek) Nation, not the Kialegee Tribal Town, maintains legal jurisdiction over the Freeman parcel,” the gaming commission’s opinion states. “Accordingly, because the Kialegee lack jurisdiction over pharmcas essays, the Freeman parcel, the parcel is not Indian lands eligible for gaming under (the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act) by the Kialegee Tribal Town.” Federal law states that tribes must exercise governmental authority over a parcel of essay macbeth new shakespeare land in order to conduct gaming on it. Principal Chief George Tiger, in an interview with the World, was asked whether he would like to pharmcas essays, see a casino eventually built by 5 qualities good, the Kialegee Tribal Town or one of its two sister tribal towns. “Economic development is certainly something that I certainly support,” Tiger said. “We can do it nation to nation. Essays! That’s something that has to be considered very heavily.” While the Broken Arrow site was Creek land, Rolls said the deal had to essays, involve the Kialegee Tribal Town because of essays “lockout” provisions in the Creek Nation’s loan for its River Spirit casino. “They don’t want the competition to research, cannibalize their loans,” he said. “When you have a $350 million loan or whatever it is, they don’t want me going down the street and starting another project until I get this one paid for.” However, he and Tiger both said the small casino would not draw business away from River Spirit, which has a massive expansion of its casino on Riverside Parkway underway. “We weren’t going to build one of those big ones like River Spirit. It was only going to be like 25,000 square feet. Like a sports bar with slots is pharmcas, what it was going to scenery 1835, be,” Rolls said. Rolls said he wants to help the Kialegees complete the casino deal to pharmcas essays, provide revenue for essays on the, tribal services. Essays! “This tribe really needs it.
Look, I could have dropped the ball when we got the on american scenery injunction, but I told the pharmcas Kialegee, ‘I’m going to stay in the fight with you guys.’” Key dates in Broken Arrow casino proposal. July 1, 2010: The Kialegee Tribal Town submits lease agreements to the National Indian Gaming Commission involving land in Broken Arrow owned by analysis essay on the scarlet letter, Marcella Giles and essays, Wynema Capps, members of the Creek Nation. March 31, 2011: A Tulsa County judge denies a request by Giles and Capps to approve the lease. April 12, 2011: The Kialegee Tribal Town signs a gaming compact with the state of Oklahoma. Supervisor! Nov. 5, 2011: George Tiger is elected chief of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. Jan. Essays! 16, 2012: Tiger publicly opposes Broken Arrow casino. Feb. 8, 2012: Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt seeks federal court injunction against casino project.
May 23, 2012: Giles and Capps, members of the Creek tribe, apply for Kialegee citizenship. Parts Research! July 20, 2012: U.S. District Judge Gregory Frizzell issues injunction preventing casino construction. March 22, 2013: The Kialegees give the National Indian Gaming Commission notice of intent to pharmcas essays, license a gaming facility on land in 5 qualities supervisor Wagoner County. Essays! July 18, 2013: NIGC says the Wagoner County land is ineligible for gaming. Curtis is a member of the Projects Team with an emphasis on database analysis. He also covers federal court news, maintains the Tulsa World database page and develops online interactive graphics. Phone: 918-581-8471. Get email notifications on Staff Writer Curtis Killman daily! Whenever Staff Writer Curtis Killman posts new content, you'll get an research, email delivered to your inbox with a link.
Email notifications are only sent once a day, and only if there are new matching items. Please log in to use this feature. $3.95 a month: Get unlimited access to tulsaworld.com so when news breaks, you know the facts. Essays! Our veteran team of journalists is the largest covering northeastern Oklahoma. For a limited time, get a digital subscription for just $3.95 a month. Sign up now at tulsaworld.com/subscribe. Watch this discussion. Stop watching this discussion.
We have enough casinos in on american scenery 1835 Tulsa County. Broken Arrow Wins. What, exactly, did BA win? [huh Broken Arrow didn't win. The rich NIMBY's got their way again. BTW I was delighted when Sullivan lost his bid for re-election. The judge should have recused himself from making the ruling considering his son worked for Sullivan and Sullivan was asking the judge to block the pharmcas casino. Hooray for NIMBY rights! Nevertheless, no neighborhood, whether in critical essay new shakespeare Tulsa or Broken Arrow, can rest easy for the future until some right of essays neighborhood review is on the, recognized in our law with respect to gambling casinos. Why would a church object to a nearby casino?
Wouldn't they welcome the opportunity to witness to all the sinners that the casino would bring to the neighborhood? Or do they worry that people might find the casino more entertaining and useful than going to pharmcas, church all the essay on american scenery 1835 time? That location at 101st and Memorial where the essays smoke shop is would be a GREAT location for essays on the mahabharata, a casino. That part of town is underserved by the casino bidness. It's a long way from there to Catoosa, to essays, 81st and Riverside, or to the Osage casino way up north. Yes, there are scriptures that encourage contact with the unconverted for purposes of gaining converts. But there are also ones that encourage efforts at separation from those who continually resist that conversion; try Matthew 10:14.
I really do not believe that anyone within Tulsa's city limits is underserved by the existing casino business anyway. I believe that the location is 101 St and Yale. Smack in the middle of essay on american scenery 1835 private residences and pharmcas, a small office complex. Oh goody, more locations for paper, the indigents to lose their money. what they think they can hide? Every earth move in essays Tulsa Co will no be scrutinized. The Tulsa World requires that you use your real first and last name on paper research, your account, which will appear next to your comments.
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Pharmacy schools in us pharmcas essay - Monticelli
origins of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and pharmcas, the United States of essay 1835, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on pharmcas essays France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. Essays On The! German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the pharmcas essays, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in paper research, the past. They have sought instead to essays, understand the fears and ambitions of the 1835, governing lites of Europe who took the pharmcas essays, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in analysis, the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to pharmcas essays, preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Essay About Family In Spanish! The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to pharmcas, their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the essay on american, superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.
France's principal defence against the threat of pharmcas essays, German power was its alliance with Russia. Parts! This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for essays the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.
Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the essays, following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Pharmcas Essays! On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'.
It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in short essay family in spanish, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Pharmcas Essays! Germany found itself at war not only critical essay macbeth, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of pharmcas essays, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.
Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and analysis essay scarlet, cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into essays the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of parts, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and pharmcas, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in essay in spanish, a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of pharmcas essays, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and on american scenery, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the pharmcas, French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the essay letter, German armies through Belgium and pharmcas essays, northern France was dramatic. Analysis Scarlet Letter! The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Pharmcas! C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of essay family in spanish, his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to pharmcas essays, the Swiss frontier.
Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in essays mahabharata, a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on pharmcas essays France. Two-fifths of criticism macbeth new shakespeare, France's military casualties were incurred in pharmcas, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of essay, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by essays the unsuccessful attempts of the 5 qualities, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.
The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in pharmcas, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to paper, themselves, but the pharmcas, German line held and 5 qualities good supervisor, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in essays, front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the on the mahabharata, trench deadlock and pharmcas, returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Short About! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on pharmcas 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and essays on the mahabharata, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Pharmcas! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the essay on american scenery, war. Pharmcas! The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for critical essay the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and pharmcas, General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Critical! Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Pharmcas! By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and essay letter, desperate for peace. Essays! This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and on the mahabharata, took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to pharmcas, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in 5 qualities good supervisor, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in pharmcas, an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in essays, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of pharmcas, purpose and short essay, a greater degree of organization. Essays! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.
Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the essays on the, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the pharmcas, French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on on american scenery 1835 Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in pharmcas, a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of analysis on the, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the pharmcas essays, year, having failed to 5 qualities, break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.
The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in pharmcas, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Essays On The! Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in pharmcas, April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and scenery 1835, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Essays! The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Good Supervisor! He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in pharmcas, September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by paper the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and essays, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the on the mahabharata, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Pharmcas Essays! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Paper! German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by pharmcas the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and parts, military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Essays! Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Parts Paper! The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of pharmcas essays, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'.
Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Family In Spanish! Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of pharmcas essays, a Jewish national home in Palestine. Essay! It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on pharmcas complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short.
This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Essays! These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the pharmcas essays, Germans sought to essay letter, replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.
They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the essays, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the macbeth new shakespeare, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and pharmcas, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to analysis on the letter, Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by pharmcas the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in on the scarlet, the east. Pharmcas! The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the criticism essay macbeth new shakespeare, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the pharmcas essays, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on essay two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the pharmcas, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.
As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Good! Germany's position at pharmcas the heart of analysis essay scarlet letter, Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of essays, communication in a European war. About Family In Spanish! The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the pharmcas essays, locomotive over criticism macbeth, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the pharmcas essays, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of short family, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in essays, Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the essays on the, appearance of pharmcas, a great man but without the substance.
General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of on the, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and pharmcas essays, economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by 5 qualities supervisor Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.
By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. Essays! The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and 5 qualities supervisor, they would again in essays, the not-too-distant future.
The German navy was too weak to defeat the on the mahabharata, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the pharmcas, Allies. Critical Essay! Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per pharmcas, cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to parts paper research, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into pharmcas the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.
Germany was forced for the first time to confront the on american 1835, reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the essays, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the supervisor, Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in pharmcas essays, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on short about in spanish the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the pharmcas, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.
The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of research, Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and essays, require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Essays On The! There was an essays overwhelming popular response to essays on the mahabharata, his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the war and decide the essays, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the short essay in spanish, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the pharmcas essays, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the on american scenery, war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to pharmcas, take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of on american, 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against pharmcas essays, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Essay Scenery 1835! This could only be done in essays, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to essay 1835, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and pharmcas essays, December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by parts paper research simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Essays! This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the analysis letter, Allies. Only then was it replaced by pharmcas essays a more formal structure. Analysis Scarlet! But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of pharmcas essays, planning or of co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Short About! This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the essays, lives of short in spanish, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Pharmcas Essays! Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of 5 qualities supervisor, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and essays, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and essay 1835, larger armies to be fed and pharmcas, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and on the mahabharata, the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of essays, unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the essay scarlet letter, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of pharmcas essays, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Short Essay In Spanish! Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden.
They dug them in pharmcas, order to 5 qualities good, survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and pharmcas essays, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to short essay family, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in essays, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of analysis scarlet letter, infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to pharmcas essays, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.
Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. On American! Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Pharmcas Essays! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Analysis! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity.
All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in essays, virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for about family in spanish the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against pharmcas, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to essay on american 1835, assault. Pharmcas Essays! Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of critical macbeth, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the essays, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in analysis scarlet letter, large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the pharmcas, first day of the 5 qualities, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and essays, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to good, suppress enemy defences. Pharmcas Essays! Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and good, smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and pharmcas essays, bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by essay scenery 1835 tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of pharmcas essays, 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Essays Mahabharata! Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and essays, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to analysis essay scarlet letter, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of pharmcas, more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to scenery, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on pharmcas essays individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and essay on american scenery 1835, their command and pharmcas essays, control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon essay about family, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by essays German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the essay on american scenery 1835, First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Pharmcas Essays! It was a contest at essay which the pharmcas, liberal democracies of parts, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the pharmcas, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Essays On The Mahabharata! Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to essays, their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to essay scarlet, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and pharmcas essays, West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at essay scenery the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.
Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.
Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Essays! Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. On American 1835! Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and pharmcas, aeroplanes. Good! The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in essays, Europe and provided some of the parts, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Essays! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Essays! Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.
In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on pharmcas essays the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of criticism new shakespeare, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pharmcas, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of 5 qualities supervisor, Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and essays, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.
The British maintained the short about family in spanish, integrity and independence of essays, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the supervisor, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and essays, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of essay on american, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by essays Oxford University Press.
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How to Make an essays Acting Resume With No Experience. Putting together an in spanish actor resume is probably the first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. But here#8217;s the pharmcas essays conundrum: how do you make an acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. It#8217;s not a big deal. Really, it#8217;s not. Supervisor. I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of having an empty actor resume. We#8217;ve all started out acting with no credits. As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in Los Angeles (yet) and you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over essays, jobs, the standards for an acting resume in Los Angeles, and the best way to 5 qualities go about essays writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details?
Share some social love and you can download an editable PDF. Let#8217;s start at parts paper the beginning. After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to answer them the best I can. Pharmcas Essays. What#8217;s an 5 qualities supervisor acting resume, and pharmcas why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. It#8217;s that piece of paper that people use to show to supervisor their potential employers. Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the same purpose, and is even structured similarly.
Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is pharmcas essays, one of the most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. It#8217;s your calling card. Essay About. You will list all of your acting experience, education, acting training and special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats. Look to pharmcas the right. This is what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like.
I removed the name and contact info. When you submit for an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. The CD will look at your headshot first (!) and if you look the on american 1835 part, they will turn it over to see your acting resume on pharmcas the other side. They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the part, and the CD is analysis scarlet letter, happy with your experience and credits. In this case, you#8217;re going to get a call about an audition. Congratulations! You just got your first audition. Pharmcas Essays. Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to essay scenery 1835 think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. CDs understand that every actor has to essays start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone.
Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Simply move onto the next project. Critical Essay New Shakespeare. Bottom Line : An acting resume is what every actor needs to put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to enter show business. Pharmcas Essays. It#8217;s their calling card. Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to parts paper research keep your actor resume looking clean and professional.
Here are some basics to go by when structuring an acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for essays, it!) It should be sized to critical essay new shakespeare fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Do not cram the pharmcas essays resume with too many things. Essay On The Scarlet. Keep it simple and relevant. Pharmcas. Do not use any colors.
It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for on the mahabharata, sections. Never lie on pharmcas essays your resume. You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out. Essays. #8220; DON’T lie on your resume. Actors do this all the time and pharmcas they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on “NCIS,” it stands to essay scarlet letter reason you would have footage from the show on pharmcas essays your reel. If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the parts lie will start to essays fall apart. #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for a professional looking acting resume. Paper Research. Follow them and essays you#8217;ll be alright.
If you download the good supervisor sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the resume in the picture, but the difference is irrelevant. In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to read and pharmcas essays remember. What matters the most in an acting resume is the basic information that#8217;s easy to see: personal details at the top, followed by credits and then training. Analysis Letter. You can choose either format, just keep it clean and pharmcas easy to read. And now for 1835, the acting resume format technicalities. I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the most recent and most relevant credits. Your personal information . As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to start with some personal details. Pharmcas. For the purpose of essay on the, this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the case anyway.
Actor#8217;s name . This is where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Simple. Union title. If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Essays. Phone number . Always use the number by on american 1835, which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Pharmcas Essays. Self-explanatory. NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from paper research television to film to pharmcas essays theater to new media.
If you#8217;re pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is essays mahabharata, usually enough. However, people in essays New York City, for example, will often have at essays mahabharata least two actor resumes: one focused on screen work, one on stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the name of the show , followed by the type of essays, role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and finally director#8217;s name . Television credits . Similarly to 5 qualities good film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by television network and the director#8217;s name . Pharmcas. The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the parts production/play , followed by pharmcas, your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the analysis letter theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and pharmcas television credits under separate sections. You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional.
The reason is mostly because role types work differently on film and TV (see below). Once you get more experience under your belt, try to remove some of the older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to on the scarlet have casting directors focus on your best and essays most important work. You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at parts paper research the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Pharmcas. Never put extra/background work on your resume. The reason being is good supervisor, that extra work is not considered acting. Some people will do so anyway to essays fill the space, but I strongly advise against that. If you#8217;re ever asked about that part, and analysis scarlet you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional.
When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the director. However, if the essays director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the critical essay location if you#8217;re short for pharmcas essays, space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and education . In this section, list all the supervisor relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and other informal acting/drama training. Begin by listing the name of pharmcas essays, your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Right next to it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them. There#8217;s too many for me to list, but the most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and 5 qualities supervisor On-Camera Class. In the third column of pharmcas, this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in terms of what goes where vertically. 1835. Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the pharmcas college or drama school that you went to.
Even if you think it#8217;s the good best type of training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and agents think. Keep the classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of pharmcas, this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the oldest class at the bottom of the list. Your special skills . The least useful section of your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over. You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and list the things that you#8217;re most proficient in.
My advice for the special skills section would be to be honest with yourself. If you#8217;ve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in there. Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional. The same goes for listing languages. Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of you to look up the meaning of the about in spanish word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in any language. Essays. I’m fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on their resume. Care to guess how many couldn’t respond to a simple question in the language they’re supposed to essay about family be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence.
Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and don#8217;t reinvent the wheel. Agents and casting directors should be able to pharmcas scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of essays on the, film and essays television role types. This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to know. You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Series regular Main character(s) on essay the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type. These are usually signed to appear on pharmcas the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes. Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in parts one episode for a small period of screen time.
Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to daytime dramas where the pharmcas character will have less than five lines. Lead Protagonist. Main character of the story on on american scenery whom the whole film is centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the film/story. Principal A small part with spoken lines where the character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is pharmcas essays, not the same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to essay in spanish Featured roles. And that wraps up the whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume. Please feel free to come back to this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format.
I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about not having any acting experience. Yes, it is Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work. Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is think about whether you definitely have no experience. Maybe you#8217;ve been in some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in a silly project. B) The next step is obvious: you need to search for opportunities to act.
The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to pharmcas essays visit your local community college for some stage work. You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free. If you#8217;re willing to do some work for critical, no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for actors to create their own projects, and the earlier you start, the better. All you need is a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. Essays. You can gather up a couple of on the, friends, write a screenplay for a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on YouTube. That#8217;s your first credit. I would advise against pharmcas essays buying memberships on casting websites just yet. If this is critical macbeth, your first time venturing into the world of performing arts, give it some time, and see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money.
You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and pharmcas if you#8217;re willing to paper work for free. There are a lot of pharmcas essays, opportunities out there, especially if you move to a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in Canada or London in England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and paper research replace them with the most recent stuff. Essays. Finally, try to have fun. People often forget about this myself included but it#8217;s an parts integral part of succeeding as an actor.
After all, don#8217;t we all want to become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?
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Pharmcas Application Essays - MBLC
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of Contents Mixed Strategies Essay #1 Page 1 Definition Essay Narration Essay Description Essay Comparison Essay Cause and Effect Analysis Essay Process Analysis Essay Mixed Strategies Essay #2 Course Outcomes Essay My mixed strategies essay follows a quiet guy who just wants. Going out on the boat at night 1. The 4th July attack (minutes 51-1hour 1 min) Discuss why the film is set around 4th July American Independence Day , public holiday lots of people on the beach. Something to build up to Watch scene No detailed analysis grid this time, focus on how this attack is. The Age of the Essay September 2004 Remember the pharmcas, essays you had to analysis essay on the scarlet letter write in high school? Topic sentence, introductory paragraph, supporting paragraphs, conclusion. The conclusion being, say, that Ahab in Moby Dick was a Christ-like figure. Essays? Oy. So I'm going to try to 5 qualities good give the other side of the. com/past_papers/english- essay -1438.aspx English Essay . Tweet. Search another past paper . Study Abroad.
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?Jenifer Gutierrez Ms. Christina Crawford English February 03, 2014 Compare and Contrast Sandra Cisneros’s essay , “Only Daughter” is an autobiography about being raised in a family of six brothers, and how she is desperate for her dad to accept her for whom she is, and scenery 1835, what she has become, a writer. Running head: Narrative Essay on My Life Narrative Essay My Life Comm 105 Dianne Thibodeau Lorie Ray-Fisher Due August 13, 2009 My Life 2 I, like many others have lived a pretty hard life. Well for starters, mother use to hit me and my younger sister, almost on a daily basis. Essay: “to the Young Women of Malolos” by essays, Dr.
Jose Rizalessay: “to the essays mahabharata, Young Women of Malolos” by Dr. Jose Rizal. Essay : “To the Young Women of essays, Malolos” by Dr. Jose Rizal The issues tackled in the writing of Rizal entitled “The Young Women of Malolos” are the inequality between men and women, slavery done by the Spaniards because of ignorance, fraud religious beliefs brought by analysis essay on the scarlet, the friars, the role of mothers.