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Writing an Appendix - Adding Non-Essensial Information to Papers
?Which one of term paper appendix these is a correct definition? ?Current assets are assets with short lives, such as inventory. HomeWork Nerds. Write. ?Which one of these is a correct definition? ?Current assets are assets with short lives, such as inventory. Term. Welcome to Homework Nerds. We are the number 1 most trusted academic services website. We provide a wide range of academic services all students.
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All else held constant, interest rate risk will increase when the time to maturity:? ?Increases or the coupon rate decreases. ?Increases or the coupon rate increases. ?Decreases or the coupon rate increases. ?Decreases and the coupon rate equals zero. The market price of a bond increases when the:? ?Face value decreases. ?Coupon rate decreases. ?Par value decreases. ?Coupon is paper appendix, paid annually rather than semiannually. ?Discount rate decreases. ?Generally tends to exceed market value when fixed assets are included. ?Is adjusted to market value whenever the market value exceeds the stated book value. ?Is more of a financial than an accounting valuation. ?Is equivalent to market value for how to a summary of a article, firms with fixed assets. Appendix. ?Is based on of eden essay thesis, historical cost. The cash flow resulting from term appendix, a firm’s ongoing, normal business activities is referred to as the:? ?Cash flow to investors. ?Additions to net working capital. James Joyce Ulysses. ?Net capital spending. ?Cash flow to retained earnings. ?Operating cash flow. An efficient capital market is one in term paper appendix which:? ?Taxes are irrelevant. ?Security prices reflect all available information. ?Brokerage commissions are zero. ?Securities always offer a positive NPV. ?All investments earn the market rate of return.
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Writing an Appendix - Adding Non-Essensial Information to Papers
How to Present Your Résumé, Bio Repertoire List. Resumes, biographies and audition repertoire lists are the print materials most commonly requested at auditions and for Young Artist Program application submissions. Term Paper? Clear, well-formatted print materials are extremely effective tools for presenting your voice and your story to audition panels and pre-screening administrators. By contrast, a poorly organized bio or resume can be very confusing and frustrating to cover dissertation read; not only do they make you look unprofessional, they may also make it look as though you have something to hide. When creating and term paper, updating your print materials, remember the purpose these materials serve: to present a robust and accurate picture of your training and performance history, your accomplishments, and manifesto party, your artistic focus. List items in a clear chronological order so that the paper appendix, reader understands where you’re coming from and how things are now developing for you. List not only what you have done, but also when and where. List the thesis, names of music and opera professionals with whom you have worked who are in a position to provide you with a positive and nuanced reference. Keep things as simple and factual as possible, especially where your resume is concerned.
If you imagine yourself in paper the position of the essay of building, administrator or casting director who will receive and term appendix, evaluate your materials, you will appreciate the need for fashion history research paper, clarity and brevity. They do not have a great deal of time to spend on every bio or resume that passes through their hands and paper, must scan each quickly for relevant information. While it’s only natural for you to want people to be excited by how to a summary your accomplishments, do not exaggerate or distort information on your resume to make it appear more impressive or clutter up your bio with superlatives. Your singing resume should be a single page in length and should include: Your name and contact information.
Your Fach. Keep it simple, i.e. Appendix? “Soprano” or “Baritone” rather than “Light Lyric Coloratura Soprano” or “Dramatic Baritone” – the cover page for masters, roles you have performed will make that distinction for you. Performance experience, including company/location and year. Awards and term paper appendix, competitions. Education and cover dissertation, training. Teachers, coaches, conductors and directors with whom you have worked. Relevant special skills.
List all performance and educational experiences in paper reverse chronological order (most recent first). Manifesto Of The Communist? The information you present should be representative and recent, not exhaustive; include only term appendix as much information as you can clearly present on one page. Format all material with clean columns and tabs. Cover Page For Masters Dissertation? Use a serif font – you may choose a different, more stylized font for your name and paper appendix, contact information if you wish, but apply a single serif font for the rest of your content. Mezzo-soprano Cindy Sadler is dedicated to helping singers take ownership of ulysses essay, their talent and leadership of their careers. Cindy provides advice and mentoring on the business of singing through a monthly Classical Singer column “Ask Erda,” her Business of Singing seminars and in private consultations. What categories of information belong on a singer’s resume? In what order s hould they appear? This isn’t a simple question! The answer is paper appendix going to differ depending on where you are in your career and where you’re trying to go.
But some things are universal. The first thing to ask yourself when writing a resume is, “What kind of work am I trying to get?” Your resume should be tailored to that – list the essay thesis, experience which is most relevant to that work first. The second question is, “What experience do I have?” The third is, “How can I organize my experience to paper show myself in the best possible light?” Let’s say, for argument’s sake, you’re a young singer applying for a YAP, pay-to-sing, or an essay, audition with an opera company or agent. List all your solo work first, chronologically by year, most recent first. Your first category should be OPERA.
This is paper appendix a list of all the cover for masters, full roles you’ve done. You can include anything upcoming at the top of the list, in paper bold. If you have a few musical theater roles, just lump them in manager with the opera; if you have a lot, you can always create a separate category for MUSICAL THEATRE. Next, if (and only if) you have room on your resume, you can list OPERA EXCERPTS. (I hate the term “partial role” – it seems self-aggrandizing. We all know that means you did a scene). List CONCERT/ORATORIO, which should encompass all solo work you have done on term concerts (you can include recitals if you don’t have much else to of a list). As a young artist, it’s fine to term paper appendix list chorus work on your resume, especially if it was opera and you don’t have a lot else to list.
But make sure you list CHORUS after all other solo work. After you’ve listed all your performance credits, you can add categories such as: AWARDS/SCHOLARSHIPS (be judicious, choose only the most impressive. There’s no need to list every honorable mention you ever got). EDUCATION/TRAINING (your degrees, YAPs and other training programs you’ve done, etc. Please don’t list master classes. Singing once for someone for essay manager, 20 minutes is not a credit. If you did a semester-long workshop, that’s a different story).
TEACHERS, COACHES, CONDUCTORS, DIRECTORS - List only the term paper, most influential teachers and how to write a summary article, coaches; list all the conductors and directors. Only list people who would give you a nice review if someone were to term paper appendix contact them as ask about you. Of Eden Essay? Also, don’t list a conductor unless you worked with them as a soloist (unless your whole resume is for choral work). If you still have room on the resume, you can list things like LANGUAGES and SPECIAL SKILLS, but these are pretty much “filler” categories that should exit your resume as soon as you have more performance credits to paper appendix fill up all the white space! Should I list roles that I have in essay of building preparation, or only roles I have performed? I sometimes advise people to list Roles in term paper Preparation or Roles in Repertoire which they have not yet performed.
It depends on the circumstances. No one is going to look at these and think of of the communist, it as a credit, but it can show what you are working on and can be useful for reflecting a Fach change or a return to term paper singing after time off. The rule of thumb is don’t list them if you don’t have to (you can always have a repertoire list on your website with ALL the manifesto of the communist party thesis, roles you feel qualified to paper sing, whether you’ve had the pleasure or not). Also, if you’re going to list Roles in essay Preparation, list no more than three. I don’t believe you’re actively working in more than 3 roles at a time, learning all the recitatives and paper appendix, ensembles. Essay Of Building Manager? Just because you’ve learned the paper, arias doesn’t mean you’re studying the east of eden essay, role. Should I list the teachers I have studied with?
Yes, but you only need to list the most influential and then only if they would say nice things about you if someone were to call them and paper, ask. Should I list the dates of essay of building manager, my performances? I am squarely in the “list dates” camp. While some administrators and agents won’t care, too many will see a red flag if you don’t list dates. Appendix? They’ll think you’re trying to hide your age or the fact that it’s been 15 years since you sang a role. It’s better to deal with any issues up front. While we’re talking about of building manager dates – please DON’T list “May 2013” or “Fall 2011”. The year is plenty of information; the term appendix, rest is just clutter.
What if I don’t have much performance experience yet? Just list all the performance experience you DO have under a single category, PERFORMANCES. Don’t worry about a thin resume – just make sure you apply for opportunities that are appropriate for your level of experience and you’ll be fine. What if there is essay a gap in my performance history? Read my article in the November 2014 issue of Classical Singer Magazine , where I address those issues in detail. Term? There’s no one-size-fits all answer; but I work with many clients with this issue and there are always things you can do. Your biography can be of any length so long as you organize information with the paper, same inverse pyramid style recommended for press releases.
Front-load all of the term appendix, most important details you want the james joyce essay, reader to know about you in the first few sentences, then flesh out those details in subsequent paragraphs beginning with the ones most relevant to the organization receiving your bio and ending with the most incidental. Your resume must stick to appendix the facts, but your biography tells your story in narrative form. It is up to you whether you would like to present a crisp, factual approach or use more poetic language to of building describe your voice, artistry and accomplishments. If you prefer a more subjective approach, get advice from paper appendix people you trust to make sure that this language comes across as authentic rather than exaggerated – when possible, let others make those claims for you by incorporating press quotes. Artist management firms post bios for the singers on their rosters, and you can draw ideas and history research paper, inspiration from term appendix their formatting choices. Cover For Masters? In baritone Weston Hurt’s bio, Opus 3 sticks to the facts but features an admiring quote from a Boston Globe review. Soprano Layla Claire’s bio on IMG’s web site is a much longer, more descriptive narrative, opening with the vocal qualities and repertoire specialties for which she is best known. In crafting your bio, be specific and sparing with superlatives. Layla’s bio can accurately include the claim that she “has been celebrated as a unique artist with a voice of paper, special color and dissertation, expressivity” because it is supported by the quote from paper appendix Musical Toronto stating that “Her ample, clear, flexible soprano has power as well as grace, with a tone coated in addictive, sweet carmel.” Too often, however, I see bios that describe an artist as “the most sought-after soprano of her generation” or the like! Google the phrase “sought-after soprano” and you’ll find this phrase in the bios of hundreds of singers. Who is seeking after all these sopranos, and who is essay of building manager keeping tabs so that we can calculate who is the paper appendix, most sought-after one?
Non-specific superlatives like this just make it look like you’re trying too hard. If you don’t have any juicy press quotes yet, that’s fine – it’s really okay to let your voice, and the simple facts, speak for manager, themselves. It is both useful and courteous to provide your audition panel with a printed list of the repertoire you are prepared to offer. Term Paper? Even though they will hear at page most only two or three of your aria selections, the list provides them with an informative snapshot of what you sing best right now. It relieves you of the paper, responsibility to recite a list of arias and the operas from which they are excerpted in a summary article several different languages, and it absolves the panel from having to remember what you said. When formatting your repertoire list, include your name, Fach, and contact information. List not only your arias but also the operas they are from and term, the composer’s name. Cover Page? Check spelling and capitalization to make sure they are impeccable and have a couple of trusted friends or mentors proofread your work.
Include all diacritical marks – if you don’t know how to type these on your keyboard, get some assistance. Learn and apply the capitalization rules for titles of operas in all languages represented: In Italian and French, only the first letter of the title and proper names should be capitalized; In German, only the first word and all nouns should be capitalized; In English, the first word and then all words except articles, conjugations and prepositions are capitalized. While you’re at it, make sure that you have been meticulous with your spelling, diacritical marks and capitalization in term paper appendix your resume and bio as well! As an Artist Manager with IMG Artists, Sam Snook frequently reviews print materials submitted by singers; he also works with the singers on of building his roster to make their materials as clear, effective and attractive as possible. Here is paper appendix his advice for of the party thesis, creating and formatting professional quality resumes, bios, and term paper, repertoire lists. Throughout my career, I have had the essay of building manager, opportunity to field many resumes, biographies and repertoire lists from singers. Paper Appendix? As an artist manager, I also have the responsibility of writing and updating biographies for my artists, helping tweak resumes, and advising on audition repertoire. I will provide some bullet points on the salient points for each of essay manager, these important documents. A resume should be one page. If it is longer, please do not shrink the font; it is time to remove some engagements.
In the paper appendix, header, list the usual: Name, voice type, E-mail, phone number, mailing address. I appreciate when singers list their height. Please list your current teacher in addition to important conductors, directors and coaches in your life. If you are not currently studying with a teacher, list the dates that you last studied, and with whom. If you have a special skill, please think about cover page for masters what is useful to opera. “8 years of paper, hip-hop dance” is of the party not relevant to your singing career. Double, triple, quadruple check that the spelling and diacritical marks on term paper the engagements you have listed are correct.
I will spend your audition correcting your resume otherwise. If you are managed, please make that clear. I cannot tell you how many times I have approached an joyce essay, exciting singer, only for them to tell me that they have management. Wear it as a badge of honor; you’ve earned it! As you endeavor upon your professional career and have several seasons worth of professional engagements, your biography can play double duty, and you may phase out your resume. It is paper appendix most helpful to organize a biography by essay season, but not to list more than three seasons. Once three seasons have been listed, a new paragraph should be considered along the lines of “In past seasons, Sam Snook has performed… ” followed by a general list of term appendix, engagements with no specific dates.
A sample layout: List engagements in order of prestige within a season, not chronologically. Introductory paragraph 2014/15 Season paragraph 2013/14 Season paragraph 2012/13 Season paragraph Past work paragraph; opera (non-date specific) Past work paragraph; orchestral/recital (non-date specific) Awards and other professional details List important directors, conductors, productions and colleagues, “In the 2014/15 season, Sam Snook will debut at the Metropolitan Opera as Pollione in of the communist Norma , opposite Monserrat Caballe, in term paper appendix Franco Zeffirelli’s timeless production, conducted by Arturo Toscanini.” Pepper your biography with critical acclaim. For Masters Dissertation? It helps to paper appendix break up the listing of engagements and lends credence to your career. When selecting a quote, the same rules apply as when you were high school: stick to scholarly journals; newspapers, magazines, etc. Of Building Manager? It might be tempting to use a blog, and some are very good, but they do not provide the gravitas that a professional news agency has. If you’re not enjoying a full season of work, there is term paper appendix a magic word: “highlights”; when used, it gives the manager, reader the impression that you are only choosing to list the most important engagements. Avoid listing your education if you are in your thirties, do not list awards that are more than five years old (and if you were not the winner), and please refrain from personal details. This is a narrative that represents what you have to offer professionally. List the aria you will start with first. Center justify all of paper appendix, your arias and write a summary, please list them: “Tarquinius’ Ride” from The Rape of Lucretia by Britten Make the repertoire list header the same as your resume; it looks good and shows consistency.
I am equally happy for term paper, singers to list arias as they are titled or colloquially, i.e. James Ulysses? “Ou va la jeune Hindoue?” or “Bell Song.” If you don’t want to sing an aria, or haven’t coached it in a while, take it off your list, because Murphy’s Law says it will be chosen. Paper? There is a lot of emphasis on having five arias, but four is good, as long as they are contrasting. Tailor your list to show off your best qualities; do not change your repertoire from manifesto of the communist thesis audition to audition; a skilled casting person will be able to paper see what role would be good for you within your offerings, regardless of what they are casting. So I've attached my resume here and am looking for feedback :) After reading this article, I changed a couple of headings and removed Masterclasses from the Teachers/Coaches/Directors/Conductors column - and I added my height as well based on what Mr. Snook had to say. The big thing I'm struggling with is how to a summary what I need to list in the Related Skills section. I have been told to list everything that is paper appendix presently there, but I'm sure some of cover, it is appendix more important to have listed, and it looks very cluttered!
Of course, any other feedback is cover page for masters welcomed as well. And to contextualize where I'm at for this stage of my career. finishing my MMus at Eastman. Paper Appendix? So far, I'm auditioning for Santa Fe Opera and Opera on the Avalon. I've applied to a couple of YAPs and some other summer programs as well. Hi Joel! Your resume is in how to write article pretty good shape!
Here is some feedback for you: Get rid of the paper, opera composers - we know who wrote Rigoletto . We may not know who wrote El Canguro , so after the title you can just put (von der Nahmer) to clarify (see DSF's resume - he has a number of contemporary or lesser-known works listed like this). Essay Of Building Manager? The less stuff there is too look at, the more easily we can see what is important. Term Paper Appendix? Then you can space the essay manager, tabs out better so you don't have crowding like we see on the Marquis de la Force entry. Check your date tabs - they're off in a couple of appendix, places. For Concert Oratorio, list the cover page, major work first and only list roles when clarification is needed (e.g. Pilatus). We will assume your role is term baritone soloist, and there should not be a role listed for works like the Peter Maxwell Davies (I do not know the essay of building manager, Brottmann but I'm assuming the same is true for that).
For Education, list the term paper, institution first, then the degree + major as a single entry, then the how to article, year. This may be just my opinion, but with the appendix, exception of your BM major I would remove all references to how to write a summary of a article your work in composition and conducting. It is term not relevant to your work as an opera singer. Well, obviously it is relevant to you ! but everyone else just needs to evaluate you based on your singing. Cover? Likewise, I would mention your skill at piano, violin and euphonium, but get rid of the details that make it look like your attention has been divided. Let us think that singing is your singular passion, even if it isn't. Once we get to know you better we'll find out about these other mad skills of term paper appendix, yours. I myself have an MM in clarinet but I didn't mention that on my vocal performance resume. Do mention that you speak French well. No need to list the languages you have sung in - we will surmise most of that from your performance experience.
I suppose you could list something like proficient singing diction in Czech, Russian and Norwegian but I think it's not necessary unless you are auditioning for an opera in one of those languages. If Onegin is on your aria list we will see that you know how to cover sing in Russian. So those are my suggestions. Paper Appendix? However, everything is laid out history research very clearly here - this is term appendix already a very well-designed resume! Permalink Reply by Joel Balzun on October 18, 2014 at 12:51am. Thanks Claudia - all of those suggestions were extremely helpful!
I think my resume looks less cluttered now. and now I have room to add a couple of important notes that I felt were important (world premieres, etc.) - I've uploaded it again, as I want to see what you think of the for masters dissertation, alignment of the Teacher/Coach/Director/Conductor section. and of course anything else you may notice. also, another question. You mentioned in the article to use the same heading style for your repertoire list. on my resume, I have a thumbnail of my headshot. Would I omit that on my repertoire list? Wow, Joel! This is fantastic. Term Paper Appendix? Everything is so clear.
Your resume now does exactly what you need it to - present a clear picture of your performance experience and training at a glance. Great job! The only further suggestions I have would be 1. Of Building Manager? don't include Cowtown w/ your degree programs - we can see that you did this festival from your performance history and it isn't on the same level as a BM or MM and 2. Paper Appendix? Tab the column with your degrees rather than centering them, as this would be more consistent with the james ulysses, overall layout. Permalink Reply by Courtney Ruckman on October 18, 2014 at 12:29pm. Thank you for term appendix, offering to proof read and edit our resumes! I enjoyed reading your article and other ones on the musical exchange site. There's so many great resources available now! Hi Courtney – looks pretty sharp! Switch to a serif font. Communist Party? You do not need to term appendix state which events are upcoming, even if the dates do not make that immediately clear.
We just need to see what you're up to, not whether or not you've already completed the assignment. So I'd get rid of those asterisks. Do not capitalize elisir or amore Tweak the tabs a little to make things less crowded and joyce, balance out the space between columns. Term Appendix? The main fix is to make it so that (Barab) does not need to be in a smaller font, but the whole layout will benefit from more even spacing. Put the name of the competition first and your place in the next column. Consider deleting the bottom two - they were a while ago, they aren't as prominent as many of the others, and essay manager, this section need not have so much space devoted to it. For training and term appendix, education, find a way to how to write a summary of a make your BM stand out.
Even though it is earlier than the rest, I'd list it first and then leave a space between it and the other training programs. Term? Name your major (was it voice performance?) Only include those special skills that are applicable to essay of building manager opera performance. For dance, list those forms that are useful and perhaps years of training. Appendix? Judo could apply for stage combat, I suppose, but yoga and ulysses essay, zumba not so much - I'd leave them off. List your instruments. We don't need to know you've recently taken up running, so delete that part. Hope you'll find these suggestions useful - post again when you have decided on term appendix any changes! Permalink Reply by Joyce DiDonato on October 18, 2014 at 4:31pm. Claudia!
Thank you for compiling this article. It's hugely helpful. And SAM! Thanks for pitching in! (Go Shockers!) I just wanted to chime in and say that your resume/bio (as well as head shot) is your very first line of attack in securing an audition. Treat it as seriously as if you were applying to the top law firm in the country, or for a position at fashion research paper the White House. It will speak volumes about appendix your professionalism and your dedication. There are a LOT of wonderfully talented singers out communist thesis there, and appendix, if it comes down to a small thing giving you the essay, edge, let it be this - something you have full control over! Also - my humble $.02?
Don't lie. Don't exaggerate. Term Paper Appendix? You will be found out, and people will see through it. Tell the joyce ulysses essay, truth, and then let your singing do the convincing. Wishing you guys all the best! Permalink Reply by Claudia Friedlander on October 20, 2014 at 11:56am. Thank you so much for weighing in, Joyce! Now that we are reviewing applications for your master classes, I can enthusiastically confirm that the content and layout of a singer's resume is indeed of appendix, great importance.
The video submissions are crucial, but they can only tell us so much about the breadth of a singer's experience, repertoire interests, and how to of a article, training. The fiercer the competition, the more important these details become. And yes: never lie or exaggerate on your resume. Our world is so small that you will be found out. Paper Appendix? I was once on research an evaluation panel and received the resume of a singer who claimed to appendix have been in the cast of the workshop/premiere of a contemporary opera that a student of east of eden thesis, mine had participated in, so I knew she hadn't been involved!
She must have thought that this was so obscure that no one would know, but boy was she was wrong. Term? We really were only evaluating the strength of the applicants' demos, too, so it didn't matter whether or not she had tons of performance experience, but the fact that she lied took her out of the running immediately. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on of eden essay thesis October 21, 2014 at term paper 12:39am. Thank you so much for offering to do this, this is exactly what I've been looking for! I am at a much earlier stage in my career than some of the other singers. I'm currently applying for of eden thesis, graduate school and definitely don't have as much professional experience, but I would love your opinion! There are a few areas in which I would like specific feedback, the first being how much information I need to paper provide about concert engagements. If I was hired to sing just a few selections on essay of building a bigger program, how should I denote that? I don't want it to appear as thought I'm obfuscating or making engagements look bigger than they are, but I'm afraid of adding too many qualifiers for fear of clutter. Secondly, I have an eyebrow ring, and I have heard various opinions about whether or not I should wear it for head shots and auditions. Some say, no problem, they can imagine you without it, as much as they can imagine you with a wig on and others say that it's unprofessional.
What do you think? Thirdly, I also uploaded two head shots, and I would love your opinion on which you think is more appropriate (or if they're egregious and I should get different ones. )! I understand that as I get more roles and more experience I will weed out term paper some of the smaller things currently on my resume, but I would love any feedback as it stands now! Okay Emma! I will help you organize your resume, but I need you to do some homework for me first. To the best of essay manager, your ability, bring the format into alignment with the term paper, guidelines we have presented here: Keep it to one page.
Use a serif font. Get the tabs aligned properly - there are dates and other info scattered all over the page, and joyce ulysses, they need to appear in term neat columns. Post it again, and then we'll go into essay of building manager, further detail. And don't worry - it looks like the basic content is all very appropriate. It just needs to term be presented in a way that we can read it quickly and easily. I'm also happy to of the party vote on your head shot, but I request that you repost your options to the head shot discussion so that out term other members can read our interaction in context and benefit from essay of building manager it. As regards your eyebrow ring: The general rule for term, audition presentation and attire is to make yourself look as flexible as possible so that it is easy for panelists to envision you as a variety of characters in productions they are casting (and you may not even know what those are).
So while you want to look stylish and dissertation, attractive, to a certain extent you also need to be a neutral screen that they can project things onto. This is helpful for you also, because you may have to embody two or three very different characters in the course of your audition, and you want to be able to easily slip in and out of paper, them - while one of those characters might rock an eyebrow ring, probably all of them don't. Essay Manager? So do not wear it in term paper auditions. It's important to let your creativity and essay, personality shine through in auditions, but the best way to appendix do that is with your singing! We will cover issues like this in greater depth in a future post on Audition Preparation Etiquette. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 12:57pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of page for masters dissertation, having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise!
I specialize in art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for your help and advice! Permalink Reply by paper Emma Lynn on manifesto communist thesis October 21, 2014 at 1:04pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an paper, Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. Joyce Essay? For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for your help and term, advice! Carnegie Hall Musical Exchange.
Connect with other young musicians (ages 13 and page for masters dissertation, up), share your performances and compositions, and join creative projects led by professional artists from Carnegie Hall. Digital music workshops produced by Carnegie Hall in partnership with Building Beats are supported by the Hive Digital Media Learning Fund in the New York Community Trust.
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Writing Research Papers
The 20 Minute Business Plan: Business Model Canvas Made Easy. Table of term paper appendix, Contents. If you’re already familiar, you can skip to cover for masters dissertation, the next section, ‘How do I get started?’. The Business Model Canvas (BMC) gives you the structure of a business plan without the overhead and the improvisation of a ‘back of the napkin’ sketch without the fuzziness (and coffee rings). The Canvas has nine elements: Together these elements provide a pretty coherent view of a business’ key drivers
Customer Segments : Who are the customers? What do they think? See? Feel? Do? Value Propositions : What’s compelling about the term paper, proposition? Why do customers buy, use? Channels : How are these propositions promoted, sold and delivered? Why? Is it working? Customer Relationships : How do you interact with the customer through their ‘journey’?
Revenue Streams : How does the business earn revenue from the value propositions? Key Activities : What uniquely strategic things does the write a summary of a, business do to deliver its proposition? Key Resources : What unique strategic assets must the business have to compete? Key Partnerships : What can the paper, company not do so it can focus on its Key Activities? Cost Structure : What are the business’ major cost drivers? How are they linked to revenue? The Canvas is popular with entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs for how to of a article business model innovation.
Fundamentally, I find it delivers three things: Focus : Stripping away the term appendix, 40+ pages of ‘stuff’ in a traditional business plan, I’ve seen users of the BMC improve their clarify and focus on history research paper, what’s driving the term paper appendix, business (and what’s non-core and getting in the way). Flexibility : It’s alot easier to cover page, tweak the model and try things (from a planning perspective) with something that’s sitting on term paper appendix, a single page. Transparency: Your team will have a much easier time understanding your business model and be much more likely to buy in to your vision when it’s laid out on a single page. The first time you engage with the canvas, I recommend printing it out or projecting it on a whiteboard and going to james joyce ulysses, town (see below for a PDF). Fill out the elements for your business and then ask yourself ‘Does this make sense?’ ‘What are the most important linkages and components of the model?’ If you’re ready to put together something a little more formal (for distribution, presentation, etc.) here’s a Google App’s template you can copy or download as MSFT PowerPoint:
*Omnigraffle a popular diagramming program for the Mac. It has a fairly easy to use layering environment which you may find handy as you want to tinker with and paper appendix produce different views of the how to write article, canvas. You can try Omnigraffle for free (the basic paid version is $99). What if I want more structure to work through this? If you’d like a little more structure, the link below will take you to a related curriculum item that has workshop slides, prep. items, and agenda. Otherwise, the term paper appendix, next sections (10 steps) offer a tutorial on how to use the template. The closing sections describe how to joyce essay, use the Google Doc’s/PowerPoint and Omnigraffle templates. For purposes of paper appendix, using the canvas you should make sure you can answer these questions: Do you have a single or multi-sided market? If you have a multi-sided market you’ll have at least as many segments as you have sides.
An example of how to a summary, such a market is a media property like CNN.com: they have readers on the one side and advertisers on the other. If the segment dimensions are the term appendix, ‘macro’ analysis of your customer base, then looking within each segment at individual customer types as ‘Personas’ is the ‘micro’. As with economics, this is where most of action happens. How To Write A Summary Article! You should be able to visualize these Personas- what kind of shoes do they wear? And you should understand what they think, see, feel, and do in your product area. Be sure to paper appendix, list both buyers and users of essay of building manager, your product (many Personas will be both). For coaching on this, check out: Tutorial- Personas. 3. Problems, Needs, Habits Current Alternatives. What job are you doing for the customer? What need are you fulfilling? There are no new behaviors- make sure that you can identify an existing need/problem and identify specific alternatives that your customer uses today.
If you’re not sure, go out and observe, talk to some representative people. You’ll want to be able to clearly link your Value Propositions back to these in the next section. Output : a list of Personas, organized by Customer Segment if you have more than one segment. I recommend trying to prioritize them- Who would you pitch first if you could only pitch one? Who next? And so forth Notes : If you’re spending a lot of time on this first item, that’s OK (and it’s probably good).
The Canvas is a tool, not a strategy and term not all the nine blocks are equal. The pairing of essay, Customer Segments and Value Propositions is really the ‘independent variable’ that should be driving everything else in term paper appendix, your business model. When I use the Canvas in my Venture Design classes, we usually spend all of the first session (plus time for field research) on Customer Segments and Value Propositions. Which of the Problems or Needs that you identified in your Personas are you fulfilling? What is a summary of a article unique about term your Value Propositions and why does your customer prefer them to their Current Alternatives? You may have a whole lot of manifesto of the party, these- and that’s fine. Term Paper! When you’re getting going with this, jot them all done on a whiteboard, index card, Post-It, etc. But then rank them and you’ll probably want to winnow out communist thesis, all but the most critical. What things do you do that actually cause a customer to paper appendix, pick you over essay manager a competitor or alternative?
For example, at Leonid, an term, enterprise software company I founded, we thought our largest customers worked with us because of the cost savings we offered and our knowledge about best practices. It turned out that was mostly wrong- reducing their time and risk to get new services to market was the most important. It’s not that the other things weren’t important, but they weren’t the top Value Proposition. That made a difference on how we sold the product and how we focused on operationalizing it for customers. Once you’ve isolated these, try mapping them to essay of building manager, the Customer Segments; it will look something like this: This mapping says ‘We have 3 personas. Paper! Persona 1 cares about VP 1 2. Persona 2 cares about VP 2; Persona 3 cares about VP3. (One segment only so segments not noted)’. Output : a prioritized list of Value Propositions and linkages from a summary of a, each Personas to the VP’s relevant to them. Notes: Again, this pairing is the key driver for most business models and if you want more on how to appendix, describe and essay discovery what to term appendix, put in this part of the canvas, I recommend this: Tutorial- Personas. Maybe you feel like you’re in good shape on understanding the customer’s world but you don’t have any validation on whether the Value Propositions are clicking because this is page dissertation a new venture? If you’re not sure, that’s OK and good for you for acknowledging the uncertainty!
It’s the responsible thing to do. The key is to write down those assumptions, prioritize them, and paper appendix figure out the quickest and cheapest way to cover, prove or disprove them. That’s what Lean/Startup is about and there are resources here to help you with that, if you’d like- Tutorial: Lean Startup. Channels includes entities you use to communicate your proposition to your segments, as well as entities through which you sell product and later service customers (see AIDAOR journey below). For example, if you sell bulbs for light houses and there’s a website all light house attendants purchase equipment, that site is a sales Channel. If you use Google AdWords, that’s a Channel, too (for getting attention). If you use a third party company to appendix, service the bulbs when they break, that’s also a Channel. Output : a list of important Channels, linked to Personas or Segments if they differ substantially. Ulysses! Make notes on what steps are relevant for each- promotion, sales, service, etc.
See Note this section for term paper appendix more structure on fashion research paper, this. Notes: Channels and the next item, Customer Relationships, define your interface with the term paper, Customer. Page For Masters Dissertation! It’s important to term paper, think all the way through the customer ‘journey’ in specific terms. For most businesses, the way they get a customer’s attention is cover for masters different than the way they onboard them or support them over appendix the long term. For this, I recommend the write a summary of a article, AIDA.OR framework (attention-interest-desire-action-onboarding-retention) and storyboarding your way through it. Here’s a post explaining all that- Storyboarding AIDA(OR).
If you don’t want to do the storyboards, I recommend at least making notes about paper your customer journey through the AIDA(OR) steps. Another consideration is whether your channels will give you enough visibility into the user, including, for example, a way to page for masters, follow up with users. Not sure? Document your assumptions Lean Startup style and paper appendix figure out how you’ll quickly prove or disprove them. Step 4 (of 10): Customer Relationships. How does the customer interact with you through the sales and product lifecycle? Do they have a dedicated personal contact they see? Call? Is all the interaction over the web?
Do they never see you at page for masters dissertation, all but instead talk to a Channel? A few litmus test questions you may want to ask yourself at this point: Can the Value Proposition be delivered to the Customer this way? All the term paper appendix, way through from promotion, to sale, to post-sale service? (See AIDAOR above on this.) Can you make the numbers work?
Is there a premium support product you need to create/test? Many companies, like Apple, have rejected the false choice of ‘Do we provide phone support or not?’ instead offering personal support for a reasonable charge. Output : a description of Customer Relationships, with notes if they differ across Customers (between Segments or among Personas within a Segment) or across the customer journey. Notes: If you’re a startup, be sure to document and review critical assumptions here. Manifesto Communist Thesis! Also, the focal items are in a kind of term appendix, specific order- you should validate your Segments and their relationship to the Propositions above all else. Research Paper! If this means you provide personal support in the early days (a ‘concierge test’ in Lean Startup terms) to paper appendix, do discovery and validation of of a, Segments and paper Propositions, that’s OK. You can subsequently test the Customer Relationship models. Of The! (Here’s a post on using consulting as a concierge vehicle in term, B2B if you want more detail: Consulting as B2B Concierge Vehicle). I won’t bore you with proclamations about the of the thesis, importance of term appendix, revenue- you get it. James Ulysses Essay! If you have an existing business, this will be self-evident. At this point, you should map Segments to paper appendix, Propositions to Revenue Streams.
The example below says ‘Revenue stream 1 is how to write driven by Persona 1′s involvement with Propositions 1 2; Revenue Stream 2 is driven by term appendix Persona 2′s involvement with Proposition 2; and Revenue Stream 3 with Persona 3′s involvement with Proposition 3.’ That’s relatively diverse- yours may be much simpler and that’s fine. Notes : If you have a startup or are re-engineering the manager, business, this is a time to look at where you’re driving revenue and whether it aligns with the rest of your focal points. Paper! Are you charging on value? Perceived value? They say everyone loves their banker; hates their lawyer. James Ulysses! Why is that? Is there an actionable analog in your business? Congratulations on making it halfway!
At this point, you may want to step back and look at the picture you’ve created about your Offering and Customers. The next four steps deal with your ‘Infrastructure’, the plumbing you need to execute: These are the crucial things the paper, business needs to do to deliver on cover for masters, its propositions and make the paper, rest of the business work- for example, if selling through 3 rd parties is part of the model, then activity around channel management is probably pretty important. For a product-driven business, this probably includes ongoing learning about users and new techniques to build better product. If you’re focused on doing a bunch of things for a particular set of customers (ex: comprehensive IT for fashion history research law offices), this probably includes maintaining superior expertise on the segment(s) and creating or acquiring products and term paper services that are a good fit, whatever that entails. For an infrastructure business (ex: electric utility), it probably includes keeping the east thesis, infrastructure working reliably and making it more efficient.
You’ll then want to consider how the Key Activities (and/or Key Resources) drive your Value Propositions: Outputs : a list of Key Activities linked to your business’ Value Propositions. Notes : One question this analysis should raise for you is whether or not certain Activities and Resources are actually core, actually focal to paper, your business, something you’ll want to think through . Key resources are the strategic assets you need in joyce essay, place, and you need in term paper appendix, place to a greater or more targeted degree than your competitors. The Business Model Canvas proposes that there are three core business types: product, scope, and east essay thesis infrastructure. These tend to paper appendix, have similar types of Key Resources. The following diagram describes how Key Activities drive the accrual of essay, Key Resources: Outputs : a list of Key Resources linked to your business’ Key Activities. Notes : Product-driven businesses have a differentiated product of some sort. Term Appendix! Rovio, the how to a summary of a, company that makes the term paper appendix, popular app Angry Birds, is such a company. Manager! Key Resources in product-driven businesses are typically key talent in critical areas of expertise and accumulated intellectual property related to their offering.
Scope-driven businesses create some synergy around a particular Customer Segment. Paper Appendix! For example, if you started a business that would take care of all the essay of building, IT needs for law firms, that would be a scope-driven business. Term Paper Appendix! These businesses typically have key knowledge about their segment, a repeatable set of processes, and sometimes infrastructure, like service centers. Infrastructure-driven businesses achieve economies of scale in a specific, highly repeatable area. Telecommunications is traditionally an ulysses, infrastructure business. Retailers focused on retail, like Walgreens or Costco, are primarily infrastructure-driven businesses. The Key Resources for this type of business are, you guessed it, various types of physical or virtual infrastructure. Let’s take a single product category: diapers. The Honest Company or another innovating around compostable or otherwise more environmentally friendly diapers would be a product-driven take on the category. Procter Gamble which has a cradle-to-grave strategy for providing consumer products is a scope-based take; so are various baby-focused retailers.
Kimberly-Clark (wood pulp) or DuPont (chemicals and polymers) are both infrastructure-based takes: diapers is just another way to appendix, sell something they produce at scale with relatively little differentiation. At this point, hopefully the Canvas has helped you sharpen and articulate your business’ focal points. What Activities and Resources are important but not aligned with what’s uniquely strategy for you? What’s outside of your business type? Could partners do some of those? Why?
Which? I recommend mapping Key Partners to Key Activities. If an activity is key, it’s still part of your business model. This is a way to denote which specific Partners are handling various Key Activities for you. You’ve worked to understand how your Key Activities drive your propositions and hence your revenue. How do they drive costs? Are those costs well aligned with the key Value Propositions? Are the costs more fixed or variable as you test different business models? Are they more linear with your scaling or more fixed? You’ll want to have these in write a summary of a article, mind as you tweak your model. For purposes of linking things together, I’d look at paper appendix, how your Key Activities drive your Cost Structure:
If there are major cost components that don’t map to a Key Activity, I’d take a closer look at those costs. Output : a list of Cost Structure elements with notes on their relationship to how to write, Key Activities. Congratulations- you have a working canvas! The section below offers a few analytical ideas and suggestions for next steps. Step 10 (of 10): Applications, Analysis Next Steps. The most core and obvious applications of the Canvas are to ask: Does it make sense? Could it be better? Does the rest of my team understand and agree? Have additional ideas?
(rinse and repeat at least quarterly) The canvas does a good job of helping you figure out your business, which is a good place to term, start. You also want to look at fashion, the competitive environment and think about if and paper appendix how you have/maintain a long term competitive advantage. For this, I like Michael Porter’s Five Forces framework (Wikipedia Page; see also Chapter 2 of ‘Starting a Tech Business‘). Try walking through the fashion research, Five Forces for paper your company and then bounce back to your canvas.
How does it all hang together? Every business is a work in progress (sorry, I try to avoid saying things like that but it seemed to fit here). How To A Summary Article! As you go through the canvas, you may encounter areas that give you trouble. Paper Appendix! The table below summarizes a few of the most common that I see in of building manager, my work as a mentor and paper coach: Want to make innovation an page for masters dissertation, everyday thing? Using the Google Doc’s/PowerPoint Template. If you’re not familiar with it, Google Doc’s is a web-based office suite, similar to MS Office. If you have a gmail account, you can access it (no guarantees- that was the case last time I checked).
Once you’re accessed the file, you can make make it your own by going to the File menu and either ‘Make a copy’, creating a copy in your own Google App’s domain or you can use the ‘Download as’ option to download it as PowerPoint (and a few other formats). Probably the most key thing here is that I set it up so you edit the list of Canvas items (Segments, Relationships, etc.) in appendix, the Slide Master. I know what you’re thinking- I hate those Master things and I never use them. Generally, neither do I. But in fashion, this case it’s a good way to achieve some rudimentary layering, allowing you to do show things on top of the Canvas without having to paper appendix, recopy all the elements. Essay Manager! You’ll see what I mean on the file.
The key thing is that to edit the list of appendix, Canvas items: Go to manifesto of the communist party thesis, the ‘View’ menu, then go to ‘Master’ and edit the first slide you see under the Layout label over on term, the left: Last note: The lines with multiple bends that you see are called a ‘Polyline’ in Google Doc’s. If you click the downward arrow on the line item in the menu bar, you’ll see it. What’s your experience with the Canvas? How have you used it? What worked? What didn’t? Please consider posting a comment! Good explanation of the essay, business model canvas. thanks. Thanks- I’m so glad you liked it!
nice presentation.I would like to implement that one. Hi Srikant- I’m so glad you liked it! More updates coming soon! This is awesome #128578; Hi Rajesh- thanks, I’m so glad you liked it! Great article Alex, very in depth, subject really really well covered. I’ll also recommend another tool for term you, it’s called BizCanvas App for research paper the ipad. Great content, Alex! Thank you so much for term appendix sharing all this. Hi Thiago- Thanks! And thanks so much for how to write of a leaving a comment!
Thanks Alex… this is term paper appendix a great exposition of manifesto of the communist thesis, how the business model canvas works. I’ve done a bit of work using the paper, canvas with several startups, one limitation I find though is that the east, competitive view is often either totally missing or is buried inside one of the paper, other boxes (implicit in Value Proposition, very often). This is why I do prefer the of the thesis, Lean Canvas with its emphasis on “Unfair Advantage” – one of the most difficult boxes to term, fill in for any business owner or entrepreneur, yet something that you need to force yourself to answer IMHO. What do you think? Which tool have you found more useful? Hi Herbert- Thanks and great question! I prefer (and generally recommend) penciling out competitive dynamics using Porter’s Five Forces. Write Of A Article! There’s material on that in my overall system, Venture Design:
One of the most common failure modes for good design is trying to do too many things in one place (and that certainly includes instruction and I’m always guarding myself on this!). While it’s not a bad idea to term appendix, keep an eye on james joyce ulysses, competitive advantage on term appendix, a canvas, I don’t think it’s a great idea because: a) there’s a lot to think about already w/ the standard Canvas and most Canvas’ I see still need lots more depth to be as functional/useful as they reasonably can be. b) competitive dynamics are a pretty big barrel of monkeys in and of themselves and really working through them requires more depth. A note on Porter’s Five Forces and the state of research, things: We all love fashion and Five Forces has fallen out of fashion, supposedly because it was all premised on long-term competitive advantage, which is something now rare in today’s operating environment. However, it wasn’t all premised on long-term competitive advantage and I think it remains a good, rigorous, yet highly accessible way to think through competitive dynamics. You also mentioned thinking about competitive via the Value Propositions. Paper Appendix! That is an excellent practice, in my opinion. In fact, when I work with students/advisees on their propositions, we usually structure them in paper, Problem Scenario-Alternative-Value Proposition trios. This framing captures relative preference and immediately frames the paper, VP in a testable hypothesis, which is:
My [segment/persona] has [x] problem scenarios which is important to them. …they currently use [y] alternative… …and if I could do [z] for fashion them, they would prefer that. (x == problem scenario; y == alternative; z == value proposition) This does a good job in the competition area of term, looking at of a article, preference and revenue drivers.
I think the overall view of competitive advantage is still important for looking at cost drivers and catalysts that are shaping the operating environment at large. I’ll close with this: Those are my thoughts but I’m sure whatever you’re doing is fine and term appendix better than 99% of the work that’s out manifesto thesis, there. Use of any kind of canvas helps avoid pointless over-planning and waste and term appendix I’m sure you’re doing a lot of good for the startup’s and businesses you’re helping. Thanks Alex… always great to how to of a article, hear how other people do it #128578; Agree with not doing too much at the same time, and also avoiding the pitfalls of over-analysis… strategies are only as good as the assumptions they’re based on and the only way to test these assumptions is to paper appendix, go roll out something quick and dirty and see what the uptake is like. Thanks for essay of building manager a very enjoyable article! #128578; awesome, very valuable and helpful explanation of how to implement the appendix, process of creating canvas.
Hi Mirna- you bet! Good luck with your canvas’ing! Thanks from Empor team (Portugal)! very helpful! You’re welcome! Thanks for manifesto of the communist thesis leaving a note!
Thank for your useful business model canvas. I really love it and now I start to appendix, work with them. Phanith- Thanks and good luck working with the Canvas! Please consider posting questions, observations here. Well done! I really appreciated this. Thanks for your work, Alex! Hi Sean- You bet!
Thanks for leaving a note! Thank you for the detailed breakdown of the canvas. I work with established companies who have lost their way and page dissertation think that this model is a good back to term paper appendix, basics. I find that for my purposes this fits better than Ash’s Lean Canvas model as that makes more sense if you are at start up phase. Hi Yohann- Great!
I’m so glad you found it helpful and happy hunting in your work with the manager, Canvas! Very informative article. Really liked the way you mapped the elements with each other, which further helped in term, better understanding of the concept. Also the way you extended the canvas template to manifesto thesis, Google doc, explaining each step is highly commendable. Paper! Thanks for the article and giving attention to each detail.
Hi Neeraj- Thanks! I’m so glad you liked it. I try to transition from explanations to examples to templates so readers can easily apply what they see. Hello everyone ! Thanks for the article. Could someone explain or provide link what to do after a business canvas. I have already prepared business model canvas but I do not know what to do next. Should I find investors or take a credit ? Should I write real business plan? Hi Aleks- You bet: I’m really glad you liked it and thanks for writing. (And sorry for manifesto communist party thesis the super slow response.) What a great question! I’ve supplied some answers here and I’m sure the other readers also have some great ideas.
I’m assuming this is a new business. Short answer: Find a customer that will pay you for the product or service. Make sure they love it. If they don’t love it, use what you’ve learned to revise and try again (aka ‘pivot’). Term Appendix! If they do love it, repeat with 10 more customers. If the page for masters, 10 love it, think about how to scale it and repeat with 100, then 1,000, etc.
Longer answer: Make sure you have a humanized view of who your customer is and what’s on paper appendix, their A-list (of things they care about). Think about ways to test whether your proposition is really better enough than the alternatives they have today to cause them to communist, buy it from you. Iterate until you think you have something compelling. Then (if it’s software/digital) encapsulate everything you want to build in testable narratives (user stories). Term Paper! Test the communist party thesis, execution early and often to term paper appendix, make sure it’s delivering what you intended. For more, see the Venture Design process: http://www.alexandercowan.com/venture-design/ Hi, Thanks for your great explanation of business model. Could you give some example of E successful business model? Hi Mohamad- I’m glad you liked it! Those examples are coming soon! I’ll also be including some notes on business model type within E businesses.
great awesome for me. Hi- I’m glad you liked it! Thanks so much Alex! Referenced this for an assignment and it was very helpful. Hi Cassidy- I’m glad you liked it! It would benefit if you gave some more examples from different branches (Norton Antivirus, Uber, AirBnB, Microsoft, VW etc…) of bigger firms to a summary of a article, get a better understanding. Hi Victor- I couldn’t agree more! Normally I try to have tutorials, specific examples, and templates for appendix everything I do. My primary interest in east essay thesis, in actual practice by learners (as opposed to theory, etc.). In this case, they’re done and in the process on getting on term paper, this tutorial.
They’ll be up by the end of cover, November at the latest. Term! Thanks for your comment- at that critical moment when I need to get to those examples, this will help remind me! Very helpful, Thanks a lot. Hi Sunil- You’re welcome! Thanks for writing! Thanks for sharing. I was wondering how can I put it in practice. I’m going to of the communist, follow the steps above and if I having doubts, allow me to bother you.
Hi Luciano- You bet! And thanks for term paper appendix writing. Essay Manager! I’m trying to term, stay more current on these. this is an communist party, excellent elaboration of business model canvas… helped me a lot…. Appendix! made it easier and faster… thanks a lot.. #128578; Thanks Alex, great discussion and thorough explanation. This was vital to completing my midterm and I hope to apply it to essay manager, my start up.
The only suggestion that I would make would be to throw in an example to work through, like a lemonade stand. Term Paper! Purely for east of eden thesis illustration, but I think it would make this a one-stop shop for many. -Jack. Thanks Very useful, Great article! It will be great if you can add some examples in the end. Hi Alex, Very useful information. Makes us visualize complete business plan in one glance. Great job. Probably if you could provide an online portal with assessment questioner in each of the area to identify the strong and weak points and collate together would be really useful and can make some commercial value to it. it’s a good explanation of a business model canvas. Thank you very much Alex!
This is great, it has been super useful to me. I’m taking parts of term, it to develope a tool for the design of manifesto of the communist party thesis, energy delivery models at the base of the pyramid (in developing countries). Do you mind? I work for a INGO. Would you want me to reference to term paper, you?
How? This page or a paper you published? Wow, Alex! This post is comprehensive. I’m super impressed. Thank you for essay of building taking the time to post this. I’ve been pushing my colleagues to ditch the term paper, Business Plan for a Business Model for how to article a while now. Term Appendix! I wrote a post on thesis, ‘3 reasons why you should ditch the business plan” as well — http://www.skipmba.com/3-reasons-shouldnt-write-business-plan/ . Your post will help my strengthen my argument.
Btw, what are your thoughts on the Ash’s Lean Canvas? Super cool, thanks for the writeup! Are you looking for restaurant ordering system to enhance your restaurant business. We provide ready solution for online food ordering system. So that you can increase your revenue. I really enjoyed the guidance!
My business canvas is perfected by just going through the guide. You are awesome Mr Alex! Thank you! This is so helpful thank you. Excellent explanation and thanks for sharing the template. Awesome stuff. Thanks a million!
I am pretty senior with the BMC and VPC models. Term Paper! I know how to page dissertation, setup the models, how to make all the considerations, etc. I always encounter a number of problems: 1. Appendix! How do I document and maintain a model. Dissertation! Strategyzer (or alternative tools) serve me and my team adequately but other stakeholders (e.g. sales and C-suite) typically want other views on the model (typically a Word document). 2. Paper Appendix! How do I share entities between models? A customer segment typically returns in multiple models. I do not want to keep all jobs, pain, gains, etc. in sync manually.
3. How do you document and track complex relationships in the model. East Of Eden Essay! Pains/Pain Relievers. Customer Segments/Value Propositions, Channels/Key Activities, etc., etc. Color coding or drawing loads of lines doesn’t work for paper appendix me. I am really hoping that you guys have some interesting approaches. THE VENTURE DESIGN PROCESS. Need to get buy-in from history paper, your colleagues on term paper appendix, the Canvas?
Get my free checklist on making the Canvas work in the corporation. Want to make innovation an everyday thing? Agile Development Specialization on Coursera. Copyright © 2016 Alex Cowan · All rights reserved.
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An A to Z of Theory | Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and Implosion. #8220;All cultural forms and media are being absorbed into advertising#8221; The model of the code does not represent a prior social reality. It creates a new social reality, which Baudrillard terms hyperreality . Hyperreality is a special kind of social reality in which a reality is created or simulated from models, or defined by reference to models – a reality generated from ideas. The term has implications of term paper, #8216;too much reality#8217; – everything being on the surface, without mystery; #8216;more real than reality#8217; – too perfect and schematic to east thesis be true, like special effects; and #8216;para-reality#8217;, an extra layer laid over, or instead of, reality. Term? It is experienced as more real than the real, because of its effect of breaking down the boundary between real and imaginary. It is a #8216;real#8217; without #8216;origin or reality#8217;, a reality to which we cannot connect. Hyperreality differs from other realities in that the division between reality and imaginary disappears.
Reality becomes a cybernetic game. Fashion History Paper? It is as if, at a certain point of time, we left reality behind, and never noticed until now. We can no longer tell the former reality from hyperreality, and we wouldn#8217;t know if reality returned. Baudrillard does not suggest when this loss of reality happened, but it can be deduced from his work fairly easily. The final loss of meaning happened at some point after the 1960s. Baudrillard sees figures such as J.F.K. and Marilyn Monroe as still having symbolic force. One might tentatively situate the transition in 1973 or 1979 – at the point where neoliberalism takes root.
Hyperreality corresponds to term appendix the disappearance of intensity. James Ulysses Essay? It becomes something “ cool ” stripped of intense affective energies and the power of the term appendix symbolic and of fantasy. For instance, the “hot” commitment to labour is replaced by the “cool” execution of tasks. Research Paper? The “hot” art and film of historical investment is replaced by the “cool” functional or machinational pleasure of perfectly simulated fiction. Baudrillard is often misunderstood. He does not use the term “cool” in the sense of fashionable or enjoyable.
He is referring to the loss of heat. Heat is here a metaphor for intensity, enjoyment (as opposed to pleasure), and emotional investment. To be “cool” is to be apathetic, disillusioned, uncommitted. In hyperreality, simulators seek to make all of reality coincide with their models of simulation. Term Paper Appendix? The result is that #8216;the real is no longer real#8217;.
For instance, production is now primarily virtual – the unreal circulation of values. Of Building? Cinema is getting closer to an absolute reality in paper appendix, all its naked obviousness. Functional arrangements seek to ulysses essay create the greatest correspondence possible between the object and term paper appendix, its function. Baudrillard terms such changes as expressions of an east essay thesis, attitude to signs which is naive and paranoid, puritan and terrorist. Its destruction of the paper gap between signs and of building, their referents creates immense social effects. For instance, one#8217;s experience of time collapses without accumulation and a referent. Time is increasingly experienced as an eternal present without end, rather than as a linear sequence. Hyperreality is for Baudrillard simply one of a number of related cases of excessive or simulated forms. Today#8217;s regime is based on the compulsory sharing of meaning and of the real. This occurs instead of the sharing of secrets in appendix, a band, or of simulacra in sovereignty.
It is because the importance of manifesto party thesis, simulation is denied that things seem over-present and obscene. All spheres tend to converge on the model of fashion, the commutation of signs. Baudrillard sees fashion as the absorption of past signs the same way machines absorb past labour. Consumption of fashion actually draws on the endless revival of past cultural forms as empty signs. Fashion simulates the innocence of becoming and the cyclical process of exchange.
There is fashion wherever forms are reproduced from paper appendix models, and not through their own determinations. The light play of fashion replaces the heavy meanings of production. Although this is essay of building part of the system#8217;s internal change, it is also subversive of the system. The free play of fashion renders all signs relative, rendering power arbitrary. Baudrillard thinks the left has become moralistic in term paper appendix, its attacks on fashion as insubstantial. Instead, we should deconstruct the form of fashion and east of eden essay, of the code. Fashion is more beautiful than the beautiful, as the model is truer than the term true.
As a result, they are fascinating. They give rise to a particular ecstatic experience arising from their excess. This experience comes from the collapse of the categorical distinctions, and bears a remnant of of a article, return to symbolic exchange. The experience, which is almost vertigo, #8216;today tends to become our only passion#8217;. Or rather, it replaces passion, being counterposed to passionate investments in the scene. It is the experience that arises when a body #8216;spins until all sense is lost, and appendix, then shines forth in its pure and empty form#8217;. It almost disappears, but remains fascinating.
Such fascinating images deter the true, the real, and so on by getting too close to them. In this way, they put an end to the social. How To Write A Summary? Information in term, the age of the Internet is ecstatic because there is too much of it. Fascination exists in a field of how to a summary article, non-contradiction, of entities beyond binaries. It happens, for instance, when the true is invested with the power of the false, the beautiful with the ugly, or the real with the unreal. It consists of a kind of contemplation of what exists. Paper? It carries a symbolic energy, opening into the field of symbolic exchange.
It escapes from the research paper ultimatum of meaning. Term Paper Appendix? The visible fades into these kinds of ecstatic forms, becoming the history research #8216; obscene #8216; – what is more visible than the visible. War becomes ecstatic in the nuclear form. With no proportionality between means to appendix annihilate and goals of war, waging war becomes pointless. The social becomes ecstatic in the masses, the political (or violence) becomes ecstatic in terrorism.
Objects become obscene as #8216;light#8217; commodities in circulation. Money becomes obscene in of eden essay, gambling (and capital speculation?). Things take up too much room. They have too much meaning to be meaningful, as if they mean everything and therefore nothing. This is distinct from classical obscenity, which is an irruption of the repressed.
Today#8217;s obscenities are surfaces with no secret beneath them. They are abjectly visible, but mean nothing at all. For something to be meaningful, it needs a scene. All cultural forms and media are being absorbed into advertising. By this, Baudrillard means the #8216;zero degree#8217; of meaning, the appendix triumph of form over substance, a #8216;simplified operational mode#8217;, a seductive and pseudo-consensual presentation. Things are presented in such a way that the surface effaces and covers up any possible depth.
Political soundbites, tabloid news, the cult of #8216;methods#8217; would be variants of this new reality. Of course, the effect of this is a loss or entropy of meaning. Manifesto Communist Party? Advertising destroys intensities and term paper appendix, accelerates inertia. And it is itself threatened. Computer code simplifies even further than advertising.
It is putting an end to the power of essay of building manager, advertising. In an term paper appendix, earlier work, Baudrillard emphasised that advertising actually promotes the entire social system, far more than the specific product it is cover for masters dissertation meant to sell. It exists more as a way of signifying a way of life than an economic practice. Hence, across a range of fields, the basic form is replaced by an ecstatic or excessive form – the real by the hyperreal, aesthetics by fashion, the scene by the obscene. This happens because of the loss of referents in the various fields. For instance, the loss of paper appendix, social transcendence – law, scene, stakes – is manager what renders the social ecstatic and obscene, or over-present.
Ecstasy is term appendix a #8216;cool#8217; or #8216;cold#8217; passion. It relies on the non-existence, or affective non-investment, of what is consumed. A #8216;hot#8217; passion, for instance, consists of how to a summary article, really believing money has value, or really believing in paper appendix, the law, even if one breaks it. A #8216;cool#8217; passion instead depends on the secret of the nonexistence of what is contemplated. Cover Page Dissertation? The ecstatic also becomes a metastasis – it cross-contaminates between social fields. Baudrillard#8217;s account of paper appendix, a functionally-obsessed code does not conclude with a smoothly functioning totality.
The system which results depends on the constant maintenance of a regime of control. Ulysses? Such a system is very unstable, open to collapsing at the slightest rupture. For instance, systems of power depend on a master-signifier, which is ultimately arbitrary and contingent. (There is no longer a master-signifier of the term entire system, but agencies such as states and companies still have leaders for example). When it is how to obvious that it is arbitrary and contingent, power is unpinned from its apparent obviousness. It comes to paper seem purely arbitrary, and this interferes with its functioning. When power occupies the essay manager empty place of power, it comes to seem obscene, impure and ridiculous, and eventually collapses. Baudrillard refers to this instability as implosion . This means that he sees the system collapsing from paper appendix within. Of Building? The system is no longer expanding – hence the turn to deterrence instead of war. It is in #8216;involution#8217; – collapsing in upon itself. Appendix? For Baudrillard, the system has reached its culmination.
It is accelerating towards its limit, which today is expressed as implosion (rather than explosion or revolution). The growing density of simulations is destroying it. Of Building Manager? Implosion is swallowing all the energy of the appendix real. Implosion is similar to the idea of #8216;internal contradictions#8217; in joyce ulysses, Marxism. It refers to a tendency to appendix collapse arising from the system#8217;s own dynamics. Implosion arises from the destruction of meaning and the reality-effect due to manifesto communist party thesis the precession of simulacra. The problem for the system is that signs need a separate reality in term appendix, order to refer to something, and hence to function as signs. Joyce Ulysses Essay? In the paper current regime of simulation, social realities are generated from of eden essay thesis signs and models which precede them. The model produces the “real”, the medium, and the message all at once. Reality separate from the regime is either destroyed, denied, or incorporated.
As a result, the signs stop referring to term anything. At the same time, therefore, a total system of of the party, meaning is created, and its meaningfulness is destroyed. All signs or referentials are combined in paper appendix, a vicious circle or Moebius strip. Truth, equivalences, rational distinctions break down. Without a clear outside or referent, the reality-effect breaks down. Without a focus of how to write a summary article, intensity, meaning breaks down. Meaning can no longer be pinned-down in particular places. It circulates at increased speed, without any referent or guarantee. For instance, economic growth is increasingly unstable. Economic bubbles form and burst, commodities (such as Internet companies or real-estate) are immensely valued and then collapse, emerging “tigers” from Korea to appendix Ireland to Mexico suffer sharp collapses.
Baudrillard sees the same thing happening with everything from fashion to art to politics. The problem is structural. Once the system reaches saturation, it starts to fall in on itself, like a black hole. Saturation leads to inertia. For Baudrillard, global cities have already become black holes, eating up past social phenomena and meanings.
They are entirely functional zones, arranged around sites such as hypermarkets (massive supermarkets), shopping centres and transport networks. The system is based on dissertation, functionality. Yet in hypermarkets and modern universities, functions seem to become indeterminate – hence cities seem to disintegrate. This is because they have lost their distinct purposes or use-values. They become polyfunctional black-boxes with different input-output combinations. Usefulness is itself an ideology, which relies on the simulation of shortage or the creation of term paper, artificial scarcity. It is actually a moral convention, not a fact of nature.
Today, supermarkets are also insurance companies, banks, pharmacists, government information dispensers, home-delivery services; today#8217;s universities are also corporate research subcontractors, vocational trainers, immigration monitors, producers of brand-name merchandise, profiteers on debts, affiliates of regional development councils, housing providers, monitors of student dissent#8230; This kind of hyper-functionalism renders them almost functionless – they can no longer be defined by a particular core function. They become a means without end. An operationalism without specific functions. All the different functions become simultaneous, without past, future or distinction. All mental, temporal, spatial and signalled coordinates become interchangeable in the simulated world. Hence, institutions cease to be related to specific functions, and cease to be believable as guarantors of manager, meaning. This has social effects.
Power has ceased to believe in the university. Degrees no longer have the value they once did. Like work, they persist on the basis of a dead referential, as a simulation. The real function of these functionless institutions is deterrence (see below). Their hyperreality, their simulation of functions, neutralises the surrounding territory.
People won#8217;t notice the absence of paper appendix, education when there#8217;s a “world-class” university next-door. And if they do, they won#8217;t feel they can compete with such a monolith. There are, of course, exceptions, but on the whole, such simulations shut down social life. For Baudrillard, the system is haunted by a constant sense of crisis. Fashion Research Paper? And this crisis is not simply a limit. It is ever-present. Term Appendix? The system constantly presents its own crisis as spectacle.
It juxtaposes its ideal (the advert) to its crisis (news, disaster movies, crime dramas, action films). But it is distributed in #8216;homeopathic doses#8217; – in tiny amounts absorbed in cover page dissertation, other things. Hence, it doesn#8217;t explode. Term? It is constantly drip-fed to us instead. The world becomes non-representational through lack of a summary article, signs. Appendix? After meaning, we are left with manipulation, touch, circulation, ventilation. It becomes a world of panic. Explosions are foreseen and for masters dissertation, foreclosed. But implosion, the death of the cybernetic combinatory world, is a constant threat.
Some social institutions collapse more quickly than others. Law is in crisis because it is appendix a power of the second order. It is undermined by parody, which makes submission and transgression equivalent. Indeed, the essay social order prefers to opt for the real, taking simulations for reality. Power is disempowered by the slippage of significations and the lack of referentiality. It is turned into term appendix an empty simulation of power.
It is at james joyce ulysses essay, risk of collapse from being dissolved in the play of signs. At one point Baudrillard argues that power no longer produces anything but the signs of paper, its resemblance, the appearance of power. (Real power, perhaps, requires a symbolic aspect). This crisis of of eden essay, law is the condition for a particular transition. Law is replaced by the norm. Term? Rather than explosions which escape the law, the present period deals with deviance as anomalies which deviate from the average. People are now anonymous, subject to an anonymous terror. History Research? People can be exterminated, not to achieve their death, but because they are statistically indifferent. Power tries to defend itself against the collapse of meaning by reinjecting the real and the referential everywhere.
It tries to convince people that the social world is still objectively real. It prefers to refer to crisis, or even to desire, than to admit its own collapse. Historically, it combated threats from the real by recuperating them in equivalent signs. Now, it combats the threat from paper appendix simulation by east of eden thesis, playing at crisis. It embraces theories of ideology, and paper appendix, even radical critiques, as ways to write article maintain the appearance of truth. The responsible subject is in term, a similar situation of james joyce, crisis. The system rests on responsibility. But in paper appendix, a system based on bureaucratic programming, irresponsible actors are required – figures like Eichmann who simply obey orders or perform functions. The system is left constantly trying to exhort people to be responsible subjects while producing them as simple conductors of social power. Subjects are put into drift, into something like a constant unconscious state.
Without fixed relations, everything turns into flows of transference. The replacement of meaning with functions makes people expect everything to work all the time. A few seconds#8217; delay in a webpage loading becomes an james joyce, inexplicable source of immense frustration. Term Paper Appendix? Causes have disappeared, but effects have become immense – as when a local disaster causes a global shutdown. And with the responsible subject no longer there (because it is an effect of the of a old subject-object split), people try desperately to impute responsibility.
The excessive reservoir of #8216;floating responsibility#8217; through finding scapegoats or guilty parties is just waiting to be invested in term, any particular incident. The Katrina or Christchurch disasters get projected onto looters; Chilean forest fires are targeted as #8216;terrorism#8217;; social insecurity is projected onto Muslims, immigrants, minorities. Social problems of increasing triviality are subjected to immense crackdowns and moral panics. Write A Summary Article? In a wave of paper appendix, disproportion, mitigation and even innocence are cast aside in the search for someone to blame. Meanwhile, people are repeatedly subject to cover page for masters dissertation tirades to #8216;take responsibility#8217; for problems (from unemployment to term alcoholism to post-traumatic stress) which the experts know very well are not really self-caused. We are subject to a blackmail by cover page dissertation, identity, condemned for what we are labelled as in the code, not for what we are. For Baudrillard, this is a consequence of the disappearance of causes and the power of effects. It reflects something deeper: the world is held collectively responsible for the system. If the term paper system is infringed, the world will have to be destroyed. Or rather, we are #8216;psychologically programmed to destroy ourselves#8217; if the system collapses.
We could think of this as the code blackmailing reality. Though the code is tautological and does not depend on reality, it holds reality responsible for itself, and punishes reality if it collapses or crashes. This generalisation of responsibility can be traced back to the loss of symbolic exchange. Generalised, unlimited responsibility occurs because nothing is exchanged anymore, the terms of exchange are simply exchanged among themselves. The system produces nothing but vertigo and fascination. Generalised responsibility becomes the same as generalised irresponsibility and fashion research, the collapse of social relations. Values such as responsibility, justice and violence continue to circulate only appendix as simulations imposed by the state. This in turn is fatal for the #8216;scene#8217; of politics. On a similar note, there is an ideology of exhuming, documenting, rediscovering the real – from reality TV to the preservation of historical artefacts and indigenous groups – which according to Baudrillard, simply reinforces the process of killing and then simulating. Cover Page For Masters Dissertation? What is preserved is never what it would have been without intervention.
We constantly recreate and relive bits of the past and present which are now simulated. The real has become our utopia, that we dream of as if of a lost object. An entire culture now labours at counterfeiting itself. This only exacerbates the problems. Appendix? Inertia gets worse and worse as simulations of past forms, frozen in time, proliferate and overgrow their uses. Research Paper? Production and term paper, meaning are replaced by simulation and fascination. The content – information, culture, commodities – is joyce ulysses now simply the support for the operation of the term code, the medium.
The function of the code is simply to reproduce the masses. Information devours its own contents by turning the real into the hyperreal. The media has a special place in the implosion of meaning. In particular, it creates a pressure of excessive information. According to an online saying, “getting information from the Internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant”. For Baudrillard, this leads to the destructuring of the social. Social life undergoes entropy. It implodes.
Baudrillard also portrays the media as performing certain functions. It juxtaposes disaster and disorder, shown in the news and in most TV shows (from action films and crime dramas to documentaries and police-camera reality-shows), to the system#8217;s ideal of order, shown in of eden, the adverts in between. Appendix? This order is portrayed as natural wellbeing, but is really a new regime of constraint in consumption. The media also injects people with a vaccine of unthreatening, mediated violence which keeps fatality at bay by displaying its signs. This vaccine covers up the actual fragility of consumerism. It restores grandeur and sublimity to the everyday by manifesto party thesis, making it seem under threat. At the same time, the media encourages a sense of security. Even when it presents violence or disaster, the term fact of not #8216;being there#8217; while watching it makes it reinforce security. Through the media, we never reach the real event, but only its informational stand-in, which is open to endless interpretation. Essay Of Building Manager? It is above all the term appendix form of the media, not the specific content, which has an ideological effect.
The media#8217;s specific informational content is subordinate to the function of producing consensus by essay manager, deterring thought. Knowledge of the event as an aspect of term, life is prevented, creating an atmosphere of stupidity. Consensus functions by the exclusion of more radical others, and the mobilisation of resources to destroy them. It is achieved by powerlessness. The personal response, and responsiveness, is not possible in mass media. Disasters past and present are neutralised in joyce ulysses essay, a simple emotional response. Events like Live Aid involve viewers enjoying the spectacle of their own compassion. Appendix? News programmes treat all spectacles as interchangeable, reducing everything to spectacle. As a result, the media mainly talks about itself. The real function of the media is to transmit the general outlook of reducing everything to signs. Media technologies subtly alter how viewers and readers think.
Viewers have to unconsciously decode stories, and as a result, internalise the code. Behind the essay shifting images lies a conception of a world which can be seen, divided into term paper appendix segments, and read in signs. Increasingly, only for masters dissertation what can be read is allowed to exist. The differences between news and adverts are also significant: whereas adverts are cheery and encourage engagement, news encourages lack of concern through a blank, neutral tone. An ideological code of mass culture is created through the mass media#8217;s formal homogeneity, and through technical processes such as articulation and segmentation. Mass culture, according to Baudrillard, is appendix a set of ritualised signs of culture, with no actual content.
For example, he refers to the isolated knowledge and trivia of quiz shows. Culture is reduced to the lowest common denominator of right answers. History Research? Speed of reaction-time and trial-and-error replace intellectual questioning of the answers. The form of the question-answer or stimulus-response pairing is reproduced across capitalist culture. Participation in a liturgy or ritual is all that remains of collective participation, and paper, it would be undermined by symbolic processes. People affiliate to cover for masters groups by reproducing their signs.
This occurs both with specific groups, such as Guardian- or Sun-readers, and across the entire culture. It creates a kind of magical communion of the mass through electronic mass media. People are “retribalised” through a simulated totality, arising from signs which demand cultural complicity instead of conveying a meaning-content. Language becomes a fetish by being used mainly for ingroup collusion. What are the social effects of paper appendix, all these changes? The main function of the changes is to actualise and preserve the system. Ultimately, the system seeks only to preserve itself.
The ultimate end of politics, concealed by democratic discourse, is to essay thesis maintain control of the population by any means necessary, including terror. The system is a kind of violence without consequences. It constantly dominates through deterrence, without this gesture being returned or reversed. It is sustained by fascination for the system#8217;s operations. And its effects on the everyday? The social is appendix now a special effect.
The appearance of networks converging on an empty site of collective happiness produces the essay of building manager special effect. Consumption now functions like labour. It is a kind of work, which gives the system sign-value. We have lost the social, the real, and power. Term? We don#8217;t know how to mourn them. We become fascinated by the real as a lost object. Melancholy (depression) becomes the dominant tone of social life. It is a brutal disaffection arising from generalised simulation and the loss of intensity and meaning. The system seems too strong to be checked.
People become fascinated at what is happening to signs and to reality. James Essay? The lines between categories become vague and categories begin to term paper appendix disappear, or become poorly defined or all-encompassing. Fashion Paper? The lack of term paper, differentiation – the collapse of the segmenting categories – brings us back to manifesto communist a terrifying, undivided nature. Interstitial space – the space between things – disappears. We are overwhelmed by the over-proximity of all things, like in the Lacanian view of psychosis. Term? It#8217;s not so much that reality doesn#8217;t exist, as that it is of the party inaccessible from within a regime of simulation. Transparency has the effect of curtailing intensity. Social life falls into a stupor or inertia, #8216;deterred#8217; by the code and by its own transparency. Today, illusion no longer counts.
Survival depends on the real, the object. This has negative effects. Objectivity is the opposite of fatality, and is always subject to law. This is another way of saying that we are lacking the symbolic dimension. This lack resounds throughout various fields, putting an end to values. The autonomy of the term paper system of signs puts an end to the regime of signs, of representation, and of production. Aesthetics are destroyed by the cold, systematic reproduction of functional objects, including objects signifying beauty. Signs become socially mobile, as in the phenomena of party thesis, kitsch and term paper, cliche.
All the humanist criteria of value – from fashion history research paper morality to truth to aesthetics – disappear, because the code rests on indifference and neutralisation. Capitalism almost becomes a parody of itself. The situation of indistinction which reason and science have historically struggled against is now coming into existence, because of hyperreality – because a lot of paper, what exists is neither objectively true nor subjectively imagined. Panic tends to arise because of the functioning of value separately from its referential contents. We are living through a collapse of of building, meaning. [Part Ten will be published next week. Click here for term paper appendix other essays in this series.] Sep 7, 2012 12:00. This is the latest column I can see, have more recent ones been posted yet? Sep 8, 2012 21:06. Hi Nick, there#8217;s been two more instalments. Please search for #8216;Baudrillard#8217; from the homepage or look under the #8216;In Theory#8217; column archive. H. Sep 9, 2012 20:09.
[#8230;] zeker ook: Andrew Robinson, Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and Implosion, Ceasefire Magazine, augustus, 2012 Share this:FacebookTwitterE-mailadd thisRedditStumbleUponDiggVind ik leuk:LikeBe the first to like [#8230;] Mar 6, 2013 11:55. [#8230;] this essay on Baudrillard, which I found intersting and it got me thinking about how we protray/interpet everyday things. Are [#8230;] Sep 21, 2013 21:22. That#8217;s a very funny parody of postmodernism. Jan 3, 2014 23:09. Mar 23, 2014 9:55. Cover Page For Masters Dissertation? [#8230;] Hyperreality affects us all. We’re increasingly lost in its mesh of simulation.
Yet we’re blind to it because we are blinded by it. As Andrew Robinson puts it in his mesmerizing article in Ceasefire Magazine: [#8230;] Sep 18, 2014 16:52. [#8230;] Hyperreality: Relating to appendix a state of east thesis, reality that exists on the borderline between the real and the non-real, between consensus and term appendix, the virtual. https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-baudrillard-9/ [#8230;] Sep 28, 2014 1:49. [#8230;] powerful addition to social media bad for our mental health – perhaps for some? Are we living in Baudrillard’s hyperreality – how would we [#8230;] Dec 19, 2014 10:42. [#8230;] over was initialised by a reach for my phone to flick through the strange and surreal versions of (hyper)reality I routinely gorge myself on in an effort to feel connected and important. My feed included a photo [#8230;] May 12, 2015 15:13. [#8230;] it seems that Baudrillard#8217;s theory of manager, hyperrealism fits perfectly with what Lou experiences on paper, the set of the TV station. And this gets me to thinking [#8230;] Jun 14, 2015 10:29. [#8230;] Entropy may also be defined as ‘useless information’ – which is to say, information that tells us nothing new, nothing that hasn’t been said before a million billion times, nothing useful or usable.
Useless information is redundancy, it is a kind of background hum of recycled or repeated information that might – if you were slap-dash enough in your outlook – appear to be something new, something useful, something interesting. East Of Eden? As it happens, the major part of paper, our culture is made up of this sort of endlessly recycled and very superficially revamped information. This is what Jean Baudrillard speaks of of eden thesis, as the Realm of the Hyperreal – the world which ‘feeds off itself’, the world which is made up of references to some idea or theory we have of it. According to Andrew Robinson: [#8230;] Oct 21, 2015 15:53. [#8230;] of artworks, but fundamentally serving only their own commerce; mere #8216;simulacra#8217; in Baudrillard#8217;s term. Paper? One starts to question as Umberto Eco does, whether American culture itself is losing its [#8230;] Nov 11, 2015 0:51. [#8230;] the Internet the Hyperreal? Or is it the Library of Babel! Don#8217;t forget about your final presentations Magic [#8230;] Dec 10, 2015 7:06. Dec 16, 2015 12:13. Fashion Research? [#8230;] horse altogether. Who needs a horse? We are ‘promoting the hyperreal over the real’ because the hyperreal has become the new real.
The hyperreal always becomes ‘the new real’ – that’s the whole [#8230;] Feb 14, 2016 19:17. [#8230;] one is a distorted view of reality. There view of the appendix world is skewed and not realistic anymore. A hyperreality exists. Video games in particular contributed to this phenomenon. An example would be Daniel [#8230;] Mar 30, 2016 16:34. [#8230;] more open to cliche and superficial romanticism. Curtis has managed to create this British hyperreality in which Curtis#8217; construct of romance is then believed to be the actual reality, and in turn [#8230;] May 2, 2016 19:41. Jun 13, 2016 3:48. [#8230;] Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and Implosion | Ceasefire #8230; – All is not well in the world of the capitalist code. In the latest essay of manager, his series on Jean Baudrillard, Andrew Robinson explores the French thinker#8217;s account of #8230; [#8230;] Aug 15, 2016 16:26. [#8230;] in order to inject certain universal truths about the nature of man and media. Term Appendix? In an article forCeasefire magazine, Andrew Robinson deconstructs Jean Baudrillard‘s hyper-reality.
A concept prominently observed [#8230;] Sep 7, 2016 22:25. [#8230;] An A to Z of Theory | Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and Implosion [#8230;] Nov 30, 2016 21:44. [#8230;] (Accessed: 2016). Robinson, A. Fashion History? (2012) Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and paper appendix, Implosion. Essay Of Building? Available at: https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-baudrillard-9/ (Accessed: [#8230;] Dec 16, 2016 9:46. Jan 8, 2017 18:12. [#8230;] and conditions our perception of the world. As political theorist Andrew Robinson comments in his definition of hyperreality: “It is as if, at a certain point of time, we left reality behind, and never noticed until now. [#8230;] Jan 20, 2017 21:01. Mar 3, 2017 14:28. Mar 5, 2017 20:57. [#8230;] are now simulated. The real has become our utopia, that we dream of as if of a lost object”. https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-baudrillard-9/.
He powerfully implies that much of what we show is a myth built on a [#8230;] Mar 20, 2017 3:17. [#8230;] a physical scale, Robinson states that tangible mediums such as supermarkets no longer have a #8216;core function#8217; [#8230;] [#8230;] Baudrillard, J 2012, #8216;An A to Z of Theory: Jean Baudrillard: Hyperreality and Implosion#8217;, CeaseFire, 10 August, viewed 30th March 2017, https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-baudrillard-9/ [#8230;] May 11, 2017 23:14. May 17, 2017 14:16. [#8230;] has seen the notion of term paper, global, third-space networking and communications become a reality, or Baudrillardian hyper-reality, as it were. Here we find some of the central elements of a culture in and of itself: a centralised [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017. All Rights Reserved. Sign up for manifesto communist party entries RSS and for the comments RSS.
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colorado essay Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the term paper appendix, “Brain Reward System” in Substance Abuse. How does experimental use of substances of abuse lead to cover drug addiction in term appendix, some individuals? How do these drugs cause intoxication? Part of the answer lies in manifesto thesis, a common reinforcement pathway in the human brain which drugs of appendix, abuse stimulate, potentially leading to addiction (1,2,3,4,7).
This reinforcement pathway, which is composed of both central nervous system structures and endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the “reward pathway”(1). The reward pathway evolved to promote activities that are essential to the survival of the human race as well as other mammals. One may compare the mechanism of drugs of abuse with that of viruses. Viruses and drugs of abuse are both foreign to humans. Viruses enter an animal’s cells and how to write article use the term paper appendix, pre-existing cell “machinery” to synthesize more viruses, thus promoting their own survival. As the viruses infect more and more cells, the organism may become ill. Illicit drugs can take advantage of an cover page organism in a similar fashion. Just as viruses take over term paper appendix, cell function throughout the body, drugs of abuse modify cell function in these important brain structures leading to modifications in behavior. These drugs enter the human brain and use its own “machinery” (the reward pathway) to promote continued use.
Just as the dissertation, cell’s survival is appendix, dependent on its “machinery” so is the survival of the organism dependent on an intact brain reward pathway. Drugs of abuse, although harmful to the organism, are able to capture this “machinery “ in some individuals driving further drug use. Depending on our own characteristics (our inherited neurochemical make-up etc.) we may be more susceptible to the illness of write a summary, drug addiction just as certain people are more susceptible to infection. Certain pathogens are ubiquitous or occur so frequently that almost all of us are exposed to them. Those who have inherited genetic immunodeficiencies fall prey to these pathogens more than the general population. Similarly, individuals who have a genetic predisposition, may be more vulnerable to addiction after exposure to the drug. As noted earlier, substances of paper appendix, abuse affect the page, brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. This release leads to subjective feelings of paper appendix, well being (1,2). This brain reward system evolved to subserve activities essential to species survival, such as sexual activity and feeding behaviors.
Activities that activate this pathway become associated with ‘feeling good’ (1,2). For example, sexual intercourse causes release of chemicals activating this pathway, and the result is a feeling of well being. Joyce Ulysses Essay! Thus, the reward pathway serves to promote survival of the paper, species by rewarding behaviors necessary for continued survival (seeking food, reproduction, shelter, drink, etc). Drugs of abuse stimulate this “brain reward” pathway in a similar fashion, and this is why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or “high” when they use them (1,2). When drugs of essay, abuse are repeatedly used, they may “commandeer” the brain reward system, driving compulsory drug use to paper appendix the exclusion of other adaptive activities. Thus, “addiction” can be partially explained by the action of joyce ulysses, drugs of abuse on this common reward pathway, in which drug use stimulates further use and drug seeking behavior (1,2,3,4).
In the following paragraphs, the basic anatomy of the reward pathway and brain structures that interact with this pathway will be discussed. Next, the molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. After laying the foundation of the paper, anatomy and physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of drugs of abuse will be examined. Finally, with this understanding, we may examine treatments aimed at modulating this important pathway. II. The Structures of the Reward Pathway: The basic anatomy of the reward pathway will be described below. However, it must be remembered that the anatomical structures involved have complex interrelationships, and are modulated by other parts of the brain and other neurochemicals.
Many of the how to write of a article, factors influencing brain reward may not be known or have not been well established. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the term appendix, most well established structures and pathways involved. With this overview we may develop a basic understanding that anatomical structures have evolved to promote the survival of the organism and how drugs of abuse stimulate and “commandeer” these structures. Core Structures of the Reward System. The core structures of the a summary of a, brain reward pathway is located in the limbic system, a set of primitive structures in paper appendix, the human brain (1,2,3,7,9). East Of Eden Essay Thesis! Conceptually, the function of the limbic system is to term paper monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion. Joyce Essay! It also drives important aspects of sexual behavior, motivation, and feeding behaviors (9).
The primary nuclei (or parts) of the limbic system include the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and anterior cingulate gyrus (9). Also important in the function of the limbic system is the term paper, limbic striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and the putamen (9). The nucleus accumbens (NA) has been implicated as an especially important structure of the brain reward pathway because drugs of abuse target it. (1,2,3,5,7). Other structures important in brain reward include the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (1,2,3). The majority of this paper will concentrate on the NA and the VTA. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well.
The endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems interact via the hypothalamus, an integral part of the limbic system, and the pituitary (1). These structures modulate the essay of building, reward pathway. The hypothalamus is involved in every aspect of endocrine, visceral, and autonomic functions, and it is able to paper appendix influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). A Summary Of A Article! Environmental stimuli may affect brain reward via this neuroendocrine axis. Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. The link between the brain reward system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into paper the nucleus accumbens (part of the brain’s reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress. Electrical self-stimulation experiments are designed in animal models such that electrodes are placed in various brain structure regions thought to be involved in brain reward (2). The animal then performs an activity (i.e. presses a lever) which leads to stimulation of the electrode and essay the neuronal structure. If the term, electrode is james, placed in a structure in the reward pathway, the resulting stimulation is pleasurable and term appendix self-stimulation is therefore encouraged. In models of addiction hungry animals will demonstrate a preference for self-stimulation over food and drink to of eden thesis the point of paper appendix, starvation (2). This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and become even more rewarding than the behaviors it evolved to subserve.
Other techniques allow the essay manager, animal to press a lever and the drug is term, injected into specific areas of the brain as illustrated below. If the point of joyce ulysses essay, injection is not within the brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. Experimental Self-Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. Core Structures of the Reward System. As discussed before the reward pathway, located in the limbic system, is primarily made up of core structures that are connected by the median forebrain bundle (MFB): the term paper appendix, nucleus accumbens (NA) , the ventral tegmental area (VTA) , the manifesto of the communist party, ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the amygdala (1,2,3,7). The NA and the VTA are the most frequently implicated structures in the literature on drug reward.
The MFB is composed of nerves that connect the septum, amygdala, the NA and the olfactory tubercle with the hypothalamus and the VTA (1,9). In other words, the MFB is like a power line of neurons connecting the structures of the reward pathway with other brain structures. Experiments demonstrate that when this “power line” is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. Thus, an intact MFB appears to be necessary for the “brain reward” system to paper appendix function properly. Below are slides that show the fashion research, anatomy of neurons and term paper appendix the electrical activity that occurs between them. NEURON AND NEURON FUNCTION. ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN TWO NEURONS. Dopaminergic neurons making up the MFB or “power line” of the of building, brain reward system run from the VTA to other structures involved in brain reward. The neurotransmitter they release is term, called dopamine. One can think of this as the “current”, or energy of the brain reward system (1,2,3).
2.2 Communicating Brain Structures. The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to history paper and receives input from many other brain structures: the paper, reticular activating system (RAS), the central gray around the aqueduct of Sylvius, limbic regions, and the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Located in the brain stem, the east thesis, RAS controls attention and arousal to various sensory inputs from our environment. Limbic regions such as the amygdala, the term appendix, septum and fashion history paper the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and emotional variables. Appendix! Next, the reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. These interactions between the reward pathway and other regions of the brain are complex (1). The hypothalamus, control center of the autonomic nervous system, serves as a major integrative circuit between the nervous and endocrine systems (1,2).
The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. Manager! To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Thus, the hypothalamus is the command center interconnecting the reward pathway with the body and environmental stimuli. These stimuli are analogous to a complex array of music each a melody of summation in the form of term paper, endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and write a summary of a neurotransmitters are deciphered and directed by the hypothalamus. This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Why do recovered substance users relapse when their lives get stressful? The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and interaction of environmental stimuli on it. Links between the hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. For example, the linkage between environmental and increased drug use is most likely mediated by the hypothalamus. Stress increases the self-administration of drugs of abuse, and co-administration of pituitary hormones alter self-administration in animal experiments. These experiments further support the view that environmental factors have a large influence on drug use and relapse (1,2).
III. Genetic and Biological evidence for a Common Reward Pathway. 3.1 Evolution of the Pathway. As noted earlier, the intrinsic purpose of an endogenous reward center is to reinforce behaviors that promote the term appendix, survival of essay of building manager, a species. When drugs of abuse (DOA) stimulate this center, drug-seeking behavior is term, also promoted. 3.2 Genetics and Population Studies. Why do studies show that many individuals experiment with DOA but only some become addicted? Genetic studies in both animals and humans have contributed to our ability to answer this question. Genetic studies on how to a summary animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents.
After 20 generations of mating a strain is created that is, for all practical purposes, genetically identical (1). The next step is to look at differences in response to appendix DOA through experimentation on different rodent strains. In selective breeding, a desirable trait is chosen. For example, researchers may breed for a high response to EtOH. Rodents who have the desirable trait are then mated. After 20 generations the strain is considered genetically pure for the desired trait. Through such selective inbreeding experiments, it has been shown that a predilection for drug dependence is highly genetically influenced. Furthermore, those genetically predisposed to abuse one class of paper, drugs may also abuse drugs of another class. It has been demonstrated that strains predisposed to cocaine abuse are predisposed to opiate addiction as well. Human studies investigating the genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1).
Adoption studies allow us to separate genetic and environmental factors by looking at individuals in an environment and comparing them to their genetically different adoptive parents. The individuals are then compared to their biological parents. Appendix! With a large number of individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. In twin studies, identical and fraternal twins are compared. Identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50% of their genes. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to of the party these percentages suggests the proportion of paper appendix, genetic and environmental influences. Some studies incorporate both adoptive and twin study paradigms to study addiction.
Through these studies scientists have shown that experimentation and initial use of drugs may be more environmentally determined by such factors as availability. However, progression on cover page to drug dependence or addiction after exposure or “experimentation” appears to be heavily genetically influenced (1,9). IV. Molecular Physiology of the Reward Pathway. Dopamine Binding at the Neuron Level. The primary neurotransmitter of the term appendix, reward pathway is dopamine (1,2,3,4). Although drugs of abuse often act through separate mechanisms and on various locations in the brain reward system, they share a final common action in that they increase dopamine levels in the brain reward system.
However, neurotransmitter systems are inextricably intertwined. Thus serotonin, endogenous opiates, as well as GABA also modulate dopamine levels in manifesto communist, the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). Term Paper! In the following paragraphs the major neurotransmitters involved in brain reward will be discussed. Drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine neurotransmitter levels in the reward pathway (1,2,3,4). Of A Article! In general, drugs that are not abused have no effect on dopaminergic concentrations (1,2). Some mechanisms that may contribute to increasing dopamine levels include blockade of appendix, re-uptake and stimulation of release (1,2,3). The specific mechanisms of action of various substances of abuse in page for masters dissertation, increasing dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway will be described below.
Neurotransmitter Release and Re-uptake. 4.2 Other Neurotransmitters and Brain Reward. Even though increased dopamine in paper appendix, the brain reward system is generally thought to be the final common pathway for the reinforcing properties of drugs, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin are involved in the modulation of of building manager, both drug self-administration and dopamine levels. Serotonin may be important in modulating motivational factors, or the amount of paper appendix, work and joyce ulysses essay individual is willing to perform to term obtain a drug (1). Serotonergic neurons project both to the NA and VTA and appear to regulate dopamine release at the NA. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is complex in of eden essay, that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at other times excitatory (1,2). Thus, serotonin modulates the term paper appendix, reward pathway through various mechanisms by interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. GABA, another neurotransmitter involved in the modulation of dopaminergic reward systems, plays a role in fashion history research, the mediation of effects of many drugs of abuse (1,2,3). GABA is an paper inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the brain. Drugs of abuse (DOA) act on the GABA receptor to hyperpolarize neurons.
When a neuron is hyperpolarized, it is essay, inhibited from appendix, firing. An analogy may be applying brakes to a car. Just as greater amounts of gas are required to cause the car to move while stepping on the brakes, greater amounts of stimuli are required to cause a neuron to fire that is hyperpolarized. When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of abuse (DOA) inhibit these neurons, they release less GABA. East Of Eden Essay Thesis! When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the GABA receptor, they inhibit the term appendix, release of GABA onto the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3). Thus, this is like taking your foot off the brakes allowing the article, car to go full speed ahead. The net result is term appendix, disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. With higher dopamine concentrations, feelings of well being or euphoria are induced. The net effects of inhibiting the diffuse GABA-ergic system are anxiety reduction, behavioral disinhibition, sedation, and history paper euphoria.
Through GABA interacting with limbic structures many of these effects are mediated (1,2,3). Regions that mediate the sedative anxiolytic effects of the limbic system also interact with reward systems. In conclusion, GABA-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the term paper, central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). 4.2c The Endogenous Opiates. Endorphin Binding at east thesis the Synapse.
Just as the structures of the brain reward system encourage adaptive behaviors such as seeking food and sex, endogenous proteins called endorphins also motivate behaviour (1,3). Term Appendix! The “runner’s high” is thought to be related to the production of such endogenous opiate compounds or endorphins. In addition, place preference (animals prefer the environment where the drug is administered to other environments) is manager, elicited when endorphins are applied to the NA (1,2). Endogenous endorphins attach to the same receptors as exogenous opiates. Through the same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). 5. Drugs of Abuse and the Reward Pathway. Primary Location of Action for Drugs of Abuse.
Experiments have shown that specific drugs of abuse affect receptors/neurochemical response act in different areas of the brain. The nucleus accumbens (NA) is the primary place of action of amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, THC, phencyclidine, ketamine, and nicotine. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Term Paper! The final common action of most substances of abuse is stimulation of the brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. Of The Communist Thesis! The action of drugs of abuse on structures of the paper, reward pathway at the gross anatomical level, followed by molecular actions of this system, will be discussed below. The complete discussion of the anatomical and east of eden biochemical effects of paper appendix, alcohol is beyond the scope of this paper.
In the of the communist thesis, following paragraphs, an overview of alcohol’s action on the reward pathway will be presented. Because of alcohol’s ability to pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. Alcohol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons in the VTA as well as in the NA (1,2,3,4). In animal experiments, dopaminergic agonists (chemicals which increase dopamine) reduce alcohol consumption (1,2,3).
For example, the dopamine agonist bromocriptine increases water intake and decreases consumption of alcohol in paper appendix, rodents(1). Dopamine agonists, however have not successfully reduced alcohol consumption in manifesto thesis, human experiments. Neurotransmitters other than dopamine are involved in alcohol dependence. Studies demonstrated that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (medications that are commonly prescribed for appendix depression such as fluoxetine ) may decrease consumption of fashion history research paper, alcohol in paper, both rodents and in humans (2). It is not known whether this is due to a direct or an indirect effect of serotonin on dopaminergic systems, or a combination effect. Larger scale replication studies are needed before this is understood. The effects of serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by modulating the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2). Opiate Action in the Brain.
Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by of the party thesis, inhibiting GABA neurons in the VTA (1). As noted previously the VTA is an important structure in term paper, the reward pathway. GABA neurons inhibit dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Thus when opiates inhibit GABA neurons, dopaminergic neurons are free to fire more often. In essence, opiates remove the of eden, “brakes” from paper appendix, dopaminergic neurons and allow them to fire more rapidly resulting in an increase of dopamine release (1,2). Numerous studies support opiate action in key structures of the of eden essay thesis, reward pathway. For example, dopaminergic neuronal lesions of the NA or the VTA have been shown to paper either reduce or eliminate opiate reinforced behavior (1,3).
Opiate administration into the VTA leads to an increase in dopamine neurotransmitter release and research paper promotes further self-administration (1). These studies further support the role of the paper, brain reward system in opiate addiction. Some experiments chronic dopamine blockade is unsuccessful at altering opiate self-administration, providing evidence that non-dopamine dependent reward pathways for opiate addiction also exist. (1,3). However, most experiments demonstrate that opiates function by stimulating both the NA and the VTA, both of which are key structures in the reward pathway. However, as lesions to manifesto communist party dopaminergic neurons do not completely eliminate self-administration of opiates in some experiments, indirect and dopamine independent mechanisms of opiate addiction and reinforcement also exist (3). Like other drugs of abuse, stimulants increase dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3,4,7). Term Paper! Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and joyce ulysses essay nicotine all stimulate the brain reward pathway through slightly different mechanisms and increase dopamine to different extents. Moreover, the route of administration of term paper, stimulants also influences the fashion paper, addictive properties of stimulants, by influencing the paper, rate at which dopamine “spikes” in the brain. In general, intravenous and transpulmonary (smoking) delivery is more “addictive” than nasal (“snorting”) or oral administration.
Cocaine Binding at the Synapse. Cocaine, like other drugs of abuse, increases dopamine in fashion, the reward pathway. Lesions to the reward pathway or pharmacological blockade of dopamine diminish cocaine’s rewarding effects (1,2,3). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in the reinforcing effects of cocaine (2). Term! This increase of dopamine in the brain reward centers is dose dependent (the more cocaine that is taken in, the higher the dopamine concentration in how to of a, these areas). Term! In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like “hunger”, ”taste”, or “sex” (2). These observations further illustrate how drugs of abuse stimulate structures of the brain that have evolved to promote behaviors that aid in paper, the survival of the species (1,2,7). Cocaine’s effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers: money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).
Thus, cocaine stimulates the brain reward system more effectively than the behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! Cocaine acts to increase dopamine levels by inhibiting monoamine ( dopamine , serotonin, and norepinephrine) re-uptake from the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). The primary effects of cocaine on reinforcement involve its ability to bind to the dopamine transporter and prevent re-uptake of dopamine (2). By inhibiting dopamine re-uptake, it increases dopamine in the reward system. Like cocaine, amphetamines stimulate the brain reward pathway by increasing concentrations of dopamine. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and directly increase the neuronal release of term paper appendix, dopamine (1,2,3,4) Many experiments have shown the history research paper, importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of amphetamines. For example, dopamine agonists (substances that can substitute for dopamine by binding to paper the same receptors and cover page for masters producing the similar effects) decrease amphetamine self-administration in term, animals (1,3). On the other hand, dopaminergic blockade (antagonists) decreases amphetamine self-administration in for masters, rats by preventing amphetamine binding, thereby preventing its dopaminergic effects (3). Similarly, lesions to the dopaminergic neurons in the NA lead to long lasting decreases in self-administration of amphetamines (3).
These examples emphasize how drugs increase dopamine levels and appendix stimulate the james ulysses essay, reward pathway. When dopamine levels are prevented from rising in response to drug administration (either producing chemical or structural “lesions”), then animals stop using the drug since it is no longer “rewarding”. Appendix! These elegant experiments demonstrate that the “rewarding” properties of the of the communist party, drug are directly related to whether it increases dopamine or not in the reward pathway. Nicotine is thought to affect the brain reward system by increasing dopamine concentrations through interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has been shown to mimic endogenous (or the body’s natural) acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Nicotine increases dopamine efflux in the reward pathway by mimicking acetylcholine at term appendix presynaptic nicotinic receptor sites, and write a summary article exciting dopaminergic neurons (2). Nicotine receptors are located throughout the brain; however, nicotine exerts its greatest effects on brain reward in appendix, the NA (1,2,3). By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the NA (1,2,4). Nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of essay, nicotine at term paper appendix its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2).
Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in paper, the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. Caffeine is the psychoactive drug that is most commonly used throughout the world (11). Caffeine blocks the actions of adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to its receptor and preventing post binding changes from taking place (2). Caffeine is appendix, a “competitive antagonist” of adenosine. Since the fashion history paper, neurotransmitter adenosine is like the term, safety on a gun, when it is manifesto of the communist party thesis, removed, neurons begin to fire. By blocking the effects of term paper appendix, adenosine, caffeine leads increased firing of dopaminergic neurons. This is especially evident in the NA (4,5). 5.6 Treatment Implications of the Brain Reward System. Operating through different mechanisms drugs of abuse have a final common pathway by which they increase dopamine levels within the core structures of the of the party thesis, so called “brain reward system” which includes the term paper, VTA and NA. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and positive feelings associated with stimulation of the brain reward system determine if an individual will enjoy and how to write article continue using the substance or not (1,2). Generally the positive effects or “high” of using a drug occur immediately or shortly after use, by the action of increasing dopamine.
The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the drug. Term! Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and reward. Of A! For example, the later potential negative consequences of chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of drinking. Some approaches to treatment attempt to consistently pair the negative consequences of drug administration with drug administration. Appendix! If one is taking disulfiram (Antabuse), the action of drinking will immediately cause a negative consequence (extreme illness).
The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of drinking to combat illness. By changing the time course of positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in the future. VI. Pharmacotherapy of Drug Addiction: Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by influencing the brain reward system. The focus in the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. General strategies for cover dissertation pharmacological treatment of drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to the reinforcement of drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and term paper appendix cross-tolerant medication (1). 6.1 Aversive Conditioning. Increasing the negative or aversive effects of cover dissertation, a drug is one effective treatment used for alcohol addiction. Disulfiram (Antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of alcohol (1,2).
These medications, when taken, cause the abuser to become extremely ill when they engage in drinking. Instead of paper appendix, experiencing the east essay thesis, negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the drug (see above). Paper! Although these drugs have been effective for some individuals by case report, these treatments have failed to show efficacy in numerous clinical trials (1). However recent work by Carroll et al demonstrates that Antabuse can be effective in preventing cocaine dependent individuals from relapsing into cocaine (12). By reducing alcohol consumption they were less likely to relapse to cocaine since alcohol may “dissolve” one’s “resolve” to stay abstinent, by lowering one’s inhibitions and impairing one’s ability to make wise choices. 6.2 Neurotransmitter Manipulation. By manipulating neurotransmitters in the reward pathway, we can potentially modify cravings for drugs of abuse.
This can be accomplished in two ways. First, we can give drug antagonists, or drugs that block the addicting effects of the dopamine reward system. For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to write diminish intake of all drugs of abuse in paper, animal studies (2). However, application in ulysses, humans has been less promising. In humans, the euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is attenuated by dopamine blocking agents. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and term appendix causes feelings of well being, the desire for the drug may diminish. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to page dissertation be effective in cocaine addiction. Medications, which more directly influence neurotransmitters other than dopamine, have also shown promise in decreasing substance use.
For example opiate antagonists such as Naltrexone have also been use to term down regulate the reward pathway in fashion paper, alcohol addiction. Term! In addition, opiate antagonists serve to fashion history research paper decrease the positive effects of opiates (2). Fluoxetine, a serotonergic agent, has been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in nondepressed alcohol dependant adults as well (13). Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the “reward center. Thus, by appendix, manipulating neurotransmitter levels, we may reduce consumption of substances. 6.3 Pharmacological Substitution. By substituting one substance that stimulates the brain reward pathway with another less addictive/ less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. One example is the essay thesis, use of methadone to treat heroin addiction. Methadone does not have the paper, euphoric effects that heroin does; however, it does adequately stimulate the brain reward system and provides a safer alternative to heroin use.
In adequate doses methadone reduces craving for heroin and thereby the risk for relapse to heroin. Methadone, an orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of acquiring HIV, hepatitis C, and criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Another example of a substitution therapy approach is that of manifesto, nicotine replacement therapy with the term paper, patch or nicotine gum (1). This allows the individual to of eden essay struggle with behavioral aspects of drug addiction and minimize the pharmacological aspects for a time being. In addition, nicotine replacement is less addictive and less harmful to overall health than obtaining nicotine through smoking. This is because when one inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is immediately absorbed in term paper, the brain in a spiking manner, which, as discussed above, is the most addictive pattern of drug administration (2). On the other hand, the nicotine patch provides the same net dose of nicotine, but has a time release mechanism to allow for relatively constant blood levels. Thus, the gradual increase in nicotine that occurs with the nicotine patch will lead to more constant moderate levels of fashion history paper, dopamine in the brain as opposed to the “spike and dip” pattern produced by most drugs of abuse.
This prevents dopamine from dipping to low levels, which may then prevent craving. Instead of quitting a substance “cold turkey”, and allowing dopamine levels to plummet, a chemical ladder that uses the brain reward system to slowly change dopamine levels may be used to more easily descend the cliff face of addiction, attenuating the pattern of appendix, craving and joyce ulysses relapse. In the term paper, last decade it has become clear that addiction, in addition to having environmental determinants, is also of the brain. Scientists have found that a common reward pathway exists in the brain. When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in james joyce ulysses, those who are genetically or otherwise neurochemically vulnerable. Term Appendix! This pathway, located in manifesto of the communist party, the primitive limbic system, has evolved over time to promote behaviors that increase the survivability of organisms, such as feeding and paper reproductive behaviors. Drugs of abuse also stimulate structures in the reward pathway, primarily acting on dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and NA. These drugs not only stimulate areas of the brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors; they stimulate these areas more effectively than the survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may “commandeer” this reward system just as viruses “commandeer” intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. Dopamine action can be increased in several different manners; drugs may increase post-synaptic sensitivity to dopamine, increase dopamine release, or inhibit dopamine re-uptake.
Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by essay thesis, acting directly on dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. Term Appendix! Although these drugs interact through different mechanisms and different areas of essay of building manager, brain reward pathways, they all converge on this common reward pathway and increase concentrations of dopamine in its structures. As the paper, mechanism of the reward pathway and its interactions with other areas in the brain become clearer, new pharmacotherapies and behavioral treatments may be developed to effectively treat substance use disorders and decrease its devastating human cost. 1.Lowinson, J; Ruiz, P; Millman, R; Langrod, J. Essay Of Building Manager! Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook 3 rd Edition. Williams Wilkens 1997. 2. Niesink, R; Jaspers, R; Kornet, L; van Ree,J. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction: Neurobehavioral Toxicology.
CRC Press 1999. Ritz, Mary. Appendix! Reward Systems and Addictive Behavior. Chapter 5, Pg124-149. Ritz, Mary. Molecular mechanisms of addictive substances. Chapter 6. Manifesto Of The Communist Party Thesis! Pg150-189. 3. Koob, G.; Nestler, E. The Neurobiology of paper appendix, Drug Addiction. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and james joyce essay Clinical Neurosciences 1997; 9:482-497. 4. Bardo, Michael. Neurophrmacological Mechanisms of paper appendix, Drug Reward: Beyond Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.
Clinical Reviews in Neurobiology 1998, 12(12): 37-67. 5. Dager, S; Layton, Matt; et al. Write A Summary Of A! Human Brain Metabolic Response to Caffeine and the Effects of Tolerance. Am J Psychiatry 156:2, Feb. Appendix! 1999. 6. Childress, A; Mozley, D; et al.
Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving. Am J Psychiatry 156:1, Jan 1999: 11-18. 7. Little, K; Zhang, L; et al. Striatal Dopaminergic Abnormalities in Human Cocaine Users. Cover Page For Masters Dissertation! Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:238-245. 8. Solhkhah, R; Wilens, T; Pharmacotherapy of term appendix, Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders. Alcohol Health and Research World.
Vol. 22, No.2, 1988: 122-125. 10. Graham, A; Schultz; T. Principles of Addiction Medicine. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. 1998. Koob,G Roberts, A; Neurocircuitry Targets in Reward and Dependence. Chapter 6 73-82.
11. Joseph, R. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience: Emotion, Evolution, Cognition, Language, Memory, Brain Damage, and Abnormal Behavior. Section III. Manifesto Of The Thesis! The Limbic System Williams Wilkens 1996. 12.Caroll Pharm Iv for Alchohol and Cocaine Abusing Adults. American J of Addiction 2:77-79 1993. 13.
Navarjo Ca, Sellers Em, Lawvin Mo. Modulation of ethanol intake by Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors . J. Clinical Psychiatry 47: 16-22. 1986.